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^cLC^n^h-^rxcis^isc^tuii St Align s 
Th£. e^5s<xy$ or <u>unse,is } <i-ivii and 
mora-l, cihj wisdom d^f+iie ancien.'br 


N the early part of the Year 1597 Lord 
Bacon's firil Publication appeared. It 
is a fmall 1 2mo. volume, entitled Ef- 
faces, Religious Meditations, Places of 
^erfwajton and Diffwafion* It is dedicated 

c To M. Anthony Bacon, his deare Brother. 

Louing and beloued Brother, I doe nowe like fome 
that have an Orcharde ill Neighbored, that gather 
their Fruit before it is ripe, to preuent Healing, 
Thefe Fragments of my Conceites were going to 
print, To labour the flaie of them had bin trouble- 
fome, and fubiedi to interpretation ; to let them paffe 
had beene to aduenture the wrong they mought re- 
ceiue by vntrue Coppies, or by fome Garnilhment, 
which it mought pleafe any that mould fet them 
forth to bellow vpon them. Therefore I helde it 
bell as they paffed long agoe from my Pen, without 
any further difgrace, then the weaknefTe of the Au- 
thor. And as I did euer hold, there mought be as 
great a vanitie in retiring and withdrawing mens 
conceites (except they bee of fome nature) from the 


World, as in obtruding them : So in thefe particulars 
I haue played myfelf the Inquifitor, and find nothing 
to my vnderftanding in them contrarie or infectious 
to the ftate of Religion, or Manners, but rather (as I 
fuppofe) medecinable. Only I difliked now to put 
them out, becaufe they will be like the late new 
Halfe-pence, which, though the Siluer were good, 
yet the Peeces were fmall. But fince they would not 
Hay with their Matter, but would needes trauaile 
abroade, I haue preferred them to you that are next 
my felfe, Dedicating them, fuch as they are, to our 
Loue, in the depth whereof (I afTure you) I fome- 
times wiih your Infirmities tranilated vppon .my felfe, 
that her Maiefiie mought haue the Seruice of fo adiue 
and able a Mind, and I mought be with excufe con- 
fined to thefe Contemplations and Studies for which 
I am fitteit, fo commend I you to the Preferuation of 
the Diuine Maieftie : From my Chamber at Graies 
Inne, this 30 of Januarie, 1597. Your entire 
Louing Brother, Fran. Bacon.' 

The EJfays, which are ten in number, abound 
with condenfed Thought and practical Wifdom, 
neatly, preffly, and weightily itated, and, like all his 
early Works, are fimple, without imagery. They are 
written in his favourite ftyle of Aphorifms, although 
each Effay is apparently a continued Work, and with- 
out that love of antithefis and falfe glitter to which 
truth and juftnefs of thought are frequently facrificed 
by the Writers of Maxims. 

A fecond Edition, with a Tranllation of the Me- 

Preface. Hi 

iitationes Sacra, was publifhed in the next Year ; 
and another Edition enlarged in 1612, when he 
was Solicitor- general, containing thirty-eight Ef- 
fays ; and one Hill more enlarged in 1625, con- 
taining fifty-eight EfTays, the Year before his death. 

The EJJdys in the fubfequent Editions are much 
augmented, according to his own Words, " I always 
alter when I add, fo that nothing is finifhed till all 
is finimed," and they are adorned by happy and 
familiar Illuftration, as in the EfTay of Wifdom for a 
Man's J elf, which concludes in the edition of 1625, 
with the following extract, not to be found in the 
previous edition: — " Wifdom for a Man's Self, is, 
in many Branches thereof, a depraved thing. It is 
the Wifdom of Rats, that will be fure to leave a 
Houfe, fomewhat before it fall. It is the Wifdom 
of the Fox, that thrums out the Badger, who digged 
and made Room for him. It is the Wifdom of Cro- 
codiles, that fried tears, when they would devour. 
But that which is fpecially to be noted is, that thofe, 
which (as Cicero fays of Pompey) are, Sui Amantes 
fine Rivali, are many times unfortunate. And 
whereas they have all their time facrificed to Them- 
felves, they become in the end tbemfelves Sacrifices 
to the Inconflancy of Fortune ; whofe Wings they 
thought, by their Self -Wifdom, to have pinioned." 

So in the EJfay upon Adverfty, on which he had 
deeply reflected, before the edition of 1625, when it 
firft appeared, he fays : " The Virtue of Profperity 
is Temperance ; the Virtue of Adverfty is Fortitude ; 

iv Preface. 

which in Morals is the more Heroical Virtue. Prof- 
ferity is the bleffing of the Old Teftament ; Adver- 
fity is the Bleffing of the New, which carrieth the 
great Benediction, and the clearer Revelation of 
God's Favour. Yet, even in the Old Teftament, if 
you Men to David's Harp, you fhall hear as many 
hearfe-like Airs, as Carols : And the Pencil of the 
Holy Ghoft hath laboured more, in defcribing the 
Afflictions of Job, than the Felicities of Solomon. 
Profperity is not without many Fears and Diftafles ; 
and Adverfity is not without Comforts and Hopes. 
We fee in Needle-works and Embroideries, it is 
more pleafing to have a lively Work, upon a Sad 
and Solemn Ground, than to have a dark and melan- 
choly Work, upon a lightfome Ground : Judge, 
therefore, of the Pleafure of the Heart, by the Plea- 
fure of the Eye. Certainly, Virtue is like precious 
Odours, mofl fragrant when they are incenfed, or 
crufhed : For Profperity doth bell difcover Vice ; but 
Adverfity doth bell difcover Virtue." 

The Efjays were immediately translated into French 
and Italian, and into Latin by fome of his Friends, 
amongft whom were Hacket, Bifhop of Lichfield, 
and his conftant affectionate Friend, Ben : Jonfon. 

His own eflimate of the value of this Work is 
thus dated in his Letter to the Bifhop of Winchefter : 
"As for my Effays, and fome other Particulars of 
that nature, I count them but as the Recreations of 
my other Studies, and in that manner purpofe to 
continue them ; though I am not ignorant that thefe 

Preface. v 

kind of Writings would, with lefs Pains and Affiduity, 
perhaps yield more Luftre and Reputation to my 
Name than the others I have in hand." 

Although it was not likely that fuch Luftre and 
Reputation would dazzle him, the Admirer of P bo- 
don, who, when applauded, turned to one of his 
Friends and aiked, " What have I faid amifs?" al- 
though popular Judgment was not likely to miilead 
him who concludes his Obfervations upon the Ob- 
jections to Learning, and the Advantages of Know- 
ledge, by faying, " Neverthelefs, I do not pretend, and 
I know it will be impoffible for me, by any Pleading 
of mine, to reverfe the Judgment either of JEfop's 
Cock, that preferred the Barleycorn before the Gem ; 
or of Midas , that being chofen Judge between Apollo, 
prefident of the Mufes, and Pan, God of the Flocks, 
judged for Plenty s or of Paris, that judged for 
Beauty and Love againft Wifdom and Power. For 
thefe Things continue as they have been ; but fo will 
that alfo continue, whereupon Learning hath ever 
relied and which faileth not, Juftificata eft fapientia 
a filiis fuis :" yet he feems- to have undervalued this 
little Work, which for two Centuries, has been fa- 
vourably received by every Lover of Knowledge and 
of Beauty, and is now fo well appreciated that a 
celebrated ProfefTor of our own Times truly fays : 
" The fmall Volume to which he has given the Title 
of ' EJfaySy the beft known and the moft popular of 
all his Works, is one of thofe where the fuperiority 
of his Genius appears to the greateft advantage, the 

vi .Preface. 

novelty and depth of his Reflections often receiving 
a ftrong relief from the tritenefs of the fubjeft. It 
may be read from beginning to end in a few hours ; 
and yet after the twentieth Perufal one feldom fails 
to remark in it fomething overlooked before. This, 
indeed, is a Characleriftic of all Bacon's Writings, 
and is only to be accounted for by the inexhauftible 
Aliment they furnifh to our own Thoughts and the 
fympathetic Activity they impart to our torpid Fa- 

During his Life fix or more Editions, which feem 
to have been pirated, were publiihed ; and after his 
Death, two fpurious Effays, " Of Death" and " Of 
a King" the only authentic pofthumous Effay being 
the Fragment of an Effay on Fame, which was pub- 
liihed by his Friend and Chaplain Dr. Raw ley. 

This Edition is a Tranfcript of the Edition of 
1625, with the Pofthumous Effays. In the Life of 
Bacon* there is a minute Account of the different 
Editions of the Effays and of their Contents. 

They may lhortly be ftated as follows : 

Firft Edition, 1597, genuine. 

There are two Copies of this Edition in the Uni- 
verfity Library at Cambridge: and there is Arch- 
bifhop Sancroffs Copy in Emanuel Library : there 
is a Copy in the Bodleian, and I have a Copy. 

Second Edition, 1598, genuine. 

Third Edition, 1606, pirated. 

* By B. Montagu. Appendix, note 3 I. 

Preface. vii 

- Fourth Edition, entitled, " The EJfaies of Sir 
Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Solliciter Genera//. 
Imprinted at London by Iobn Bea/e, 1 6 1 2," genuine. 
It was the Intention of Sir Francis to have dedicated 
this Edition to Henry Prince of Wa/es ; but he was 
prevented by the Death of the Prince on the 6th of 
November in that year. This appears by the fol- 
lowing Letter : 

To the moll high and excellent Prince, Henry, 
Prince of Wa/es, Duke of Comwa// and Earl of 

It may pleafe your Highnefs, — Having divided 
my Life into the contemplative and adlive part, I am 
delirous to give his Majefty and your Highnefs of the 
Fruits of both, limple though they be. To write 
juft Treatifes, requireth leifure in the Writer and 
leifure in the Reader, and therefore are not fo fit, 
neither in regard of your Highnefs's princely Affairs 
nor in regard of my continual Service ; which is the 
caufe that hath made me choofe to write certain 
brief Notes, fet down rather fignificantly than curi- 
ouily, which I have called EJfays. The word is late, 
but the thing is ancient ; for Seneca's Epiji/es to Lu~ 
ci/ius, if you mark them well, are butEffays, that is, 
difperfed Meditations though conveyed in the form 
of Epiftles. Thefe Labours of mine, I know, cannot 
be worthy of your Highnefs, for what can be worthy 
of you ? But my hope is, they may be as grains of 
Salt, that will rather give you an Appetite than offend 

viii Preface. 

you with Satiety. And although they handle thofe 
things wherein both Men's lives and their perfons 
are moft converfant; yet what I have attained I 
know not ; but I have endeavoured to make them 
not vulgar, but of a nature whereof a Man mall find 
much in Experience and little in Books ; fo as they 
are neither Repetitions nor Fancies. But, however, 
I mail moft humbly defire your Highnefs to accept 
them in gracious part, and to conceive, that if I can- 
not reft but mull mew my dutiful and devoted Af- 
fection to your Highnefs in thefe things which pro- 
ceed from myfelf, I mail be much more ready to do 
it in Performance of any of your princely Command- 
ments. And fo wiihing your Highnefs all princely 
Felicity, I reft your Highnefs' moft humble Servant, 
1 612. Fr. Bacon. 

It was dedicated as follows : 

To my loving Brother, Sir John Confiable i Knt. 

My laft EJfaies I dedicated to my deare Brother 
Mafter Anthony Bacon, who is with God. Looking 
amongft my Papers this vacation, I found others of 
the fame nature : which if I myfelfe Ihall not fuffer 
to be loft, it feemeth the World will not; by the 
often printing of the former. Miffing my Brother, I 
found you next ; in refpecl: of bond both of neare 
Alliance, and of ftraight Friendfhip and Societie, and 
particularly of communication in Studies. Wherein 
I muft acknowledge my felfe beholding to you* For 

Preface. ix 

as my BufinefTe found reft in my Contemplations ; 
fo my Contemplations ever found reft in your loving 
Conference and Judgment. So wifhing you all good, 
I remaine your louing Brother and Friend, 

Fra. Bacon. 

Fifth Edition, 1612, pirated. Sixth Edition, 
1 61 3, pirated. Seventh Edition, 1624, pirated. 
Eighth Edition, 1624, pirated. Ninth Edition, en- 
titled, The Efj'ayes or Covnfels, Civill and Morall, 
of Francis Lo. Vervlam, Vifcovnt St. Alban. Newly 
enlarged. London , Printed by lohn Haviland for 
Hanna Barret and Richard Whitaker, and are to be 
fold at the Signe of the King's Head in Paul's Church- 
yard. 1625, genuine. 

This Edition is a fmall quarto of 340 pages; it 
clearly was publifhed by Lord Bacons and in the 
next year, 1626, Lord Bacon died. The Dedication 
is as follows, to the Duke of Buckingham : 

To the Right Honorable my very good Lo. the Duke 
of Buckingham his Grace, Lo. High Admirall of 

Excellent Lo. — Salomon faies, A good Name is as 
a precious Oyntment ; and I aflure myfelfe, fuch wil 
your Grace's Name bee, with Pofteritie. For your 
Fortune and Merit both, haue beene eminent. And 
you haue planted things that are like to laft. I doe 
now publifh my Effayes ; which, of all my other 
Workes, have beene moft currant: for that, as it 

x Preface. 

feemes, they come home to Mens BufinefTe and Bo- 
fomes. I haue enlarged them both in number and 
weight, fo that they are indeed a new Work. I 
thought it therefore agreeable to my Affection, and 
Obligation to your Grace, to prefix your Name be- 
fore them, both in Englijb and in Latine. For I doe 
conceiue, that the Latine Volume of them (being in 
the vniuerfal language) may laft as long as Bookes laft. 
My Inft duration I dedicated to the King : my Hif- 
torie of Henry the Seventh, (which I haue now alfo 
tranflated into Latine) and my Portions of Natural/ 
Hiftory, to the Prince : and thefe I dedicate to your 
Grace : being of the beft Fruits, that by the good 
encreafe which God gives to my pen and labours, I 
could yeeld. God leade your Grace by the Hand. 
Your Graces moft obliged and faithfull Seruant, 

Fr. St. Alban. 
Of this Edition Lord Bacon fent a copy to the 
Marquis Fiat, with the following letter : * 

Monfieur l'Ambaffadeur mon Filz, — Voyant que 
voftre Excellence faicl; et traite Manages, non feule- 
ment entre les Princes d' ' Angleterre et de France, 
mais aufli entre les langues (puis que faictes traduire 
mon Liure de V Advancement des Sciences en Fran- 
cois) i'ai bien voulu vous envoyer mon Liure derniere- 
ment imprime que i'avois pourveu pour vous, mais 
i'eftois en doubte, de le vous envoyer, pour ce qu'il 

* Baccn'wna, 201. 

Preface. xi 

eftoit efcrit en Anglois. Mais a' ceft'heure pour la 
raifon fufdi&e ie le vous envoye. C'eft un Recom- 
pilement de mes Ejjays Morales et Civiles ; mais 
tellement enlargies et enrichies, tant de nombre que 
de poix, que c'eft de fait un ouvre nouveau. Ie 
vous baife les mains, et refte voftre tres affectionee 
Ami, et tres humble Serviteur. 

The fame in Englifh. 
My Lord Ambaffador, my Son, — Seeing that your 
Excellency makes and treats of Marriages, not only 
betwixt the Princes of France and England, but alfo 
betwixt their languages (for you have caufed my 
Book of the Advancement of Learning to be trans- 
lated into French), I was much inclined to make you 
a prefent of the laft Book which I published, and 
which I had in readinefs for you. I was fometimes 
in doubt whether I ought to have fent it to you, be- 
caufe it was written in the Englijh Tongue. But 
now, for that very reafon, I fend it to you. It is a 
Recompilement of my EJ/ays Moral and Civil; but 
in fuch manner enlarged and enriched both in num- 
ber and weight, that it is in effect a new Work. I 
kifs your hands, and remain your moft affectionate 
Friend and moft humble Servant, &c. 

Of the Tranflation of the EJJays into Latin, Bacon 
fpeaks in the following Letter : — 

" To Mr. Tobie Mathew. — It is true my labours 
are now moft fet to have thofe Works which I had 

xii Preface. 

formerly publifhed, as that of Advance?nent of Learn- 
ing, that of Henry VII., that of the EJJays, being 
retraclate and made more perfect, well tranilated into 
Latin by the help of fome good pens which forfake 
me not. For thefe modern Languages will, at one 
time or other, play the bankrupt with Books ; and 
fince I have loft much time with this Age, I would 
be glad, as God mail give me leave, to recover it with 
Pofterity. For the EJfay of Friendjhip, while I took 
your fpeech of it for a curfory requeft, I took my Pro- 
mife for a compliment. But fince you call for it, I 
mall perform it." 

In his Letter to Father Fulgentio, giving fome ac- 
count of his Writings, he fays, " The Novum Or- 
ganu?n mould immediately follow ; but my Moral 
and Political Writings ftep in between as being more 
fmifhed. Thefe are the Hiflory of King Henry VII., 
and the fmall Book, which in your language you 
have called Saggi Morali, but I give it a graver title, 
that of Sermones Fideles, or Interior a Rerum, and 
thefe EJfays will not only be enlarged in number, 
but ftill more in fubftance." 

The nature of the Latin Edition and of the EJfays 
in general is thus ftated by Archbifhop Tenifon : 

" The EJfays, or Counfeh Civil and Moral, though 
a by-work alfo, do yet make up a Book of greater 
weight by far than the Apothegms : and coming home 
to Men's Bufmefs and Bofoms, his Lordfhip enter- 
tained this perfuafion concerning them, that the Latin 
Volume might laft as long as books mould laft. His 

Preface. xiii 

Lordfhip wrote them in the Englijh Tongue, and 
enlarged them as occalion ferved, and at laft added 
to them the Colours of Good and Evil, which are 
likewife found in his book De Augmentis. The 
Latin Translation of them was a Work performed 
by divers hands ; by thofe of Dr. Hacket (late Bifhop 
of Lichfield), Mr, Benjamin Jonfon (the learned and 
judicious Poet), and fome others, whofe names I once 
heard from Dr. Razvley, but I cannot now recall 
them. To this Latin Edition he gave the title of 
Sermones Fideles, after the manner of the Jews, 
who called the words Adagies or Obfervations of the 
Wife, Faithful Sayings ; that is, credible Proportions 
worthy of firm affent and ready acceptance. And 
(as I think) he alluded more particularly, in this title, 
to a paffage in Ecclefiajles, where the Preacher faith 
that he fought to find out Verba Delectabilia (as Tre- 
mellius rendereth the Hebrew), pleafant words (that 
is, perhaps, his Book of Canticles ;) and Verba Fide- 
lia (as the fame Tremellius'), Faithful Sayings ; mean- 
ing, it may be, his Collection of Proverbs. In the 
next Verfe, he calls them Words of the Wife, and fo 
many goads and nails given Ab eodem pajlore, from 
the fame Shepherd [of the flock of Ifrael]." 

In the year 1638, Razvley publifhed in folio a 
Volume containing amongft other works, Sermones 
Fideles, ab ipfo Honor atijfimo Auclore, pr&terquam 
in paucis, Latinitate donati. In his addrefs to the 
reader he fays : Accedunt, quas pr'tus Delibationes 
Civiles et Morales infcripferat ; £>uas etiam in Lin- 

xiv Preface. 

gua s plurimas Modernas tranjlatas effe novit i fed eas 
poftea, £ff Numero, & Pondere, auxit ; In tantum, 
ut veluti Opus Novum videri pojjint ; Quas mutato 
Titulo, Sermones Fideles,_/£W Interiora Rerum, in- 
fcribi placuit. The Title-page and Dedication are 
annexed : Sermones- Fideles five Interiora Rerum. 
Per Francifcum Baconum Baronem de Vervlamio, 
Vice-Comitem Sancli Albani. Londini Excufum 
typis Edwardi Griffin. Pr oft ant ad Infignia Regia 
in Ccemeterio D. Pau/i, apud Richardum Whita- 
kerum, 1638. 

Illuftri & Excellenti Domino Georgio Duci Bucking- 
h amice, Summo Anglic? Admirallio. 

Honor atijjtme Domine, Salomon inquit, Norn en bo- 
num eft inftar Vnguenti fragrantis & pretiofi ; Ne- 
que dubito, quin tale futurum fit Nomen tuum apud 
Pofleros. Etenim & Fortuna, & Merita tua, prascel- 
luerunt. Et videris ea plantafTe, quae fint duratura. 
In lucem jam edere mihi vifum eft Delibationes me as, 
quae ex omnibus meis Operibus fuerunt acceptiffimae : 
Quia forfitan videntur, prae caeteris, Hominum Ne- 
gotia ftringere, & in finus fluere. Eas autem auxi, & 
Numero, & Pondere ; In tantum, ut plane Opus 
Novum lint. Confentaneum igitur duxi, Affe&ui, & 
Obligationi meae, erga IlluftriJJimam Dominationem 
tuam, ut Nomen tuum illis prasiigam, tarn in Editione 
Anglicd, quam Latind. Etenim, in bona fpe fum, 
Volumen earum in Latina?n, {Linguam fcilicet uni- 
verfalem,) verfum, polfe durare, quamdiu Libri & 

Preface. xv 

Liters durent. Inftaurationem meam Regi dicavi : 
Hiftoriam Regni Henrici Septimi, (quam etiam in La- 
tinum verti & Portiones meas Naturalis Hiftorite, 
Principi : Has autem Delibationes IlluftriJJimce Do- 
minationi tuae dico ; Cum lint, ex Fructibus optimis, 
quos Gratia divina. Calami mei laboribus indulgente, 
exhibere potui. Deus IllufriJJtmam Domination em 
tuam manu ducat. Illuftrifimse Dominationis tuae 
Servus Devinctiffimus et Fidelis, Fr. S. Alban. 

In the year 1618, the Effayes, together with the 
Wifdom of the Ancients, was tranilated into Italian, 
and dedicated to Co/mo de Medici, by Tobie Mathew ; 
and in the following year the Effays were tranflated 
into French by Sir Arthur Gorges, and printed in 

Wifdom of the Ancients. 

In the year 1609, as a relaxation from abftrufe 
fpeculations, he publifhed in Latin his intereiling 
little Work, De Sapientia Veterum. 

This Tract feems, in former times, to have been 
much valued. The Fables, abounding with a union 
of deep thought and poetic beauty, are thirty-one in 
Number, of which a part of The Sirens, or Plea- 
fur es, may be felected as a Specimen. 

In this Fable he explains the common but erro- 
neous Suppofition, that Knowledge and the Confor- 
mity of the Will, knowing and acting, are convertible 
Terms. — Of this Error he, in his Effay of Cufiom 

xvi Preface. 

and Education, admonifhes his Readers, by faying, 
" Men's Thoughts are much according to their In- 
clination ; their Difcourfe and Speeches according to 
their Learning and infufed Opinions, but their Deeds 
are after as they have been accuftomed ; JEfofts 
Damfel, transformed from a Cat to a Woman, fat 
very demurely at the board-end till a Moufe ran be- 
fore her/' — In the Fable of the Sirens he exhibits 
the fame Truth, faying, " The Habitation of the 
Sirens was in certain pleafant Wands, from whence, 
as foon as out of their watch-tower they difcovered 
any Ships approaching, with their fweet Tunes they 
would firft entice and flay them, and, having them in 
their power, would deftroy them ; and, fo great were 
the mifchiefs they did, that thefe Ifles of the Syrens, 
even as far off as man can ken them, appeared all 
over white with the Bones of unburied Carcaffes : 
by which it is fignified that albeit the examples of 
Ami&ions be manifeft and eminent, yet they do not 
fufficiently deter us from the wicked Enticements of 

The following is the Account of the different 
Editions of this work : — The firft was publifhed in 
1609. In February 27, 1610, Lord Bacon wrote 
to Mr. Mathew, upon fending his Book De Sapientia 
Veterum : 

" Mr. Mathew, — I do very heartily thank you 
for your Letter of the 24th of ' Auguft from Salaman- 
ca ; and in Recompence therefore I fend you a little 
Work of mine that hath begun to pafs the World. 

Preface. xvii 

They tell me my Latin is turned into Silver, and 
become current : had you been here, you mould have 
been my Inquifitor before it came forth ; but, I 
think, the greater!: Inqutfitor in Spain will allow it. 
But one thing you muft pardon me if I make no 
hafte to believe, that the World fhould be grown to 
fuch an ecftafy as to reject Truth in Philofophy, be- 
caufe the Author diffenteth in Religion ; no more than 
they do by Arifiotle or Averroes. My great Work 
goeth forward ; and after my manner, I alter even 
when I add; fo that nothing is finifhed till all be 
finifhed. This I have written in the midft of a Term 
and Parliament ; thinking *no time fo poffeffed, but 
that I fhould talk of thefe matters with fo good and 
dear a Friend. And fo with my wonted Wifhes I 
leave you to God's Goodnefs. 

" From Grafs Inn, Feb. zj, 1610." 

And in his Letter to Father Fulgentio, giving fome 
account of his Writings, he fays, "My EJfays will 
not only be enlarged in Number, but ftill more in 
Subftance. Along with them goes the little Piece 
De Sapientia Veterum." 

In the Advancement of Learning he fays, "There 
remaineth yet another Ufe of Poefy parabolical, op- 
poiite to that which we laft mentioned : for that 
tendeth to demonftrate and illuftrate that which is 
taught or delivered, and this other to retire and ob- 
fcure it : that is, when the Secrets and Myfteries of 
Religion, Policy, or Philofophy, are involved in Fa- 

XV111 i REFACE. 

bles or Parables. Of this in Divine Poefy we fee 
the Ufe is authorized. In Heathen Poefy we fee 
the expofition of Fables doth fall out fometimes with 
great felicity ; as in the Fable that the Giants being 
overthrown in their War againft the Gods, the 
Earth, their Mother, in revenge thereof brought 
forth Fame : 

I Ham Terra parens, ira irritata Deorum, 
Extrema?n, ut perhibent, Cceo Enceladoque fororem 

expounded, that when Princes and Monarchs have 
fuppreffed actual and opdti Rebels, then the Malig- 
nity of the People, which is the Mother of Rebel- 
lion, doth bring forth Libels and Slanders, and Tax- 
ations of the State, which is of the fame kind with 
Rebellion, but more feminine. So in the Fable, that 
the reft of the Gods having confpired to bind Jupiter, 
Pallas called Briareus with his hundred Hands to 
his aid ; expounded, that Monarchies need not fear 
any Curbing of their Abfolutenefs by mighty Sub- 
jects, as long as by Wifdom they keep the Hearts of 
the People, who will be fure to come in on their 
Side. So in the Fable, that Achilles was brought up 
under Chiron the Centaur, who was part a Man and 
part a Beaft, expounded ingeniouily, but corruptly by 
Macbiavely that it belongeth to the Education and 
Difcipline of Princes to know as well how to play the 
part of the Lion in violence, and the Fox in guile, 
as of the Man in virtue and juftice. Neverthelefs, 

Preface. xix 

in many the like encounters, I do rather think that 
the Fable was firfl, and the Expofition then devifed, 
than that the Moral was firfl, and thereupon the 
Fable framed. For I find it was an ancient vanity 
in Chryjippus, that troubled himfelf with great Con- 
tention to fallen the AfTertions of the Stoics upon 
the Fictions of the ancient Poets ; but yet that all 
the Fables and Fictions of the Poets were but plea- 
fure and not figure, I interpofe no opinion. Surely 
of thofe Poets which are now extant, even Homer 
himfelf, (notwithftanding ! he was made a kind of 
Scripture by the latter Schools of the Grecians,) yet 
I mould without any difficulty pronounce that his 
Fables had no fuch inwardnefs in his own meaning ; 
but what they might have upon a more original Tra- 
dition, is not eafy to affirm ; for he was not the In- 
ventor of many of them." 

In the treatife De Augmentis, the fame Sentiments 
will be found with a flight alteration in the expref- 
fions. He fays, " there is another ufe of Parabolical 
Poefy oppofite to the former, which tendeth to the 
folding up of thofe things, the Dignity whereof deferves 
to be retired and diftinguiihed, as with a drawn cur- 
tain : that is, when the Secrets and Myileries of Re- 
ligion, Policy, and Philofophy are veiled and inverted 
with Fables and Parables. But whether there be 
any myftical fenfe couched under the ancient Fables of 
the Poets, may admit fome doubt : and indeed for our 
part we incline to this opinion, as to think that there 
was an infufed Myftery in many of the ancient Fables 


xx Preface. 

of the Poets. Neither doth it move us that thefe 
matters are left commonly to Schoolboys and Gram- 
marians, and fo are embafed, that we mould there- 
fore make a flight judgment upon them : but con- 
trariwife, becaufe it is clear that the Writings which 
recite thofe Fables, of all the Writings of Men, next 
to Sacred Writ, are the moll ancient : and that the 
Fables themfelves are far more ancient than they 
(being they are alleged by thofe Writers, not as ex- 
cogitated by them, but as credited and recepted be- 
fore) feem to be, like a thin rarefied air, which from 
the Traditions of more ancient Nations, fell into 
the Flutes of the Grecians. 

Of this TracT:, Archbifhop Tenifon in his Bacon- 
iana, fays, " In the feventh Place, I may reckon 
his book De Sapientia Veterum, written by him in 
Latin, and fet forth a fecond time with enlargement ; 
and tranflated into Englijb by Sir Arthur Gorges : 
a Book in which the Sages of former times are ren- 
dered more wife than it may be they were, by fo 
dextrous an Interpreter of their Fables. It is this 
Book which Mr. Sandys means, in thofe Words 
which he hath put before his Notes on the Meta- 
morphofis of Ovid, ' Of modern Writers, I have 
received the greater! Light from Geraldus, Pont anus, 
Ficinus, Fives, Comes, Scaliger, Sabinus, Pierius, 
and the Crown of the latter, the Vifcount of St. 

" It is true, the Defign of this Book was Inftruc- 
tion in natural and civil matters, either couched by 

Preface. xxi 

the Ancients under thofe Fictions, or rather made to 
feem to be fo by his Lordfhip's Wit, in the opening and 
applying of them. But becaufe the firft ground of it 
is poetical Story, therefore let it have this place, till 
a fitter be found for it." 

The Author of Bacon's Life, in the Biographia 
Britannica, fays, " That he might relieve himfelf a 
little from the Severity of thefe Studies, and as it 
were amufe himfelf with erecting a magnificent Pa- 
vilion, while his great Palace of Philofophy was 
building : he compofed and fent abroad in 1 6 1 o, his 
celebrated Treatife Of the Wifdom of the Ancients > 
in which he mowed that none had fludied them 
more clofely, was better acquainted with their beau- 
ties, or had pierced deeper into their meaning. There 
have been very few Books publifhed, either in this 
or in any other Nation, which either deferved or 
met with more general applaufe than this, and fcarce 
any that are like to retain it longer, for in this Per- 
formance Sir Francis Bacon gave a fingular proof of 
his Capacity to pleafe all parties in Literature, as in 
his political conduct he flood fair with all the parties 
in the Nation. The Admirers of Antiquity were 
charmed with this Difcourfe, which feems expreffly 
calculated to juflify their admiration; and, on the 
other hand, their oppofites were no lefs pleafed with 
a piece, from which they thought they could de- 
monftrate that the Sagacity of a modern Genius had 
found out much better Meanings for the Ancients 
than ever were meant by them." 


xxii Preface. 

And Mallet, in his Life of Bacon, fays, "In 1610 
he publifhed another Treatife, entitled Of the Wifdom 
of the Ancients. This Work bears the fame {lamp of 
an original and inventive genius with his 'other .Per- 
formances. Refolving not to tread in the fteps of thofe 
who had gone before him, Men, according to his own 
expreffion, not learned beyond certain common places, 
he ftrikes out a new Tract for himfelf, and enters 
into the moll fecret Receffes of this wild and fhadowy 
Region, fo as to appear new on a known and beaten 
Subject. Upon the whole, if we cannot bring our- 
felves readily to believe that there is all the phyfical, 
moral, and political Meaning veiled under thofe Fa- 
bles of Antiquity, which he has difcovered in them, 
we mufl own that it required no common penetration 
to be miftaken with fo great an appearance of proba- 
bility on his fide. Though it ftill remains doubtful 
whether the Ancients were fo knowing as he at- 
tempts to mew they were, the variety and depth of 
his own knowledge are, in that very attempt unquef- 

In the year 16 19, this Tract was tranflated by Sir 
Arthur Gorges. Prefixed to the Work are two 
Letters ; the one to the Earl of Salijhury, the other 
to the Univerfity of Cambridge, which Gorges omits, 
and dedicates his tranflation to the high and illuftrious 
Princefs the Lady Elizabeth of Great Britain, 
Duchefs of Baviare, Countefs Palatine of Rheine, 
and Chief Electrefs of the Empire. 

This Tranflation, it ihould be noted, was pub- 



limed during the Life of Lord Bacon by a great Ad- 
mirer of his Works. 

The editions of this work with which I am ac- 
quainted are : 








R. Barker 





J. Bill 





G. Bill 





J. Bill 










F. Mai re 

Lug. Bat. 




F. Kingflon 





E. Griffin 





H. Wetfiein 





H. Fran tin 






i. npRUTH i 

2. L Death 4 

3. Unity in Religion 7 

4. Revenge T3 

5. Adverfity 15 

6. Simulation and Difiimulation 16 

7. Parents and Children 21 

8. Marriage and Single Life 23 

9. Envy 25 

10. Love 32 

11. Great Place 34. 

12. Boldnefs 39 

13. Goodnefs, and Goodnefs of Nature 41 

14. Nobility 44 

15. Seditions and Troubles 46 

16. Atheifm 56 

17. Superftition 59 

18. Travel 62 

19. Empire 65 

20. Counfel 71 

21. Delays 77 

22. Cunning 79 

23. Wifdom for a Man's Self 84 

24. Innovations 86 

25. Difpatch 87 

26. Seeming Wife 90 

27. Friendfhip 92 

28. Expenfe 10 1 

29. The true Greatnefs of Kingdoms and Eftates . . . 103 

30. Regimen of Health 116 

31. Sufpicion 118 


32. Difcourfe 120 

33. Plantations 122 

34. Riches 127 

35. Prophecies 131 

36. Ambition 135 

37. Mafques and Triumphs 138 

38. Nature in Men 140 

39. Cuftom and Education 143 

40. Fortune 145 

41. Ufury 148 

42. Youth and Age 153 

43. Beauty 155 

44. Deformity 157 

45. Building 159 

46. Gardens 165 

47. Negotiating 174 

48. Followers and Friends 176 

49. Suitors 178 

50. Studies 180 

51. Faction 183 

52. Ceremonies and RefpecTs . 185 

53. Praife 187 

54. Vain Glory 190 

55. Honour and Reputation 192 

56. Judicature . x 195 

57. Anger 200 

58. Viciffitude of Things 203 


1. Fragment of an Effay of Fame 211 

2. Of a King 213 

3. An Effay on Death 217 




Preface 227 

1. CafTandra, or Divination 235 

2. Typhon, or a Rebel 237 

3. The Cyclops, or die Minifters of Terror . . . , 240 

4. Narciffus, or Self-Love 242 

5. Styx, or Leagues . 244 

6. Pan, or Nature 246 

7. Perfeus, or War 258 

8. Endymion, or a Favourite . 263 

9. The Sifter of the Giants, or Fame 265 

10. Aclaeon and Pentheus, or a Curious Man .... 266 

11. Orpheus, or Philofophy 268 

12. Ccelum, or Beginnings 272 

13. Proteus, or Matter 276 

14. Memnon, or a Youth too forward 279 

15. Tithonus, or Satiety 280 

16. Juno's Suitor, or Bafenefs 281 

17. Cupid, or an Atom 282 

18. Diomedes, or Zeal 287 

19. Daedalus, or Mechanick 291 

20. Ericlhonius, or Impofture 294 

21. Deucalion, or Reftitution . 296 

22. Nemelis, or the Viciffitude of Things 297 

23. Achelous, or Battle 300 

24. Dionyfus, or Paifrons 302 

25. Atalanta, or Gain 307 

26. Prometheus, or the Statue of Man 310 

27. Scylla and Icarus, or the Middle Way 325 

28. Sphynx, or Science 327 

29. Proferpina, or Spirit 332 

30. Metis, or Counfel 337 

31. The Sirens, or Pleafure 339 


i. Of Truth. 

HAT is Truth ? faid jelling Pilate ; and 
would not flay for an Anfwer. Cer- 
tainly there be, that delight in Giddinefs ; 
and count it a Bondage, to fix a Belief; 
affe&ing Free-will in Thinking, as well as in Adting. 
And though the Sects of Philofophers of that Kind be 
gone, yet there remain certain difcourfing Wits, which 
are of the fame Veins, though there be not fo much 
Blood in them, as was in thofe of the Ancients. But 
it is not only the Difficulty, and Labour, which 
Men take in finding out of Truth / Nor again, that 
when it is found, it impofeth upon men's Thoughts ; 
that doth bring Lies in favour : But a natural, though 
corrupt, Love, of the Lie itfelf. One of the later 
Schools of the Grecians examineth the matter, and is 
at a ftand, to think what mould be in it that men 
mould love Lies ; where neither they make for Plea- 
fure, as with Poets ; nor for Advantage, as with the 


Merchant ; but for the Lie's fake. But I cannot tell : 
This fame Truth is a naked, and open Daylight, 
that doth not mow the Mafques, and Mummeries, 
and Triumphs of the world, half fo ilately, and 
daintily, as Candlelights. Truth may perhaps come 
to the price of a Pearl, that ihoweth bell by Day : 
But it will not rife to the Price of a Diamond, or 
Carbuncle, that fheweth bell in varied Lights. A 
mixture of a Lie doth ever add Pleafure. Doth any 
man doubt, that if there were taken out of Men's 
Minds, vain Opinions, flattering Hopes, falfe Valu- 
ations, Imaginations as one would, and the like ; but 
it would leave the Minds of a Number of Men, poor 
fhrunken Things ; full of Melancholy, and Indifpo- 
iition, and unpleafing to themfelves ? One of the 
Fathers, in great Severity, called Poefy, Vinum Dce- 
monum y becaufe it filleth the Imagination ; and yet 
it is but with the Shadow of a Lie. But it is not the 
Lie, that pafTeth through the Mind, but the Lie that 
iinketh in, and fettleth in it, that doth the Hurt, 
fuch as we fpake of before. But howfoever thefe 
things are thus, in Men's depraved Judgments, and 
AfFeftions ; yet Truth, which only doth judge itfelf, 
teacheth, that the Inquiry of Truth, which is the 
Love-making, or Wooing of it ; the Knowledge of 
Truth, which is the Prefence of it ; and the Belief 
of Truth, which is the enjoying of it; is the Sove- 
reign Good of human Nature. 

The firfl Creature of God, in the Works of the 
Days, was the Light of the Senfe ; the laft was the 

Of Truth. 3 

Light of Reafon ; and his Sabbath Work, ever fince; 
is the Illumination of his Spirit. Firft he breathed 
Light upon the Face of the Matter, or Chaos ; then 
he breathed Light into the Face of Man ; and ftill 
he breatheth and infpireth Light into the Face of his 
Chofen. The Poet, that beautified the Sect, that 
was otherwife inferior to the reft, faith yet excellently 
well : It is a Pleafure to ft and upon the Shore, and 
to fee Ships toft upon the Sea: a Pleafure to ft and 
in the Window of a Caftfe, and to fee a Battle, and 
the Adventures thereof, below ; But no Pleafure is 
comparable to the ft an ding upon the vantage Ground 
of Truth ; (A Hill not to be commanded, and where 
the Air is always clear and ferene) : and to fee the 
Errors, and Wanderings, and Mifts, and Te?npefts, 
in the Vale below : So always, that this Profpecl: be 
with Pity, and not with Swelling, or Pride. Cer- 
tainly, it is Heaven upon Earth to have a Man's 
Mind move in Charity, reft in Providence, and turn 
upon the Poles of Truth. 

To pafs from Theological and Philofophical Truth, 
to the Truth of civil Bufmefs ; it will be acknow- 
ledged, even by thofe that pradtife it not, that clear 
and round dealing is the Honour of Man's Nature ; 
and that Mixture of Falfehood is like Alloy in Coin 
of Gold and Silver, which may make the Metal work 
rhe better, but it embafeth it. For thefe winding 
and crooked Courfes, are the Goings of the Serpent 3 
which goeth bafely upon the belly, and not upon the 
Feet. There is no Vice, that doth fo cover a Man 

4 Essays. 

with Shame, as to be found falfe and perfidious. 
And therefore Montaigne faith prettily, when he en- 
quired the reafon why the Word of the Lie mould 
be fuch a Difgrace, and fuch an Odious Charge? 
Saith he, If it be well weighed. To fay that a Man 
lieth, is as much as to fay, That he is brave towards 
God, and a Coward towards Men. For a Lie faces 
God, and fhrinks from Man. Surely the Wicked- 
nefs of Falfehood, and Breach of Faith, cannot pof- 
iibly be fo highly exprefTed, as in that it fhall be the 
laft Peal, to call the Judgments of God upon the 
Generations of Men, it being foretold, that when 
Chrifl cometh, He Jhall not find Faith upon the 

ii. Of Death. 

EN fear Death, as Children fear to go 
in the Dark. And as that Natural Fear 
in Children is encreafed with Tales, fo 
is the other. Certainly, the Contem- 
plation of Death, as the Wages of Sin, and Paflage to 
another World, is holy, and religious ; but the Fear 
of it, as a Tribute due unto Nature, is weak. Yet in 
religious Meditations, there is fometimes, Mixture of 
Vanity, and of Superftition. You fhall read, in fome 
of the Friars' Books of Mortification, that a Man 
mould think with himfelf, what the Pain is, if he 
have but his Finger's End prefTed, or tortured ; and 

Of Death. 5 

thereby imagine what the Pains of Death are, when 
the whole Body is corrupted and diflblved : when 
many times Death pafTeth with lefs pain, than the 
Torture of a Limb : For the moft vital parts are not 
the quickeft of Senfe. And by him, that fpake only 
as a Philofopher and Natural Man, it was well faid ; 
Pompa Mortis magis terret, quam Mors ipfa : Groans 
and Convulfions, and a difcoloured Face, and Friends 
weeping, and Blacks, and Obfequies, and the like, 
fhew Death Terrible. It is worthy the obferving, 
that there is no Pamon in the Mind of Man fo weak, 
but it mates and mailers the Fear of Death. And 
therefore Death is no fuch terrible Enemy, when a 
man hath fo many Attendants about him, that can 
win the Combat of him. Revenge triumphs over 
Death ; Love flights it ; Honour afpireth to it ; Grief 
flieth to it ; Fear pre-occupateth it : Nay, we read, 
after Otho the Emperor had flain himfelf, Pity (which 
is the tendereft of Affections) provoked many to die, 
out of mere Compaffion to their Sovereign, and as 
the trueft fort of Followers. Nay, Seneca adds, 
Nicenefs and Satiety ; Cogita quam diu eademfeceris ; 
Mori velle, non tantum Fords, aut Mifer, fed etiam 
Faftidiofus potefl. A Man would die, though he 
were neither valiant nor miferable, only upon a Wea- 
rinefs to do the fame thing, fo oft over and over. It 
is no lefs worthy to obferve, how little Alteration, in 
good Spirits, the Approaches of Death make ; for 
they appear to be the fame Men, till the laft Inftant. 
Auguftus C<efar died in a Compliment ; Livia, con- 

6 Essays. 

jugii nofiri memor, vive, et vale. Tiberius in Diffimu- 
lation; as Tacitus faith of him; Jam Tiberium 
Vires, et Corpus, non DiJJimulatio deferebant. Vef- 
pajian in a Jeft ; fitting upon the Stool, Ut puto Deus 
fo. Galba with a Sentence ; Feri,Ji ex re jit Populi 
Romani ; holding forth his Neck. Septimus Seve- 
rus in Difpatch ; Adefte, fi quid mibi reft at agendum. 
And the like. Certainly, the Stoics beftowed too 
much Coft upon Death, and by their great Prepara- 
tions, made it appear more fearful. Better faith he, 
Qui Finem Vita extremum inter Munera ponit 
Nature. It is as Natural to Die, as to be Born ; 
and to a little Infant, perhaps, the one is as painful 
as the other. He that dies in an earner! purfuit, is 
like one that is wounded in hot Blood ; who, for the 
time, fcarce feels the Hurt : And therefore, a Mind 
fixed and bent upon fomewhat that is good, doth 
avert the Dolours of Death. But above all, believe 
it, the fweeteft Canticle is, Nunc dimittis y when a 
Man hath obtained worthy Ends, and Expectations . 
Death hath this alfo, that it openeth the Gate to good 
Fame, and extinguifheth Envy : 

Extinclus amabitur idem. 

in. Of Unity in Religion. 

ELIGION being the chief Band of hu- 
man Society, it is a happy thing, when 
itfelf is well contained, within the true 
Band of Unity. The Quarrels and 
Divifions about Religion, were Evils unknown to the 
Heathen. The Reafon was, becaufe the Religion of 
the Heathen confifted rather in Rites and Ceremonies, 
than in any conftant Belief. For you may imagine 
what kind of Faith theirs was, when the chief Doctors 
and Fathers of their Church were the Poets. But the 
true God hath this Attribute, that he is a Jealous 
God: And therefore his worfhip and Religion will 
endure no Mixture, nor Partner. We mail therefore 
fpeak a few words concerning the Unity of the 
Church: What are the Fruits thereof; what the 
Bounds ; and what the Means? 

The Fruits of Unity (next unto the well Pleafing 
of God, which is all in all) are two ; The One, to- 
wards thofe that are without the Church; The 
Other, towards thofe that are within. For the 
Former, it is certain, that Herefies and Schifms are, 
of all others, the greatefl: Scandals ; yea more than 
Corruption of Manners. For as in the Natural 
Body, a Wound or Solution of Continuity, is worfe 

8 Essays. 

than a corrupt Humour; So in the Spiritual. So 
that nothing doth fo much keep Men out of the 
Church, and drive Men out of the Church, as Breach 
of Unity. And therefore, whenfoever it cometh to 
that pafs, that one faith, Ecce in Deferto ; Another 
faith, Ecce in penetralibus y That is, when fome 
Men feek Chrift in the Conventicles of Heretics, 
and others in an Outward Face of a Church, that 
Voice had need continually to found in Men's Ears, 
Nolite exire, Go not out. The Doclor of the Gen- 
tiles (the Propriety of whofe Vocation drew him to 
have a fpecial care of thofe without) faith, If an 
Heathen come in, and hear you /peak with feveral 
Tongues, will he not fay that you are mad? And 
certainly, it is little better, when Atheifts and pro- 
fane Perfons do hear of fo many Difcordant and 
Contrary Opinions in Religion : It doth avert them 
from the Church, and maketh them to ft down in 
the Chair of the S 'corners. It is but a light thing to 
be vouched in fo Serious a Matter, but yet it ex- 
prefTeth well the Deformity. There is a Mafter of 
Scoffing, that in his Catalogue of Books, of a feigned 
Library, fets down this Title of a Book ; The Morris- 
dance of Heretics. For indeed, every Sect of them 
hath a divers Poflure, or cringe by themfelves, which 
cannot but move Derifion in Worldlings and de- 
praved Politicians, who are apt to contemn Holy 

As for the Fruit towards thofe that are within, it 
is Peace i which containeth infinite Bleffings : It 

Of Unity in Religion. 9 

eftablifheth Faith ; it kindleth Charity ; the outward 
Peace of the Church diftilleth into Peace of Con- 
ference ; and it turneth the Labours of Writing and 
Reading of Controverfies, into Treatifes of Mortifica- 
tion and Devotion. 

Concerning the Bounds of Unity ; the true Placing 
of them importeth exceedingly. There appear to be 
two Extremes. For to certain Zelots all fpeech of 
Pacification is odious. Is it peace, Jehu? What 
baft thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. 
Peace is not the Matter, but Following and Party. 
Contrariwife, certain Laodiceans and Luke- warm 
Perfons, think they may accommodate Points of Reli- 
gion by Middle Ways, and taking part of both ; and 
witty Reconcilements ; as if they would make an 
Arbitrement between God and Man. Both thefe 
Extremes are to be avoided; which will be done, if 
the League of Chriflians, penned by our Saviour 
himfelf, were in the two crofs Claufes thereof, 
foundly and plainly expounded ; He that is not with 
us, is againft us : and again ; He that is not againft 
us, is with us. That is, if the Points Fundamental 
and of Subftance in Religion, were truly difcerned 
and diilinguifhed from Points not merely of Faith, 
but of Opinion, Order, or good Intention. This is 
a Thing, may feem to many, a Matter trivial and 
done already : But if it were done lefs partially, it 
would be embraced more generally. 

Of this I may give only this Advice, according to 
my fmall Model. Men ought to take heed of rend- 

io Essays. 

ing God's Church, by two kinds of Controverfies. 
The one is, when the Matter of the Point contro- 
verted is too fmall and light, not worth the Heat 
and Strife about it, kindled only by Contradiction. 
For, as it is noted by one of the Fathers ; CbriJPs 
Coat, indeed, bad no feam : but the CburcFs Vef- 
ture was of divers colours. Whereupon he faith, In 
vefke varietas fit, Sciffura non fit. They be two 
Things, Unity and Uniformity. The Other is, 
when the Matter of the Point controverted is great, 
but it is driven to an over-great Subtilty, and Ob- 
fcurity ; fo that it becometh a Thing rather Ingenious 
than Subftantial. A Man, that is of Judgment and 
Underftanding, fhall fometimes hear Ignorant Men 
differ, and know well within himfelf, that thofe 
which fo differ mean one thing, and yet they them- 
felves would never agree. And if it come fo to pafs, 
in that diftance of Judgment, which is between 
Man and Man ; Shall we not think, that God above, 
that knows the Heart, doth not difcern that frail 
Men, in fome of their Contradictions, intend the 
fame thing ; and accepteth of both ? The Nature of 
fuch Controverfies is excellently expreffed by St. 
Paul, in the Warning and Precept that he giveth 
concerning the fame ; Devita prof anas vocum Novi- 
tates, et Oppofitiones falfi Nominis Scientice. Men 
create Oppofitions, which are not; and put them 
into new Terms, fo fixed, as whereas the Meaning 
ought to govern the Term, the Term in effect go- 
verned! the Meaning. There be alfo two falfe 

Of Unity in Religion. ii 

Peaces, or Unities ; The One, when the Peace is 
grounded but upon an implicit ignorance ; for all 
Colours will agree in the Dark : The Other, when 
it is pieced up, upon a direcl: Admiffion of Contra- 
ries, in Fundamental Points. For Truth and Falfe- 
hood, in fuch things, are like the Iron and Clay, in 
the Toes of Nebuchadnezzar* s Image ; They may 
cleave, but they will not incorporate. 

Concerning the Means of procuring Unity y Men 
muft beware, that in the Procuring, or M uniting, of 
Religious Unity, they do not diffolve and deface the 
Laws of Charity, and of human Society. There be 
two Swords amongft Chriftians, the Spiritual, and 
Temporal : And both have their due Office, and 
Place, in the maintenance of 'Religion. But we may 
not take up the third Sword, which is Mahomet's 
Sword, or like unto it; That is, to propagate Reli- 
gion by Wars, or by fanguinary Perfecutions, to force 
Confciences ; except it be in Cafes of overt Scandal, 
Blafphemy, or Intermixture of Practice, againft the 
State : Much lefs to nourilh Seditions ; to authorize 
Confpiracies and Rebellions ; to put the Sword into 
the People's Hands ; and the like ; tending to the 
Subverfion of all Government, which is the Ordi- 
nance of God. For this is but to dafh the firft Table 
againft the Second ; and fo to confider Men as Chrif- 
tians, as we forget that they are Men. Lucretius 
the Poet, when he beheld the Aft of Agamemnon, 
that could endure the Sacrificing of his own Daugh- 
ter, exclaimed; 

12 Essays. 

Tan turn Relligio potuit fuadere malorum. 
What would he have faid, if he had known of the 
Maffacre in France, or the Powder Treafon of Eng- 
land ? He would have been feven times more Epi- 
cure and Atheift than he was. For as the temporal 
Sword is to be drawn, with great circumfpedlion, in 
Cafes of Religion s fo it is a thing monftrous, to put 
it into the hands of the Common People. Let that 
be left unto the Anabap tills, and other Furies. It 
was great Blafphemy, when the Devil faid, / will 
afcend, and be like the Higheft ; but it is greater 
Blafphemy to perfonate God, and bring him in 
faying ; / will defcend, and be like the Prince of 
Darknefs. And what is it better, to make the caufe 
of Religion to defcend, to the cruel and execrable 
Aclions of Murdering Princes, Butchery of People, 
and Subverfion of States and Governments ? Surely, 
this is to bring Down the Holy Ghoft, inftead of the 
Likenefs of a Dove, in the fhape of a Vulture, or 
Raven : And to fet, out of the Bark of a Chriitian 
Church, a Flag of a Bark of Pirates, and AJfaJjins, 
Therefore it is moft neceffary, that the Church by 
Doclxine and Decree ; Princes by their Sword ; and 
all Learnings, both Chriftian and Moral, as by their 
Mercury Rod ; do damn and fend to Hell, for ever, 
thofe Fa6ts and Opinions, tending to the Support of 
the fame ; as hath been already in good part done. 
Surely in Counfels concerning Religion, that Counfel 
of the Apoftle would be prefixed ; Ira Hominis fion 
imp let Jujiicia?n Dei. And it was a notable Obfer- 

Of Unity in Religion. 13 

vation, of a wife Father, and no lefs ingenuoufly 
confeffed ; That tbofe, which held and perfuaded, 
preffure of Confciences, were commonly inter eft ed 
therein themfelves y for their own ends. 

iv. Of Revenge, 

EFENGE is a kind of Wild Juftice; 
which the more Man's Nature runs to, 
the more ought Law to weed it out. 
For as for the firft Wrong, it doth but 
offend the Law ; but the Revenge of that wrong 
putteth the Law out of Office. Certainly, in taking 
Revenge, a Man is but even with his Enemy ; but 
in paffing it over, he is fuperior : For it is a Prince's 
Part to pardon. And Solomon, I am fure, faith, It is 
the Glory of a Man to pafs by an Offence. That 
which is paft, is gone and irrevocable; And wife 
Men have enough to do with things prefent and to 
come. Therefore, they do but trifle with themfelves, 
that labour in paft matters. There is no Man doth 
a wrong, for the wrong's fake ; but thereby to pur- 
chafe himfelf Profit, or Pleafure, or Honour, or the 
like. Therefore why mould I be angry with a Man, 
for loving himfelf better than me ? And if any Man 
mould do wrong, merely out of ill nature ; why ? 
Yet it is but like the Thorn, or Briar, which prick 

14 Essays. 

and fcratch, becaufe they can do no other. The 
moft tolerable Sort of Revenge, is for thofe Wrongs 
which there is no Law to remedy : But then, let a 
man take heed, the Revenge be fuch as there is no 
Law to punifh : Elfe, a Man's Enemy is Hill before- 
hand ; and it is two for one. Some, when they take 
Revenge, are defirous the Party mould know whence 
it cometh ; This is the more generous : For the De- 
light feemeth to be, not fo much in doing the Hurt, 
as in making the Party repent. But bafe and crafty 
Cowards are like the Arrow that flyeth in the Dark. 
Cofmus Duke of Florence, had a defperate Saying, 
again!!: Perfidious or Neglecting Friends, as if thofe 
Wrongs were unpardonable : You Jball read (faith 
he) that we are commanded to forgive our Enemies ; 
but you never read, that we are co?nmanded to forgive 
our Friends. But yet the Spirit of Job was in a 
better tune ; Shall we (faith he) take Good at God's 
Hands, and not be content to take Evil alfo ? And 
fo of Friends in a proportion. This is certain, that 
a Man that ftudieth Revenge keeps his own Wounds 
green, which otherwife would heal, and do well. 
Public Revenges are, for the moft part, fortunate : as 
that for the Death of Ctefar s for the Death ofPer- 
tinax ; for the Death of 'Henry the Third of France ; 
and many more. But in private Revenges it is not 
fo. Nay rather, Vindictive Perfons live the Life of 
Witches ; who as they are mifchievous, fo end they 


v. Of Adverfity, 

T was a high Speech of Seneca (after 
the manner of the Stoics), That the good 
Things, which belong to Profperity, are 
to be wijhed ; but the good Things, that 
belong to Adverfity, are to be admired. Bona Rerum 
Secundarum optabilia, Adverfarum mirabilia. Cer- 
tainly, if Miracles be the command over Nature, they 
appear moft in Adverfity. It is yet a higher Speech 
of his, than the other, (much too high for a Heathen) : 
It is true Greatnefs, to have in one the Frailty of a 
Man, and the Security of a God. Fere magnum ha- 
bere Fragilitatem Hominis, Securitatem Dei. This 
would have done better in Poefy, where Tranfcend- 
encies are more allowed. And the Poets, indeed, 
have been bufy with it : For it is, in effect, the thing 
which is figured in that ftrange Fiction of the Ancient 
Poets, which feemeth not to be without Myftery ; 
nay, and to have fome approach to the State of a 
Chriftian : That Hercules, when he went to unbind 
Prometheus, (by whom Human Nature is reprefented) 
failed the length of the great Ocean, in an Earthen 
Pot, or Pitcher : lively defcribing Chriftian Refolu- 
tion, that faileth, in the frail Bark of the Flefh, 
through the Waves of the World. But to fpeak in 
a Mean. The Virtue of Profperity is Temperance ; 
the Virtue of Adverfity is Fortitude; which in 
Morals is the more Heroical Virtue. Profperity is 

16 Essays. 

the Bleffing of the Old Teftament ; Adverfity is the 
Bleffing of the New ; which carrieth the greater Be- 
nediction, and the clearer Revelation of God's Favour. 
Yet, even in the old Teftament, if you liften to Da- 
vid's Harp, you fhall hear as many hearfe-like Airs, 
as Carols : And the Pencil of the Holy Ghoft hath 
laboured more, in defcribing the Afflictions of Job, 
than the Felicities of Solomon. Profperity is not 
without many Fears and Diftaftes ; and Adverfity is 
not without Comforts and Hopes. We fee in 
Needle-works and Embroideries, it is more pleafing 
to have a lively Work, upon a Sad and Solemn 
Ground, than to have a dark and melancholy Work, 
upon a lightfome Ground : Judge, therefore, of the 
Pleafure of the Heart, by the Pleafure of the Eye. 
Certainly, Virtue is like precious Odours, moil fra- 
grant when they are incenfed, or crufhed. For Prof- 
ferity doth beft difcover Vice ; but Adverfity doth 
beft difcover Virtue. 

vi. Of Simulation and Dif- 

ISSIMULATIONis but a faint kind 

of Policy, or Wifdom ; for it afketh a 

ftrong Wit, and a ftrong Heart, to know 

when to tell Truth, and to do it: 

Therefore it is the weaker Sort of Politicians, that 

Simulation and Dissimulation. 17 

are the great DifTemblers. 

Tacitus faith, Livia Jorted well with the Arts of 
her Hujband, and DiJJimulation of her Son : attribu- 
ting Arts or Policy to Augufus, and D ijjimulation to 
Tiberius. And again, when Mucia?ius encourageth 
Vefpafian to take Arms agamft Vitellius, he faith, We 
rife not againft the Pierci?ig Judgment of Augufus, 
nor the Extreme Caution or Clofenefs of Tiberius. 
Thefe Properties of Arts or Policy, and DiJJimulation 
or Clofenefs, are indeed Habits and Faculties feveral, 
and to. be diltinguifhed. For if a Man have that 
Penetration of Judgment, as he can difcern what 
Things are to be laid open, and what to be fecreted, 
and what to be mowed at Half-lights, and to whom, 
and when, (which indeed are Arts of State, and Arts 
of Life, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him a 
Habit of DiJJimulation is a Hindrance, and a Poor- 
nefs. But if a Man cannot obtain to that Judgment, 
then it is left to him, generally, to be Clofe, and a 
Diffembler. For where a Man cannot choofe, or 
vary in Particulars, there it is good to take the fafelt 
and warieft Way in general ; like the Going foftly by 
one that cannot well fee. Certainly the ableft Men, 
that ever were, have had all an Opennefs> and Frank- 
nefs of dealing ; and a name of Certainty, and Vera- 
city ; but then they were like Horfes, well managed ; 
for they could tell palling well, when to flop, or 
turn: And at fuch times, when they thought the 
Cafe indeed required DiJJimulation, if then they ufed 
it, it came to pafs> that the former Opinion, fpread 

18 Essays. 

abroad of their good Faith, and Clearnefs of dealing, 
made them almoil invisible. 

There be three degrees, of this Hiding, and Vail- 
ing of a Man's Self. The firft Clofenefs, Referva- 
tion, and Secrecy; when a Man leaveth himfelf 
without Obfervation, or without Hold to be taken, 
what he is. The fecond DiJJimulation, in the Nega- 
tive ; when a Man lets fall Signs, and Arguments, 
that he is not, that he is. And the third Simulation, 
in the Affirmative ; when a Man induftrioufly, and 
exprefsly, feigns, and pretends to be, that he is not. 

For the firft of thefe, Secrecy : It is indeed, the 
Virtue of a ConfefTor ; and alTuredly, the Secret Man 
heareth many Confeflions ; for who will open him- 
felf to a Blab or a Babbler ? But if a Man be thought 
Secret, it inviteth Difcovery ; as the more Clofe Air 
fucketh in the more Open : And as in Confeffion, 
the Revealing is not for worldly Ufe, but for the Eafe 
of a Man's Heart ; fo Secret Men come to the Know- 
ledge of many Things, in that Kind ; while Men 
rather difcharge their Minds, than impart their Minds, 
In few words, Myfteries are due to Secrecy. Be- 
fides (to fay Truth) Nakednefs is uncomely, as well 
in Mind, as Body ; and it addeth no fmall Reverence 
to Men's Manners and A£lions, if they be not alto- 
gether Open. As for Talkers and Futile Perfons, 
they are commonly vain, and credulous withal. For 
he that talketh what he knoweth, will alfo talk what 
he knoweth not. Therefore fet it down, That an 
Habit of Secrecy is both Politic, and Moral. And in 

Simulation and Dissimulation. 19 

this Part, it is good, that a Man's Face give his 
Tongue leave to Speak. For the Difcovery of a 
Man's Self, by the Traces of his Countenance, is a 
great Weaknefs, and Betraying : By how much, it is 
many times, more marked and believed, than a Man's 

For the fecond, which is DiJJimulation : It fol- 
loweth many times upon Secrecy, by a necemty : So 
that he that will be Secret, muft be a DiJJembler, in 
fome degree. For Men are too cunning, to fuffer a 
Man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, 
and to be Secret, without Swaying the Balance, on 
either fide. They will fo befet a Man with Quef- 
tions, and draw him on, and pick it out of him, that 
without an abfurd Silence, he muft mow an Inclina- 
tion, one way : Or if he do not, they will gather as 
much by his Silence, as by his Speech. As for Equi- 
vocations, or Oraculous Speeches, they cannot hold 
out long. So that no man can be Jecret, except he 
give himfelf a little Scope of DiJJimulation 5 which 
is, as it were, but the Skirts or Train of Secrecy. 

But for the third Degree, which is Simulation, 
and falfe Profeffion ; That I hold more culpable, and 
lefs politic ; except it be in great and rare Matters. 
And therefore a general Cuftom of Simulation (which 
is this laft Degree) is a Vice, riling, either of a natural 
Falfenefs, or Fearfulnefs ; Or of a mind, that hath 
fome main Faults : which, becaufe a Man muft needs 
difguife, it maketh him practife Simulation, in other 
things, left his Hand fhould be out of ufe. 

20 Essays. 

The Advantages of Simulation and DiJJimulation, 
are three. Firft to lay afleep Oppofition, and to Sur- 
prife. For where a Man's Intentions are publifhed, 
it is an Alarum, to call up all that are againft them. 
The fecond is, to referve to a Man's Self a fair Re- 
treat: For if a man engage himfelf, by a manifeft 
Declaration, he muft go through, or take a Fall. The 
third is, the better to difcover the Mind of another. 
For to him that opens himfelf, Men will hardly fhow 
themfelves adverfe ; but will (fair) let him go on, and 
turn their Freedom of Speech to Freedom of Thought. 
And therefore, it is a good fhrewd Proverb of the Span- 
iard; Telia Lie and fin da Truth. As if there were no 
way of Difcovery, but by Simulation. There be alfo 
three Difadv ant ages, to fet it even. The firft, That 
Simulation and DiJJimulation, commonly carry with 
them, a Show of Fearfulnefs, which in any Bufmefs, 
doth fpoil the Feathers, of round flying up to the 
Mark. The fecond, that it puzzleth and perplexeth 
the Conceits of many, that perhaps would otherwife 
co-operate with him ; and makes a Man walk, almoft 
alone, to his own Ends. The third and greateft is, 
that it depriveth a Man of one of the moft principal 
Inftruments for Action ; which is Trufi and Belief. 
The beft Compofition, and Temperature is, to have 
Opennefs in Fame and Opinion ; Secrecy in Habit ; 
DiJJimulation in feafonable ufe ; and a Power to feign, 
if there be no Remedy. 


vii. Of Parents and Children. 

HE Joys of Parents are fecret ; and fo 
are their Griefs, and Fears : They can- 
not utter the one; nor they will not 
utter the other. Children fweeten La- 
bours ; but they make Misfortunes « more bitter: 
They increafe the Cares of Life ; but they mitigate 
the Remembrance of Death. The Perpetuity by 
Generation is common to Beafts ; but Memory, Merit, 
and noble Works, are proper to Men : And furely a 
Man fhall fee the nobleft Works, and Foundations, 
have proceeded from Child lefs Men; which have 
fought to exprefs the Images of their Minds, where 
thofe of their Bodies have failed : So the care of Pos- 
terity, is molt in them, that have no Pofterity. They 
that are the firft Raifers of their Houfes, are moft in- 
dulgent towards their Children y beholding them as 
the Continuance, not only of their kind, but of their 
Work : And fo both Children, and Creatures. 

The difference in Afreclion, of Parents, towards 
their feveral Children, is many times unequal, and 
fometimes unworthy ; efpecially in the Mother : As 
Solomon faith ; A wife Son rejoiceth the Father ; but 
an ungracious Son Jhames the Mother. A Man fhall 
fee, where there is a Houfe full of Children, one or 
two of the Elder! refpe&ed, and the Youngeft made 
wantons : But in the midft, fome that are, as it were, 

22 Essays. 

forgotten, who many times, neverthelefs, prove the 
beft. The Illiberality of Parents, in allowance to- 
wards their Children, is an harmful Error; makes 
them bafe ; acquaints them with Shifts ; makes them 
fort with mean Company ; and makes them furfeit 
more, when they come to Plenty : And therefore, the 
Proof is beft, when Men keep their Authority towards 
their Children, but not their Purfe. Men have a 
foolifh manner (both Parents, and Schoolmafters, and 
Servants) in creating and breeding an Emulation be- 
tween Brothers, during Childhood, which many times 
forteth to Difcord, when they are Men; and dif- 
turbeth Families. The Italians make little difference 
between Children, and Nephews, or near Kinsfolk ; 
but fo they be of the Lump, they care not, though 
they pafs not through their own Body. And, to fay 
Truth, in Nature, it is much a like matter ; In fo 
much that we fee a Nephew, fometimes, refembleth 
an Uncle, or a Kinfman, more than his own Parent ,* 
as the Blood happens. Let Parents choofe betimes, 
the Vocations and Courfes, they mean their Children 
mould take ; for then they are moil flexible : And 
let them not too much apply themfelves to the dif- 
pofition of their Children, as thinking they will take 
beft to that, which they have moft Mind to. It is 
true, that if the ArFe&ion, or Aptnefs of the Children, 
be extraordinary, then it is good not to crofs it : But 
generally the Precept is good ; Optimum elige, fuave 
et facile illud faciet Confuetudo. Younger Brothers 
are commonly fortunate ; but feldom or never, where 
the Elder are difinherited. 


vni. Of Marriage and Single 

E that hath Wife and Children, hath 
given Hoftages to Fortune; for they 
are Impediments to great Enterprifes, 
either of Virtue, or Mifchief. Cer- 
tainly, the bell Works, and of greateft Merit for the 
Public, have proceeded from the unmarried, or Child- 
lefs Men; which, both in Affe&ion, and Means, 
have married and endowed the Public. Yet it were 
great Reafon, that thofe that have Children, mould 
have greateft Care of future Times ; unto which, they 
know, they muft tranfmit their dearefl Pledges. Some 
there are, who though they lead a Single Life, yet 
their Thoughts do end with themfelves, and account 
future Times, Impertinences. Nay, there are fome 
other, that account Wife and Children, but as Bills 
of Charges. Nay more, there are fome foolifh rich 
covetous Men, that take a pride in having no Chil- 
dren, becaufe they may be thought fo much the richer. 
For perhaps they have heard fome talk ; Such an one 
is a great rich Man ; And another except to it ; 
Tea, but he hath a great Charge of Children : As if 
it were an Abatement to his Riches. But the moll 
ordinary caufe of a Single Life, is Liberty ; efpecially, 
in certain Self-plealing, and humorous Minds, which 
are fo fenlible of every Reilraint, as they will go near, 

24 Essays. 

to think their Girdles, and Garters, to be Bonds and 
Shackles. . Unmarried Men are beft Friends, bell 
Mailers, beft Servants ; but not always beft Subjects : 
For they are light to run away ; and almoft all Fugi- 
tives are of that Condition. A Single Life doth well 
with Church-men : For Charity will hardly water the 
Ground, where it mull firft fill a Pool. It is indiffe- 
rent for Judges and Magiftrates : For if they be facile, 
and corrupt, you mall have a Servant, five times worfe 
than a Wife. For Soldiers, I find the Generals com- 
monly in their Hortatives, put Men in mind of their 
Wives and Children. And I think the Defpifing of 
Marriage, amongft the Turks, maketh the vulgar Sol- 
dier more bafe. Certainly, Wife and Children are a 
kind of Difcipline of Humanity : And Single Men, 
though they be many times more Charitable, becaufe 
their Means are lefs exhauft ; yet, on the other fide, 
they are more cruel, and hardhearted, (good to make 
fevere Inquifitors) ; becaufe their Tendernefs is not 
fo oft called upon. Grave Natures, led by Cuftom, 
and therefore conilant, are commonly loving Huf- 
bands : as was faid of UlyJJes ,* Vetulam fuam preetu- 
lit Immortalitati. Chafte Women are often proud, 
and froward, as prefuming upon the Merit of their 
Chaftity. It is one of the beft Bonds, both of Chaf- 
tity and Obedience, in the Wife, if me think her 
Hufband wife ; which ihe will never do, if lhe find 
him Jealous. Wives are young Men's Miftreffes ; 
Companions for middle Age ; and old Men's Nurfes. 
So as a Man may have a Quarrel to marry, when he 

Of Marriage and Single Life. 25 

will. But yet, he was reputed one of the wife Men, 
that made Anfwer to the Queftion ; When a Man 
mould marry ? A Young Man not yet, an Elder Man 
not at all. It is often feen, that bad Hufbands have 
very good Wives : Whether it be, that it raifeth the 
Price of their Hujbands* Kindnefs, when it comes ; 
or that the Wives take a Pride, in their Patience. 
But this never fails, if the bad Hufbands were of their 
own choofing, againft their Friends' Confent : For 
then, they will be fure to make good their own 

ix. Of Envy, 

Here be none of the Affections, which 
have been noted to fafcinate, or bewitch, 
but Love, and Envy. They both have 
vehement Willies ; they frame them- 
felves readily into Imaginations, and Suggeftions ; 
and they come eafily into the Eye, efpecially upon the 
prefence of the Objects ; which are the Points that 
conduce to Fafcination, if any fuch Thing there be. 
We fee likewife, the Scripture calleth Envy, An Evil 
Eye : And the Aftrologers call the evil Influences of 
the Stars, Evil Afpetts y fo that Hill, there feemeth 
to be acknowledged, in the A61 of Envy, an Ejacu- 
lation, or Irradiation of the Eye. Nay, fome have 
been fo curious as to note, that the Times, when the 
Stroke, or Percuffion of an Envious Eye doth mofl 

26 Essays. 

hurt, are when the Party envied is beheld in Glory, 
or Triumph; for that fets an Edge upon Envy: 
And befides, at fuch times, the Spirits of the Per/on 
envied, do come forth moll into the outward Parts, 
and fo meet the Blow. 

But leaving thefe Curiofities, (though not unworthy 
to be thought on, in fit place,) we will handle, what 
Perfons are apt to Envy others ; what Perfons are 
moft fubjecl to be envied themfelves ; and, what is 
the Difference between public , and private Envy. 

A Man, that hath no Virtue in himfelf, ever en- 
vieth Virtue in others. For Men's Minds will either 
feed upon their own Good, or upon other's Evil ; 
and who wanteth the one, will prey upon the other : 
And whofo is out of Hope to attain to another's 
Virtue, will feek to come at even hand, by depreffing 
another's Fortune. 

A Man that is Bufy, and Inquifitive, is commonly 
Envious : For to know much of other Men's Mat- 
ters, cannot be ; becaufe all that Ado may concern 
his own Eflate : Therefore it mull needs be, that he 
taketh a kind of Play-pleafure in looking upon the For- 
tunes of others : Neither can he, that mindeth but 
his own Bufinefs, find much matter for Envy. For 
Envy is a Gadding Paffion, and walketh the Streets, 
and doth not keep home ; Non eft Curio/us, quin idem 
fit Malevolus. 

Men of Noble Birth, are noted to be envious to- 
wards New Men, when they rife ; for the diftance is 
altered : And it is like a Deceit of the Eye, that 

Of Envy. 27 

when others come on, they think themfelves go 

Deformed Perfons, and Eunuchs, and Old Men, 
and Baftards, are Envious : For he that cannot pof- 
fibly mend his own cafe, will do what he can to im- 
pair another's : Except thefe Defects light upon a 
very brave, and Heroical Nature ; which thinketh 
to make his natural Wants, part of his Honour ; in 
that it fhould be faid, that a Eunuch, or a Lame 
Man, did fuch great Matters ; affecting the Honour 
of a Miracle : as it was in Narfes the Eunuch, and 
Agefilaus, and Tamerlane, that were Lame men. 

The fame is the Cafe of Men, that rife after Cala- 
mities, and Misfortunes ; for they are as Men fallen 
out with the Times ; and think other Men's Harms, 
a Redemption of their own Sufferings. 

They, that deflre to excel in too many Matters, 
out of Levity, and Vain-glory, are ever Envious j 
for they cannot want Work ; it being impoffible, but 
many, in fome one of thofe Things, mould furpafs 
them. Which was the Character of Adrian the 
Emperor, that mortally envied Poets, and Painters, 
and Artificers, in Works wherein he had a vein to 

Laftly, near Kinsfolk, and Fellows in Office, and 
thofe that have been bred together, are more apt to 
envy their Equals, when they are raifed. For it doth 
upbraid unto them their own Fortunes, and pointeth 
at them, and cometh oftener into their Remembrance; 
and incurreth likewife more into the Note of others : 

28 Essays. 

And Envy ever redoubleth from Speech and Fame. 
Cain's Envy was the more vile, and malignant, to- 
wards his brother Abel ; becaufe, when his Sacrifice 
was better accepted, there was Nobody to look on. 
Thus much for tbofe that are apt to envy. 

Concerning tbofe that are more or lefs fubjeft to 
Envy : Firft, Perfons of eminent Virtue, when they 
are advanced, are lefs envied. For their Fortune 
feemeth but due unto them ; and no Man envieth 
the Payment of a Debt, but Rewards, and Liberality 
rather. Again, Envy is ever joined with the com- 
paring of a Man's Self: And where there is no Com- 
parifon, no Envy ; and therefore Kings are not en- 
vied, but by Kings. Neverthelefs, it is to be noted, 
that unworthy Perfons are moll efivied at their firft 
coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; whereas 
contrariwife, Perfons of Worth, and Merit, are moft 
envied, when their Fortune continueth long. For 
by that time, though their Virtue be the fame, yet 
it hath not the fame Luftre ; for frefh Men grow up, 
that darken it. 

Perfons of Noble Blood are lefs envied, in their 
rifing : for it feemeth, but Right done to their Birth. 
Befides, there feemeth not fo much added to their 
Fortune ; and Envy is as the Sun Beams, that beat 
hotter upon a Bank or fteep rifing Ground, than 
upon a Flat. And for the fame reafon, thofe that are 
advanced by degrees, are lefs envied, than thofe that 
are advanced fuddenly, and per faltum. 

Thofe that have joined with their Honour, great 

Of Envy. 29 

Travels, Cares, or Perils, are lefs lubjedt to Envy, 
For Men think, that they earn their Honours hardly, 
and pity them fometimes; and Pity ever healeth 
Envy : Wherefore, you fhall obferve that the more 
deep, and fober fort of politic Perfons, in their Great- 
nefs, are ever bemoaning themfelves, what a Life 
they lead ; chanting a Quanta patimur : Not that 
they feel it fo ; but only to abate the Edge of Envy. 
But this is to be underftood, of Bufinefs, that is laid 
upon Men, and not fuch as they call unto themfelves. 
For Nothing increafeth Envy more, than an unne- 
cessary, and ambitious Engroffing of Bufinefs. And 
nothing doth extinguifh Envy more, than for a great 
Perfon to preferve all other inferior Officers, in their 
full Rights, and Pre-eminences, of their Places. For 
by that means, there be fo many Screens between 
him, and Envy, 

Above all, thofe are moft fubje6l to Envy, which 
carry the Greatnefs of their Fortunes, in an infolent 
and proud Manner : being never well, but while 
they are mowing, how great they are, either by out- 
ward Pomp, or by triumphing over all Oppofition, 
or Competition : Whereas wife Men will rather do 
Sacrifice to Envy ; in fuiFering themfelves, fometimes 
of purpofe to be croft, and overborne in things, that 
do not much concern them. Notwithftanding, fo 
much is true ; that the Carriage of Greatnefs, in a 
plain and open manner (fo it be without Arrogancy, 
and Vain-glory) doth draw lefs Envy, than if it be in 
a more crafty, and cunning fafhion. For in that 

30 Essays. 

courfe, a Man doth but difavow Fortune ; and feemeth 
to be confcious of his own Want in Worth ; and 
doth but teach others to Envy him. 

Laftly, to conclude this Part ; As we faid in the 
beginning, that the Act of Envy had fomewhat in it 
of Witchcraft ,* fo there is no other Cure of Envy, 
but the cure of Witchcraft : And that is, to remove 
the Lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. 
For which purpofe, the wifer Sort of great Perfons 
bring in ever upon the Stage, Somebody upon whom 
to derive the Envy, that would come upon them- 
felves : Sometimes upon Minifters, and Servants ; 
fometimes upon Colleagues and Affociates ; and the 
like : And for that turn, there are never wanting 
fome Perfons of violent and undertaking Natures ; 
who fo they may have Power, and Bufinefs, will take 
it at any Coft. 

Now to fpeak of Public Envy : There is yet fome 
good in Public Envy ; whereas in Private, there is 
none. For Public Envy is as an Oftracifm, that 
eclipfeth Men when they grow too great : And there- 
fore it is a bridle alfo to Great Ones, to keep them 
within Bounds. 

This Envy, being in the Latin word Invidia, 
goeth in the Modern Languages, by the name of 
D if contentment / (of which we mail fpeak in handling 
Sedition:) It is a Difeafe in a State, like to Infection. 
For as Infection fpreadeth upon that which is found, 
and tainteth it ; fo when Envy is gotten once into a 
State, it traduceth even the bell Actions thereof,and 
turneth them into an ill Odour. And therefore, 

Of Envy. 31 

there is little won by intermingling of plaufible Ac- 
tions : For that doth argue but a Weaknefs, and Fear 
of Envy ; which hurteth fo much the more, as it is 
likewife ufual in Infections ; which, if you fear them, 
you call them upon you. 

This Public Envy feemeth to beat chiefly, upon 
principal Officers, or Minifters, rather than upon 
Kings, and Eftates themfelves. But this is a fure 
Rule, that if the Envy upon the Minifter be great, 
when the caufe of it in him is fmall ; or if the Envy 
be general, in a manner, upon all the Minifters of art 
Eftate ; then the Envy (though hidden) is truly upon 
the State itfelf. And fo much of Public Envy or 
Difcontentment, and the Difference thereof from Pri- 
vate Envy, which was handled in the firft place. 

We will add this, in general, touching the Affec- 
tion of Envy ; that of all other Affections, it is the 
moft importune, and continual. For of other Affec- 
tions, there is occafion given, but now and then : 
And therefore it was well faid; Invidia fejlos dies 
non agit y for it is ever working upon fome, or 
other. And it is alfo noted, that Love and Envy do 
make a Man pine, which other Affections do not ; 
becaufe they are not fo continual. It is alfo the 
vileft Affection, and the moft depraved : For which 
Caufe, it is the proper Attribute of the Devil ; who 
is called, The Envious Man, that foweth Tares 
amojigft the Wheat by night. As it always cometh 
to pafs, that Envy worketh fubtilely, and in the dark ; 
and to the prejudice of good things, fuch as is the 


x. Of Love, 

He Stage is more beholding to Love, than 
the Life of Man. For as to the Stage, 
Love is ever matter of Comedies, and 
now and then of Tragedies : but in 
Life, it doth much mifchief ; fometimes like a Syren, 
fometimes like a Fury. You may obferve, that 
amongft all the great and worthy Perfons, (whereof 
the memory remaineth, either Ancient or Recent) 
there is not One, that hath been tranfported to the 
mad degree of Love : which mows, that great Spirits 
and great Bufinefs do keep out this weak Paffion. 
You mull except, neverthelefs, Marcus Antonius the 
half Partner of the Empire of Rome y and Appius 
Claudius the Decemvir, and Law-giver: whereof 
the former was indeed a voluptuous Man, and inor- 
dinate ; but the latter was an auftere, and wife Man : 
and therefore it feems (though rarely) that Love can 
find entrance, not only into an open Heart, but alfo 
into a Heart well fortified, if watch be not well 
kept. It is a poor faying of Epicurus 5 Satis mag- 
num Alter Alter i Theatrumfumus : as if Man, made 
for the contemplation of Heaven, and all Noble 
Objects, mould do nothing but kneel before a little 
Idol, and make himfelf fubjecl:, though not of the 
Mouth (as Beafts are) yet of the Eye, which was 
given him for higher Purpofes. It is a ftrange Thing, 

Of Love. 33 

to note the Excefs of this Paffion ; and how it 
braves the Nature and Value of Things ; by this, 
that the Speaking in a perpetual Hyperbole, is comely 
in nothing but in Love. Neither is it merely in the 
Phrafe; for whereas it hath been well faid, that the 
Arch-flatterer, with whom all the petty Flatterers 
have Intelligence, is a Man's Self; certainly the 
Lvver is more. For there was never proud Man 
thought fo abfurdly well of himfelf, as the Lover 
doth of the Perfon loved : and therefore it was well 
faid ; That it is impojjible to love, and to be wife. 
Neither doth this Weaknefs appear to others only, 
and not to the Party loved ; but to the Loved, moll 
of all : except the Love be reciprocal. For, it is a 
true Rule, that Love is ever rewarded, either with 
the Reciprocal, or with an inward, and fecret Con- 
tempt. By how much the more, Men ought to be- 
ware of this Paflion, which lofeth not only other 
things, but itfelf. As for the other LofTes, the Poets 
Relation doth well figure them : That he that pre- 
ferred Helena, quitted the Gifts of Juno and Pallas. 
For whofoever efteemeth too much of Amorous Af- 
fection, quitteth both Riches and Wifdom. This 
Paffion hath his Floods in the very times of Weak- 
nefs ; which are, great Profperity and great Adver- 
fity ; though this latter hath been lefs obferved. Both 
which times kindle Love, and make it more fervent, 
and therefore fhew it to be the Child of Folly. They 
do beft, who, if they cannot but admit Love, yet 
make it keep Quarter : and fever it wholly from their 


34 Essays. 

ferious Affairs, and Aftions of life : For if it check 
once with Bufinefs, it troubleth Men's Fortunes ; and 
maketh Men, that they can no ways be true to their 
own Ends. I know not how, but Martial Men are 
given to Love: I think it is, but as they are given to 
Wine ; for Perils commonly aik to be paid in Plea- 
fures. There is in Man's Nature, a fecret Inclina- 
tion and Motion towards love of others ; which, if it 
be not fpent upon fome one, or a few, doth naturally 
fpread itfelf towards many ; and maketh men become 
Humane and Charitable ; as it is feen fometime in 
Friars. Nuptial Love maketh Mankind ; Friendly 
Love perfefteth it ; but Wanton Love corrupteth, 
and imbafeth it. 

xi. Of Great Place. 

EN in Great Place are thrice Servants: 
Servants of the Sovereign or State ; Ser- 
vants of Fame ; and Servants of Bufi- 
nefs. So as they have no Freedom ; 
neither in their Perfons, nor in their Actions, nor in 
their Times. It is a ftrange defire, to feek Power, 
and to lofe Liberty ; or to feek Power over others, 
and to lofe Power over a Man's Self. The Rifing 
unto Place is laborious ; and by Pains Men come to 
greater Pains : and it is fometimes bafe ; and by In- 
dignities, Men come to Dignities. The Standing is 
flippery, and the Regrefs is either a downfall, or at 

Of Great Place. 35 

leaft an Eclipfe, which is a Melancholy Thing. Cum 
non fis qui fueris, non ejfe cur velis vivere. Nay, 
retire Men cannot, when they would ; neither will 
they, when it were Reafon : But are impatient of pri- 
vatenefs, even in Age, and Sicknefs, which require 
the lhadow : Like old Townfmen, that will be ftill 
fitting at their Street door ; though thereby they offer 
age to fcorn. Certainly Great Perfons had need to 
borrow other Men's Opinions, to think themfelves 
happy; for if they judge by their own Feeling, they 
cannot find it : But if they think with themfelves, 
what other men think of them, and that other men 
would fain be as they are, then they are happy, as it 
were by report; when perhaps they find the con- 
trary within. For they are the firft, that find their 
own Griefs ; though they be the laft, that find their 
own Faults. Certainly, Men in Great Fortunes are 
ftrangers to themfelves ; and while they are in the 
puzzle of bufinefs, they have no time to tend their 
Health, either of Body, or Mind. I Hi Mors gravis 
incubat Qui notus nimis omnibus Ignotus moritur fibi. 
In Place y there is Licenfe to do Good, and Evil; 
whereof the latter is a Curfe ; for in Evil, the beft 
condition is, not to Will ; the Second, not to Can. 
But Power to do good, is the true and lawful End of 
Afpiring. For good Thoughts (though God accept 
them,) yet towards men, are little better than good 
Dreams ; except they be put in A61 ; and that can- 
not be without Power, and Place ; as the Vantage, 
and Commanding Ground. Merit and good Works, 

36 Essays. 

is the End of Man's Motion ; and Confcience of the 
fame is the Accomplishment of Man's Reft. For if 
a Man can be Partaker of God's Theatre, he mall 
likewife be Partaker of God's Reft. Et converfus 
Deus, ut afpiceret Opera, qua fecerunt manus fua, 
vidit quod omnia ejfent bona nimis : and then the Sab- 
bath. In the Difcharge of thy Place, fet before thee 
the beft Examples ; for Imitation is a Globe of Pre- 
cepts. And after a time, fet before thee thine own 
Example ; and examine thyfelf ftrictly, whether thou 
didft not beft at firft. Neglect not alfo the Examples 
of thofe, that have carried themfelves ill, in the fame 
Place : not to fet off thyfelf, by taxing their Me- 
mory ; but to direct thyfelf what to avoid. Reform 
therefore, without Bravery, or Scandal of former Times, 
and Perfons ; but yet fet it down to thyfelf, as well 
to create good Precedents, as to follow them. Re- 
duce things to the firft Inftitution, and obferve wherein, 
and how, they have degenerated : but yet aik Coun- 
fel of both Times ; of the Ancient Time, what is beft ; 
and of the Latter Time, what is fitteft. Seek to make 
thy Courfe regular ; that Men may know beforehand, 
what they may expect : But be not too pofitive, and 
peremptory ; and exprefs thyfelf well, when thou di- 
grefTeft from thy Rule. Preferve the Right of thy 
Place; but ftir not queftions of Jurisdiction : and 
rather alfume thy Right, in Silence and de faclo, than 
voice it with Claims and Challenges. Preferve like- 
wife the Rights of Inferior Places y and think it more 
Honour to direct in chief, than to be bufy in all. 

Of Great Place. 37 

Embrace and invite Helps and Advices, touching the 
Execution of thy Place ; and do not drive away fuch 
as bring thee Information, as Meddlers ; but accept 
of them in good part. The vices of Authority are 
chiefly four : Delays, Corruption, Roughnefs, and 
Facility. For Delays, give eafy Accefs ; keep Times 
appointed ; go through with that which is in hand ; 
and interlace not buiinefs, but of neceffity. For Cor- 
ruption, do not only bind thine own Hands, or thy 
Servants' Hands, from taking ; but bind the Hands 
of Suitors alfo from offering. For Integrity ufed doth 
the one ; but Integrity profeifed, and with a manifeil 
deteflation of Bribery, doth the other. And avoid 
not only the Fault, but the Sufpicion. Whofoever is 
found variable, and changeth manifeftly, without 
manifeil Caufe, giveth Sufpicion of Corruption. 
Therefore, always, when thou changeft thine Opi- 
nion, or Courfe, profefs it plainly, and declare it, 
together with the Reafons that move thee to change ; 
and do not think to Heal it. A Servant, or a Fa- 
vourite, if he be inward, and no other apparent Caufe 
of Efleem, is commonly thought but a By-way, to 
clofe Corruption. For Roughnefs, it is a needlefs 
caufe of Dif content : Severity breedeth Fear; but 
Roughnefs breedeth Hate. Even Reproofs from Au- 
thority ought to be Grave, and not Taunting. As 
for Facility, it is worfe than Bribery. For Bribes 
come but now and then ; but if Importunity, or Idle 
Refpedls, lead a Man, he fhall never be without. As 
Solomon faith ; To refpecl Perfons is not good ,■ For 

38 Essays. 

fuch a man will tranfgrefs for a piece of Bread. It 
is molt true, that was anciently fpoken ; A Place 
Jheweth the Man : and it lheweth fome to the bet- 
ter, and fome to the worfe : Omnium confenfu cap ax 
Imperii, nifi imperajjei j faith Tacitus of Galba : 
but of Vefpafian he faith ; Solus Imperantium Vef- 
pafanus mutatus in melius. Though the one was 
meant of Sufficiency, the other of Manners and Af- 
fection. It is an aflured Sign of a worthy and gene- 
rous Spirit, whom Honour amends. For Honour is, 
or mould be, the Place of Virtue : and as in Nature, 
Things move violently to their Place, and calmly in 
their Place : fo Virtue in Ambition is violent, in 
Authority fettled and calm. All Rifing to Great 
Place is by a winding Stair : and if there be Factions, 
it is good to fide a Man's felf, whilft he is in the 
Rifing; and to balance Himfelf, when he is placed. 
Ufe the Memory of thy Predeceflbr fairly, and ten- 
derly ; for if thou dolt not, it is a Debt will fure be 
paid, when thou art gone. If thou have Colleagues, 
refpecl: them, and rather call them, when they look 
not for it, than exclude them when they have reafon 
to look to be called. Be not too fenlible, or too re- 
membering, of thy Place, in Converfation, and pri- 
vate Anfwers to Suitors ; But let it rather be faid ; 
When he fits in Place, he is another Man. 


xii. Of Boldnefs. 

T is a trivial Grammar School Text, 
but yet worthy a wife Man's Con- 
fideration. Queftion was afked of 
Demofthenes ; What was the chief 
Part of an Orator? He anfwered, Attion : What 
next ? Attion : What next again ? Attion. He faid 
it, that knew it beft ; and had by nature, himfelf, no 
Advantage, in that he commended. A ftrange thing, 
that that Part of an Orator, which is but fuperficial, 
and rather the virtue of a Player, fhould be placed fo 
high, above thofe other Noble Parts, of Invention, 
Elocution, and the reft: nay almoft alone, as if it 
were All in All. But the Reafon is plain. There 
is in Human Nature, generally, more of the Fool 
than of the Wife ; and therefore thofe faculties, by 
which the Foolifh part of Men's Minds is taken, are 
moft potent. Wonderful like is the Cafe of Boldnefs, 
in Civil Bufmefs ; What firft ? Boldnefs : What Se- 
cond, and Third ? Boldnefs. And yet Boldnefs is a 
Child of Ignorance, and Bafenefs, far inferior to other 
Parts. But neverthelefs, it doth fafcinate, and bind 
hand and foot, thofe that are either mallow in Judg- 
ment, or weak in Courage ; which are the greateft 
Part : Yea and prevaileth with Wife Men, at weak 
times. Therefore we fee it hath done wonders in 
Popular States ; but with Senates and Princes lefs : 

40 Essays. 

And more ever upon the firfl entrance of Bold Per- 
fons into Action, than foon after ; for Boldnefs is an ill 
keeper of promife. Surely, as there are Mountebanks 
for the Natural Body ; fo are there Mountebanks for 
the Politic Body : Men that undertake great Cures ; 
and perhaps have been lucky in two or three Experi- 
ments, but want the Grounds of Science ; and there- 
fore cannot hold out. Nay, you fhall fee a Bold Fellow 
many times do Mabomefs Miracle. Mabomet made 
the People believe, that he would call a Hill to him ; 
and from the Top of it, offer up his Prayers, for the 
Obfervers of his Law. The People affembled ; Ma- 
bomet called the Hill to come to him, again and again : 
And when the Hill itood flill, he was never a whit 
abafhed, but faid ; If tbe Hill will not come to Ma- 
bomet, Mabomet will go to tbe Hill. So thefe Men, 
when they have promifed great Matters, and failed moil 
fhamefully, (yet if they have the perfection of Bold- 
nefs) they will but flight it over, and make a turn, 
and no more ado. Certainly, to Men of great Judg- 
ment, Bold Perfons are a Sport to behold ; nay, and 
to the Vulgar alfo, Boldnefs hath fomewhat of the 
ridiculous. For if Abfurdity be the Subject of Laugh- 
ter, doubt you not, but great Boldnefs is feldom with- 
out fome Abfurdity. Efpecially it is a Sport to fee, 
when a Bold Fellow is out of Countenance ; for that 
puts his Face into a moft ihrunken and wooden Pof- 
ture ; as needs it mull ; for in Bafhfulnefs, the Spirits 
do a little go and come ; but with Bold Men, upon 
like occafion, they {land at a flay ; like a Stale at 

Of Boldness. 41 

Chefs, where it is no Mate, but yet the Game cannot 
ftir. But this laft were fitter for a Satire, than for a 
ferious Obfervation. This is well to be weighed, 
that Boldnefs is ever blind : For it feeth not Dangers 
and Inconveniences. Therefore it is ill in Counfel, 
good in Execution. So that the right Ufe of Bold 
Perfons is, that they never command in Chief, but 
be Seconds, and under the Direction of others. For 
in Counfel, it is good to fee dangers ; and in Execu- 
tion not to fee them, except they be very great. 

xiii. Of Goodnefs, and Good- 
nefs of Nature. 

TAKE Goodnefs in this Senfe, the af- 
fecting of the Weal of Men, which is 
that the Grecians call Philanthropia : 
And the word Humanity (as it is ufed) 
is a little too light to exprefs it. Goodnefs I call the 
Habit, and Goodnefs of Nature the Inclination. 
This of all Virtues, and Dignities of the Mind, is 
the greateft ; being the Character of the Deity : and 
without it, Man is a Bufy, Mifchievous, Wretched 
Thing; no better than a Kind of Vermin. Good- 
nefs anfwers to the Theological Virtue Charity, and 
admits no Excefs, but Error. The delire of Power 
in Excefs, caufed the Angels to fall ; the defire of 
Knowledge in Excefs, caufed Man to fall : But in 

42 Essays. 

Charity there is no Excefs ; neither can Angel, or 
Man, come in danger by it. The Inclination to 
Goodnefs is imprinted deeply in the Nature of Man : 
infomuch, that if it ifTue not towards Men, it will 
take unto Other Living Creatures ; as it is feen in 
the Turks, a cruel People, who neverthelefs are kind 
to Beafts, and give Alms to Dogs and Birds : Info- 
much, as Bujbechius reporteth ; A Chriflian Boy in 
Conftantinople had like to have been Honed, for gag- 
ging, in a waggifhnefs, a long-billed Fowl. Errors, 
indeed, in this virtue of Goodnefs, or Charity, may 
be committed. The Italians have an ungracious 
Proverb; Tanto buon che val niente: So good, that 
he is good for nothing. And one of the Doctors of 
Italy, Nicholas Machiavel, had the confidence to 
put in writing, almoft in plain terms : That the 
Chriflian Faith had given up Good Men, in prey, to 
thofe, that are Tyrannical, and Unjufl. Which he 
fpake, becaufe indeed there was never Law, or Sect, 
or Opinion, did fo much magnify Goodnefs, as the 
Chriflian Religion doth. Therefore, to avoid the 
Scandal and the Danger both, it is good to take 
knowledge of the Errors of a Habit fo excellent. 
Seek the Good of other Men ; but be not in bond- 
age to their Faces or Fancies : for that is but Fa- 
cility, or Softnefs ; which taketh an honeft Mind 
Prifoner. Neither give thou JEfop's Cock a Gem, 
who would be better pleafed, and happier, if he had 
had a Barley-corn. The Example of God teacheth 
the LefTon truly: He fendeth his Rain, and maketh 

Of Goodness, & Goodness of Nature. 43 

his Sun to Jhine, upon the Juft, and Unjuft ; but he 
doth not rain Wealth, nor fhine Honour, and Vir- 
tues, upon Men equally. Common Benefits are to 
be communicate with all ; but peculiar Benefits, with 
choice. And beware how in making the Portraiture, 
thou breakefl the Pattern : for Divinity maketh the 
Love of our Selves the Pattern ; the Love of our Neigh- 
bours but the Portraiture. Sell all tbou haft, and 
give it to the poor, and follow me : But fell not all 
thou haft, except thou come, and follow me ; that 
is, except thou have a Vocation, wherein thou mayeft 
do as much good, with little means, as with great : 
For otherwife, in feeding the Streams, thou drieft 
the Fountain. Neither is there only a Habit of 
Goodnefs, directed by right Reafon ; but there is, in 
fome Men, even in Nature, a Difpofition towards it : 
as on the other fide, there is a Natural Malignity. 
For there be, that in their Nature, do not afFeft the 
Good of Others. The lighter Sort of Malignity 
turneth but to a CrofTnefs, or Frowardnefs, or Apt- 
nefs to oppofe, or Difficilnefs, or the like ; but the 
deeper Sort, to Envy, and mere Mifchief. Such 
Men, in other men's Calamities, are as it were in 
feafon, and are ever on the loading Part ; not fo good 
as the Dogs that licked Lazarus' Sores ; but like Flies, 
that are ftill buzzing upon any Thing that is raw : 
Mifanthropi, that make it their Practice to bring Men 
to the Bough ; and yet have never a Tree, for the 
purpofe, in their Gardens, as Tim on had. Such Dif- 
pofitions are the very Errors of Human Nature : and 

44 Essays. 

yet they are the fitteft Timber to make great Politics 
of: Like to knee Timber, that is good for Ships, that 
are ordained to be tolled ; but not for building Houfes, 
that mall Hand firm. The Parts and Signs of Good- 
nefs are many : If a Man be gracious and courteous 
to Strangers, it fhews he is a Citizen of the World ; 
and that his Heart is no Ifland, cut off from other 
Lands ; but a Continent that joins to them. If he 
be compaffionate towards the Afflictions of others, it 
mews that his Heart is like the noble Tree, that is 
wounded itfelf, when it gives the Balm. If he eafily 
pardons and remits Offences, it fhews that his Mind 
is planted above Injuries ; fo that he cannot be fhot. 
If he be thankful for fmall Benefits, it fhews that he 
weighs Men's Minds, and not their Trafh. But 
above all, if he have St. Paul's Perfection, that he 
would wifh to be an Anathema from Chrift, for the 
Salvation of his Brethren, it fhews much of a Divine 
Nature, and a kind of Conformity with Chrijl him- 

xiv. Of Nobility. 

E will fpeak of Nobility firfl as a Por- 
tion of an Eft ate ; then as a Condition 
of Particular Perfons. A Monarchy, 
where there is no Nobility at all, is 
ever a pure and abfolute Tyranny ; as that of the 
Turks. For Nobility attempers Sovereignty, and 

Of Nobility. 45 

draws the Eyes of the People fomewhat afide from 
the Line Royal. But for Democracies, they need it 
not; and they are commonly more quiet, and lefs 
fubjecl: to Sedition, than where there are Stirps of 
Nobles. For Men's Eyes are upon the Bufinefs, and 
not upon the Perfons : or if upon the Perfons, it is 
for the Bufinefs' fake, as fitteft, and not for Flags and 
Pedigree. We fee the Szvitzers laft well, notwith- 
ftanding their Diversity of Religion and of Cantons. 
For Utility is their Bond, and not Refpe&s. The 
United Provinces of the Low Countries, in their 
Government, excel : for where there is an Equality, 
the Confultations are more indifferent, and the Pay- 
ments and Tributes more cheerful. A great and 
Potent Nobility addeth Majefty to a Monarch ; but 
diminifheth Power : and putteth Life and Spirit into 
the People ; but preffeth their Fortune. It is well, 
when Nobles are not too great for Sovereignty, nor 
for Juftice ; and yet maintained in that height, as the 
Infolency of Inferiors may be broken upon them, 
before it come on too fail upon the Majefty of Kings. 
A Numerous Nobility caufeth Poverty and Incon- 
venience in a State : For it is a Surcharge of Ex- 
penfe ; and befides, it being of NecefTity, that many 
of the Nobility fall in time to be weak in Fortune, 
it maketh a kind of Difproportion between Honour 
and Means. 

As for Nobility in particular Perfons j it is a 
Reverend Thing, to fee an Ancient Caflle or Build- 
ing not in decay ; or to fee a fair Timber Tree found 

4-6 Essays. 

and perfect : How much more, to behold an Ancient 
Noble Family, which hath flood againft the Waves 
and Weathers of Time. For new Nobility is but 
the A61 of Power ; but Ancient Nobility is the Ac~t 
of Time. Thofe that are nrft raifed to Nobility are 
commonly more Virtuous, but lefs Innocent, than 
their Defcendants : for there is rarely any Riling, but 
by a Commixture of good and evil Arts. But it is 
Reafon, the Memory of their virtues remain to their 
Pofterity ; and their Faults die with themfelves. No- 
bility of Birth commonly abateth Induftry : and he 
that is not induftrious envieth him that is. Belides, 
Noble perfons cannot go much higher ; and he that 
ftandeth at a ftay when others rife, can hardly avoid 
Motions of Envy. On the other fide, Nobility ex- 
tinguilheth the pamve Envy, from others towards 
them ; becaufe they are in Poffemon of Honour. 
Certainly Kings, that have Able Men of their No- 
bility, mail find eafe in employing them ; and a better 
Slide into their Bufmefs : for People naturally bend 
to them, as born in fome fort to Command. 

xv. Of Seditions and Troubles. 

HEPHERDS of People had need know 

the Calendars of Tempefts in State ; 

which are commonly greateft, when 

Things grow to Equality ; as Natural 

Tempefts are greateft about the JEquinoftia. And 

Of Seditions and Troubles. 47 

as there are certain hollow Blafts of Wind, and fecret 
Swellings of Seas, before a Tempeft ; fo are there in 
States : 

Ille etiam cacos inftare Tumultus 

Sape monet, Fraudefque, et operta tumefcere Bella. 

Libels and licentious Difcourfes againft the State, 
when they are frequent and open ; and in like fort, 
falfe News, often running up and down, to the Dis- 
advantage of the State, and haftily embraced ; are 
amongft the Signs of Troubles. Virgil, giving the 
Pedigree of Fame, faith, She was fijier to the Giants: 

Illam Terra Parens, ira irritata Deorum, 
Extremam (ut perhibent) Cteo Enceladoque for or em 

As if Fames were the Relics of Seditions paft ; but 
they are no lefs, indeed, the preludes of Seditions to 
come. Howfoever, he noteth it right, that Seditious 
Tumults, and Seditious Fames, differ no more, but 
as Brother and Sifter, Mafculine and Feminine ; es- 
pecially, if it come to that, that the beft Attions of a 
State, and the moft plaulible, and which ought to 
give greateft Contentment, are taken in ill Senfe, and 
traduced : for that mews the Envy great, as Tacitus 
faith ; Conjiata magna Invidia, feu bene, feu male, 
gefla premunt. Neither doth it follow, that becaufe 
thefe Fames are a Sign of Troubles, that the fuppreff- 
ing of them, with too much Severity, mould be a 
Remedy of Troubles. For the defpifmg of them, 

48 Essays. 

many times checks them beft ; and the going about 
to flop them, doth but make a Wonder long-lived. 
Alfo that kind of Obedience, which Tacitus fpeaketh 
of, is to be held fufpedled ; Erant in officio, fed tamen 
qui mallent Imperantium mandata interpretari, quam 
exequi : difputing, excufing, caviling upon Mandates 
and Directions, is a kind of making off the Yoke, 
and affay of Difobedience : Efpecially, if in thofe 
Difputings, they, which are for the direction, fpeak 
fearfully and tenderly ; and thofe that are again!! it, 

Alfo, as Machiavel noteth well, when Princes, 
that ought to be Common Parents, make themfelves 
as a Party, and lean to a Side, it is as a Boat that is 
overthrown, by uneven weight on the one Side ; as 
was well feen, in the time of Henry the third of 
France: For firft, himfelf entered League for the 
Extirpation of the Proteftants ; and prefently after, 
the fame League was turned upon Himfelf. For 
when the Authority of Princes is made but an Ac- 
cefTary to a Caufe ; and that there be other Bands, 
that tie fafter than the Band of Sovereignty, Kings 
begin to be put almoft out of Poffeffion. 

Alfo when Difcords, and Ouarrels, and Factions 
are Carried openly and audacioufly ; it is a Sign, the 
Reverence of Government is loft. For the Motions 
of the greater! perfons, in a Government, ought to be 
as the Motions of the Planets, under Primum Mo- 
bile y (according to the old Opinion : which is, that 
Every of them is carried fwiftJy by the Highef! Mo- 

Of Seditions and Troubles. 49 

tion, and foftly in their own Motion. And there- 
fore, when great Ones, in their own particular Mo- 
tion, move violently, and, as Tacitus expreffeth it 
well, Liberius, quam ut Imperantium meminijfent y 
it is a Sign the Orbs are out of Frame. For Reve- 
rence is that wherewith Princes are girt from God ; 
who threateneth the diffolving thereof; Solvam cin^ 
gula Regum. 

So when any of the four Pillars of Government 
are mainly fhaken, or weakened (which are Religion, 
Jufiice, Counfel, and Treafure), Men had need to 
pray for Fair Weather. But let us pafs from this 
Part of Predictions, (concerning which, neverthelefs, 
more light may be taken, from that which followeth) ; 
and let us fpeak firfl of the Materials of Seditions ;. 
then of the Motives of them ; and thirdly of the 

Concerning the Materials of Seditions, it is a 
Thing well to be confidered : For the fureft way to 
prevent Seditions, (if the Times do bear it), is to 
take away the Matter of them. For if there be 
Fuel prepared, it is hard to tell, whence the Spark 
mail come, that fhall fet it on Fire. The Matter of 
Seditions is of two kinds ; Much Poverty, and Much 
D if contentment. It is certain, fo many Overthrown 
EJiates, fo many Votes for Troubles. Lucan noteth 
well the State of Rome, before the Civil War; 

Hinc Ufura vorax, rapidumqiie in tempore Fcenus, 
Hinc concuffa Fides, & multis utile Bellum. 


50 Essays. 

This fame Multis utile Bellum is an allured and 
infallible Sign, of a State difpofed to Seditions and 
Troubles. And if this Poverty and Broken Eftate, 
in the better Sort, be joined with a Want and Ne- 
ceffity in the mean People, the danger is imminent 
and great. For the Rebellions of the Belly are the 
worft. As for D if contentments, they are in the Po- 
litic Body, like to Humours in the Natural, which 
are apt to gather a preternatural Heat, and to en- 
flame. And let no Prince meafure the Danger of 
them by this ; whether they be Juft or Unjuft ? For 
that were to imagine People to be too reafonable ; 
who do often fpurn at their own Good : Nor yet by 
this; whether the Griefs, whereupon they rife, be in 
faft great or fmall : For they are the moll dangerous 
D if contentments, where the Fear is greater than the 
Feeling. Dolendi Modus, Timendi non item. Be- 
tides, in great Oppreffions, the fame Things that pro- 
voke the Patience, do withal mate the Courage : but 
in Fears it is not fo. Neither let any Prince, or 
State, be fecure concerning D if contentments, becauie 
they have been often, or have been long, and yet no 
Peril hath enfued ; for as it is true, that every Va- 
pour, or Fume, doth not turn into a Storm ; fo it is, 
never thelefs, true, that Storms, though they blow 
over divers times, yet may fall at laft : and as the 
Spanifh Proverb noteth well ; The cord hreaketb at 
the laft by the weakefl pull. 

The Caufes and Motives of Seditions are ; Inno- 
vation in Religion; Taxes ; Alteration of Laws and 

Of Seditions and Troubles. 51 

Cuftoms ; Breaking of Privileges ; General Oppref- 
fion; Advancement of unworthy Perfons; Strangers; 
Dearths ; Difbanded Soldiers s Factions grown def- 
perate ; and whatfoever in offending People, joineth 
and knitteth them, in a Common Caufe. 

For the Remedies j There may be fome general 
Prefervatives, whereof we will fpeak ; as for the juft 
Cure, it mull anfwer to the Particular Difeafe : and 
fo be left to Counfel rather than Rule. 

The firft Remedy, or Prevention, is to remove by 
all means* poffible, that material Caufe of Sedition, 
whereof we fpake ; which is Want and Poverty in 
the Eftate. To which purpofe ferveth the Opening, 
and well Balancing of Trade ; the Cherifhing of 
Manufactures ; the Baniming of Idlenefs ; the Re- 
prefTmg of Wafte and Excefs by Sumptuary Laws ; 
the Improvement and Hufbanding of the Soil ; the Re- 
gulating of Prices of things vendible ; the Moderat- 
ing of Taxes and Tributes ; and the like. Generally, 
it is to be forefeen, that the Population of a King- 
dom, (efpecially if it be not mown down by wars) 
do not exceed the Stock of the Kingdom, which 
mould maintain them. Neither is the Population 
to be reckoned only by number : for a fmaller Num- 
ber, that fpend more, and earn lefs, do wear out an 
Eftate, fooner than a greater Number, that live lower, 
and gather more. Therefore the Multiplying of 
Nobility, and other Degrees of Quality, in an over 
Proportion, to the Common People, doth fpeedily 
bring a State to Neceffity : and fo doth likewife an 

52 Essays. 

overgrown Clergy ; for they bring nothing to the 
Stock ; and in like manner, when more are bred 
Scholars than Preferments can take off. 

It is likewife to be remembered, that for as much 
as the increafe of any Eftate, muft be upon the Fo- 
reigner, (for whatfoever is fomewhere gotten, is fome- 
where loft) ; there be but three Things which one 
Nation felleth unto another ; The Commodity as 
Nature yieldeth it ; the Manufacture y and the Vec- 
ture or Carriage. So that if thefe three wheels go, 
Wealth will flow as in a Spring-tide. And it com- 
eth many times to pafs, that Materiam fuperabit 
Opus y that the Work, and Carriage, is more worth 
than the Material, and enricheth a State more : as is 
notably feen in the Low-Country-men, who have the 
beft Mines, above ground in the World. 

Above all things, good Policy is to be ufed, that 
the Treafure and Monies, in a State be not gathered 
into few Hands : for, otherwife, a State may have a 
great Stock, and yet ftarve. And Money is like 
Muck, not good except it be fpread. This is done, 
chiefly, by fuppremng, or at the leaft, keeping a 
ftrait Hand upon the Devouring Trades of Ufury, 
IngroJJing great Pafturages, and the like. 

For Removing D if contentments, or at leaft, the 
danger of them; there is in every State (as we know) 
two Portions of Subjecls y the Nobles, and the Com- 
monalty . When one of thefe is D if content, the dan- 
ger is not great ; for Common People are of flow 
Motion, if they be not excited by the Greater Sort ; 

Of Seditions and Troubles. 53 

and the Greater Sort are of fmall ftrength, except the 
Multitude be apt and ready to move of themfelves. 
Then is the danger, when the Greater Sort do but 
wait for the Troubling of the Waters, amongfl the 
Meaner, that then they may declare themfelves. 
The Poet's feign, that the reft of the Gods, would 
have bound Jupiter y which he hearing of, by the 
Counfel of Pallas, fent for Briareus, with his hun- 
dred Hands, to come in to his aid. An Emblem, no 
doubt, to fhew, how fafe it is for Monarchs to make 
fure of the good Will of Common People. 

To give moderate Liberty, for Griefs and Dif- 
contentments to evaporate (fo it be without too great 
Infolency or Bravery), is a fafe Way. For he that 
turneth the Humours back, and maketh the Wound 
bleed inwards, endangereth malign Ulcers, and per- 
nicious Impofthumations. 

The Part of Epimetheus might well become Pro- 
metheus, in the cafe o£ D if contentment s ; for there is 
not a better provifion againft them. Epimetheus, 
when Griefs and Evils flew abroad, at laft fhut the 
lid, and kept Hope in the Bottom of the VeiTel. 
Certainly, the politic and artificial Nourilhing, and 
Entertaining of Hopes, and Carrying Men from Hopes 
to Hopes, is one of the beft Antidotes, againft the 
Poifon of Difcontentments. And it is a certain Sign, 
of a wife Government, and Proceeding, when it can 
hold Men's hearts by Hopes, when it cannot by Sa- 
tisfaction : and when it can handle things, in fuch 
manner, as no Evil fhall appear fo peremptory, but 

54 Essays. 

that it hath fome Outlet of Hope : which is the lefs 
hard to do, becaufe both particular Perfons, and 
Factions, are apt enough to flatter themfelves, or at 
leaft to brave, that which they believe not. 

Alio, the Forefight, and Prevention, that there be 
no likely or fit Head, whereunto Difcontented Per- 
fons may refort, and under whom they may join, is 
a known, but an excellent Point of Caution. I un- 
derftand a fit Head, to be one that hath Greatnefs 
and Reputation ; that hath Confidence with the Dif- 
contented Party J and upon whom they turn their 
Eyes ; and that is thought difcontented in his own 
particular ; which kind of Perfons are either to be 
won, and reconciled to the State, and that in a fall 
and true manner ; or to be fronted with fome other 
of the fame Party, that may oppofe them, and fo di- 
vide the reputation. Generally, the Dividing and 
Breaking of all Factions and Combinations, that are 
adverfe to the State, and fetting them at diftance, or 
at leaft diftruft amongft themfelves, is not one of the 
worft Remedies. For it is a defperate Cafe, if thofe, 
that hold with the Proceeding of the State, be full 
of Difcord and Faction ; and thofe that are againft 
it, be entire and united. 

I have noted, that fome witty and fharp Speeches, 
which have fallen from Princes, have given fire to 
Seditions. Ctefar did himfelf infinite Hurt, in that 
Speech ; Sylla nefcivit Liter as, non potuit diclare : 
for it did utterly cut off that Hope, which Men had 
entertained, that he would, at one time or other, 

Of Seditions and Troubles. 55 

give over his Dittatorfhip. Galba undid himfelf by 
that Speech ; Legi a fe Mi lit em, non emi : for it put 
the Soldiers out of Hope of the Donative. Probus 
likewife, by that Speech; Si vixero, non opus erit 
ainplius Romano Imperio militibus. A Speech of 
great Defpair for the Soldiers : and many the like. 
Surely, Princes had need, in tender Matters, and 
Ticklifh Times, to beware what they fay ; efpecially 
in theie fhort Speeches, which fly abroad like Darts, 
and are thought to be fhot out of their fecret Inten- 
tions. For as for large Difcourfes, they are flat 
Things, and not fo much noted. 

Laftly, let Princes, againft all Events, not be with- 
out fome Great Perfon, one or rather more, of Mili- 
tary Valour near unto them, for the Reprefling of 
Seditions, in their beginnings. For without that, 
there ufeth to be more trepidation in Court, upon 
the firft Breaking out of Troubles, than were fit. 
And the State runneth the danger of that, which 
Tacitus faith ; At que is habitus Animorum fuit, ut 
pejjimum /acinus auderent Pauci, Plures vellent, 
Omnes paterentur. But let fuch Military Perfons 
be Aflured, and well reputed of, rather than factious, 
and popular; holding alfo good Correfpondence with 
the other Great Men in the State ,* Or elfe the Re- 
medy is worfe than the Difeafe. 

56 Essays. 

xvi. Of Atheifm 

HAD rather believe all the Fables in 
the Legend, and the Talmud, and the 
Alcoran, than that this univerfal Frame 
is without a Mind. And therefore, God 
never wrought Miracle, to convince Atheifm, be- 
caufe his Ordinary Works convince it. It is true, 
that a little Philofophy inclineth Man's Mind to 
Atheifm 3 but depth in Philofophy bringeth Men's 
Minds about to Religion : for while the Mind of 
Man, looketh upon Second Caufes Scattered, it may 
fometimes reft in them, and go no further : but when 
it beholdeth the Chain of them, confederate and 
linked together, it muft needs fly to Providence and 
Deity. Nay, even that School, which is moil ac- 
cufed of Atheifm", doth moll demonftrate Religions 
that is, the School of Leucippus, and Democritus, 
and Epicurus. For it is a thoufand times more cre- 
dible, that four Mutable Elements, and one Immu- 
table Fifth Effence, duly and Eternally placed, need 
no God ; than that an Army, of Infinite fmall Por- 
tions, or Seeds unplaced, fhould have produced this 
Order, and Beauty, without a Divine Marfhal. The 
Scripture faith ; The Fool hath faid in his Heart, 
there is no God: It is not faid; The Fool hath 
thought in his Heart : fo as, he rather faith it by 
rote to himfelf, as that he would have, than that he 

Of Atheism. 57 

can thoroughly believe it, or be perfuaded of it. For 
none deny there is a God, but thofe, for whom it 
maketh that there were no God. It appeareth in 
nothing more, that Atheifm is rather in the Lip, than 
in the Heart of Man, than by this ; that Atheifts 
will ever be talking of that their Opinion, as if they 
fainted in it, within themfelves, and would be glad 
to be ftrengthened, by the Confent of others : nay 
more, you mall have Atheifts ftrive to get Difciples, 
as it fareth with other Seels : and, which is moil of 
all, you mall have of them, that will fuffer for Athe- 
ifm, and not recant ; whereas, if they did truly think, 
that there were no fuch Thing as God, why mould 
they trouble themfelves ? Epicurus is charged, that 
he did but diffemble, for his credit's fake, when he 
affirmed ; There were Bleffed Natures, but fuch as 
enjoyed themfelves, without having refpedt to the 
Government of the World. Wherein, they fay, he 
did temporize ; though, in fecret, he thought there 
was no God. But certainly, he is traduced ; for his 
Words are Noble and Divine : Non Deos vulgi ne- 
gare profanum j fed vulgi Opiniones Diis applicare 
profanum. Plato could have faid no more. And 
although he had the Confidence to deny the Admi- 
niftration, he had not the Power to deny the Nature. 
The Indians of the Weft have Names for their par- 
ticular Gods, though they have no name for God : 
as if the Heathens mould have had the Names Ju- 
piter, Apollo, Mars, Sec. but not the Word Deus : 
which fhews, that even thofe barbarous People have 

58 Essays. 

the Notion, though they have not the Latitude, and 
Extent of it. So that againft Atheifts, the very Sa- 
vages take part with the very fubtleft Philofophers. 
The Contemplative Atheiji is rare; a Diagoras, a 
Bion, a Lucian perhaps, and fome others ; and yet 
they feem to be more than they are ; for that all that 
Impugn a received Religion, or Superftition, are, by 
the adverfe Part, branded with the Name of Atheifts: 
but the great Atheifts, indeed, are Hypocrites; 
which are ever handling Holy Things, but without 
Feeling. So as they muft needs be cauterized in the 
End. The Caufes of Atheifm are ; Divifions in 
Religion, if they be many ; for any one main Divi- 
fion addeth Zeal to both Sides ; but many Divifions 
introduce Atheifm. Another is, Scandal of Priefts / 
when it is come to [that, which St. Bernard faith ; 
Non eft jam die ere, ut Populus, fie Sacerdos : quia 
nee fie Populus, ut Sacerdos. A third is, Cuftom 
of Profane Scoffing in Holy Matters ; which doth, 
by little and little, deface the Reverence of Religion. 
And laftly, Learned Times, fpecially with Peace 
and Profperity : for Troubles and Adverfities do 
more bow Men's Minds to Religion. They that 
deny a God, deftroy Man's Nobility : for certainly 
Man is of Kin to the Beafts, by his Body ; and if 
he be not of Kin to God by his Spirit, he is a bale 
and ignoble Creature. It deftroys likewife Magna- 
nimity, and the railing of Human Nature : for take 
an Example of a Dog, and mark what a Generofity, 
and Courage he will put on, when he finds himfelf 

Of Atheism. 59 

maintained by a Man ; who to him is in Head of a 
God, or Melior Natura : which courage is mani- 
feftly fuch, as that Creature, without that Confidence, 
of a better Nature than his own, could never attain. 
So Man, when he refteth and affureth himfelf, upon 
divine Protection and Favour, gathereth a Force and 
Faith, which Human Nature, in itfelf, could not 
obtain. Therefore, as Atheifm is in all refpects 
hateful, fo in this, that it depriveth human Nature 
of the Means to exalt itfelf, above Human Frailty. 
As it is in particular Perfons, fo it is in Nations : 
never was there fuch a State, for Magnanimity, as 
Rome. Of this State hear what Cicero faith ; £)uam 
volumus, licet, Patres Confcripti, nos amemus, tamen 
nee Numero Hifpanos, nee Robore G alios, nee Calli- 
ditate Ptenos, nee artibus Grtecos, nee denique hoc 
ipfo bujus Gentis £sf Terra domeftico nativoque fenfu 
Italos ipfos £5? Latinos j fed Pietate, ac Religione, 
atque hdc una Sapientid, quod Deorum Immortalium 
Numine omnia regi, gubernarique perfpeximus, omnes 
Gentes, Nationefque fuperavimus. 

xvii. Of Superftition. 

T were better to have no Opinion of 
God at all, than fuch an Opinion as is 
unworthy of him : for the one is Un- 
belief, the other is Contumely. And 
certainly Superftition is the Reproach of the Deity, 

60 Essays. 

Plutarch faith well to that purpofe : Surely, faith he, 
/ had rather, a great deal, Men Jhould fay, there 
was no fuch Man at all as Plutarch; than that they 
jhould fay, that there was one Plutarch, that would 
eat his Children, as foon as they were born, as the 
Poets fpeak of Saturn. And as the Contumely is 
greater towards God, fo the Danger is greater towards 
Men. Atheifm leaves a Man to Senfe ; to Philofo- 
phy ; to Natural Piety ; to Laws ; to Reputation ; 
all which may be Guides to an outward Moral 
Virtue, though Religion were not; but Superfkition 
difmounts all thefe, and erecteth an abfolute Mon- 
archy in the Minds of Men. Therefore Atheifm 
did never perturb States ; for it makes Men wary 
of themfelves, as looking no further : and we fee the 
times inclined to Atheifm (as the Time of Auguftus 
Ccefar) were civil Times. But Superftition, hath 
been the Confufion of many States ; and bringeth in 
a new Primum Mobile, that ravifheth all the Spheres 
of Government. The Matter of Superflition is the 
People ; and. in all Superflition, Wife Men follow 
Fools; and Arguments are fitted to practice, in a 
reverfed Order. It was gravely faid, by fome of the 
Prelates, in the Council of Trent, where the doc- 
trine of the Schoolmen bare great fway ; That the 
Schoolmen were like Aftronomers, which did feign 
Eccentrics and Epicycles, and fuch Engines of Orbs, 
to fave the Phenomena ,* though they knew, there 
were no fuch Things ; and, in like manner, that the 
Schoolmen had framed a Number of fubtle and in- 

Of Superstition. 61 

tricate Axioms, and Theorems, to fave the pradtice 
of the Church. The Caufes of Superftition are : 
Pleafmg and fenfual Rites and Ceremonies : Excefs 
of Outward and Pharifaical Holinefs ; Over-great 
Reverence of Traditions, which cannot but load the 
Church ; the Stratagems of Prelates for their own 
Ambition and Lucre : the Favouring too much of 
good Intentions, which openeth the Gate to Conceits 
and Novelties ; the taking an Aim at divine Matters 
by Human, which cannot but breed mixture of Ima- 
ginations; and laftly, Barbarous Times, efpecially 
joined with Calamities and Difafters. Superftition, 
without a veil, is a deformed Thing; for, as it addeth 
deformity to an Ape, to be fo like a Man; fo the 
Similitude of Superftition to Religion, makes it the 
more deformed. And as wholefome Meat corrupteth 
to little Worms ; fo good Forms and Orders corrupt 
into a Number of petty Obfervances. There is a 
Superftition, in avoiding Superftition j when men 
think to do bell, if they go furtheft from the Super- 
ftition formerly received : therefore, Care would be 
had, that (as it fareth in ill Purgings) the Good be 
not taken away with the Bad ; which commonly is 
done, when the People is the Reformer. 



xviii. Of Travel. 

RAVEL, in the younger Sort, is a 
Part of Education ; in the Elder, a Part 
of Experience. He that travelleth into 
a Country, before he hath fome En- 
trance into the Language, goeth to School, and not 
to Travel. That Young Men travel under fome 
Tutor, or grave Servant, I allow well ; fo that he 
be fuch a one that hath the Language, and hath been 
in the Country before ; whereby he may be able to 
tell them, what Things are worthy to be feen in the 
Country where they go ; what Acquaintances they 
are to feek; what Exercifes or difcipline the Place 
yieldeth. For elfe young Men mail go hooded, and 
look abroad little. It is a ftrange Thing, that in Sea 
voyages, where there is nothing to be feen, but Sky 
and Sea, Men mould make Diaries ; but in Land- 
Travel, wherein fo much is to be obferved, for the 
moft part, they omit it ; as if Chance were fitter to 
be regiftered than Obfervation. Let Diaries, there- 
fore, be brought in ule. The Things to be feen and 
obferved are : The Courts of Princes, fpecially when 
they give Audience to AmbafTadors : the Courts of 
Juftice, while they lit and hear Caufes ; and fo of 
Confiftories Ecclefiaftic : the Churches, and Monaf- 
teries, with the Monuments which are therein ex- 
tant : the Walls and Fortifications of Cities and 

Of Travel. 63 

Towns ; and fo the Havens and Harbours : Anti- 
quities, and Ruins ; Libraries ; Colleges, Difputa- 
tions, and Lectures, where any are : Shipping and 
Navies : Houfes, and Gardens of State, and Pleafure, 
near great Cities : Armories : Arfenals : Magazines : 
Exchanges : Burfes ; Warehoufes : Exercifes of 
Horiemanfhip ; Fencing ; Training of Soldiers ; and 
the like : Comedies ; fuch whereunto the better Sort 
ofperfons do refort; Treafuries of Jewels, and Robes; 
Cabinets, and Rarities : and to conclude, whatfoever 
is memorable in the Places, where they go. After 
all which, the Tutors, or Servants, ought to make 
diligent Enquiry. As for Triumphs ; Mafques ; 
Feafls ; Weddings ; Funerals ; Capital Executions ; 
and fuch Shows ; Men need not to be put in mind 
of them ; yet are they not to be neglected. If you 
will have a Young Man to put his Travel into a little 
Room, and in fhort time to gather much, this you 
muft do : Firfl, as was faid, he mull have fome En- 
trance into the Language, before he goeth : then he 
mull have fuch a Servant, or Tutor, as knoweth the 
Country, as was like wife faid. Let him carry with 
him alfo fome Card or Book defcribing the Country, 
where he travelleth ; which, will be a good Key to 
his Enquiry. Let him keep alfo a Diary. Let 
him not flay long in one City, or Town ; more or 
lefs as the place deferveth, but not long : nay, when 
he flayeth in one City or Town, let him change 
his Lodging, from one End and Part of the Town 
to another ; which is a great Adamant of Acquain- 

64 Essays. 

tance. Let him fequefter himielf from the Com- 
pany of his Countrymen, and diet in fuch Places, 
where there is good Company of the Nation, where 
he travelleth. Let him upon his Removes, from 
one place to another, procure Recommendation, to 
fome perfon of Quality, refiding in the Place, whi- 
ther he removeth ; that he may ufe his Favour, in 
thofe things, he defireth to fee or know. Thus he 
may abridge his Travel, with much profit. As for 
the acquaintance, which is to be fought in Travel ; 
that which is moft of all profitable is Acquaintance 
with the Secretaries, and Employed Men of Am- 
baffadors ; for fo in Travelling in one Country he 
ihall fuck the Experience of many. Let him alfo fee 
and vifit Eminent Perfons, in all Kinds, which are 
of great Name abroad; that he may be able to tell, 
how the Life agreeth with the Fame. For Quarrels, 
they are with Care and Difcretion to be avoided : 
they are, commonly, for MiftrefTes ; Healths ; Place ; 
and Words. And let a Man beware, how he keep- 
eth Company with Choleric and Quarrelfome Per- 
fons ; for they will engage him into their own Quar- 
rels. When a Traveller returneth home, let him 
not leave the Countries, where he hath Travelled, 
altogether behind him; but maintain a Correfpon- 
dence, by letters, with thofe of his Acquaintance, 
which are of moft Worth. And let his Travel ap- 
pear rather in his Difcourfe, than in his Appafel, or 
Gefture : and in his Difcourfe, let him be rather 
advifed in his Anfwers, than forward to tell Stories: 

Of Travel. 65 

and let it appear, that he doth not change his Coun- 
try Manners for thofe of Foreign Parts; but only 
prick in fome Flowers, of that he hath learned 
abroad, into the Cuftoms of his own Country. 

xix. Of Empire. 

T is a miferable State of Mind, to have 
few Things to defire, and many Things 
to fear : and yet that commonly is 
the Cafe of Kings : Who being at the 
higheft, want Matter of defire, which makes their 
Minds more languifhing ; and have many Reprefen- 
tations of Perils and Shadows, which makes their 
Minds the lefs clear. And this is one Reafon alfo of 
that Effe6t, which the Scripture fpeaketh of; That 
the Kings Heart is infcrutable. For Multitude of 
Jealoulies, and Lack of fome predominant Defire, 
that mould marfhal and put in order all the reft, 
maketh any Man's Heart, hard to find, or found. 
Hence it comes likevvife, that Princes, many times, 
make themfelves Delires, and fet their Hearts upon 
Toys : fometimes upon a Building : fometimes upon 
erecting of an Order ; fometimes upon the advancing 
of a Perfon ; fometimes upon obtaining Excellency 
in fome Art, or Feat of the Hand : as Nero for play- 
ing on the Harp, Domitian for Certainty of the 
Hand with the Arrow, Commodus for playing a^ 



66 Essays. 

Fence, Caracalla for driving Chariots, and the like. 
This feemeth incredible, unto thofe that know not 
the Principle; That the Mind of Man is more 
cheered and refrejhed by profiting in fmall things, 
than by ftanding at a ftay in great. We fee alfo 
that Kings, that have been fortunate Conquerors in 
their firft years, it being not poffible for them to go 
forward infinitely, but that they muft have fome 
Check or Arreft in their Fortunes, turn in their latter 
years to be fuperflitious and melancholy : as did 
Alexander the Great ; Dioclefian ; and in our me- 
mory, Charles the Fifth ; and others : for he that is 
ufed to go forward, and findeth a Stop, falleth out 
of his own favour, and is not the thing he was. To 
fpeak now of the true Temper of Empire : It is a 
Thing rare, and hard to keep : For both Temper 
and Diftemper confifl of Contraries. But it is one 
thing to mingle Contraries, another to interchange 
them. The anfwer of Apollonius to Vefpafian, is 
full of excellent Inftrudtion : Vefpafian afked him ; 
What was Nero's overthrow ? He anfwered ; Nero 
could touch and tune the Harp well j but in Govern- 
ment fometimes he ufed to wind the Pins too high, 
fometimes to let them down too low. And certain it 
is, that Nothing deflroyeth Authority fo much, as the 
unequal and untimely Interchange of Power pre/fed 
too far, and relaxed too much. 

This is true, that the Wifdom of all thefe latter 
Times in Princes' Affairs, is rather fine Deliveries, 
and Shiftings of Dangers and Mifchiefs, when they are 

Of Empire. 67 

near ; than folid and grounded Courfes to keep them 
aloof. But this is but to try Mafteries with Fortune. 
And let men beware, how they neglect, and fuffer 
Matter of Trouble, to be prepared : for no Man can 
forbid the Spark, nor tell whence it may come. The 
Difficulties in Princes' Bufinefs, are many and great ; 
but the greateft Difficulty is often in their own Mind. 
For it is common with Princes, (faith Tacitus) to 
will Contradictories. Sunt plerumque Reg urn volun- 
tates vehementes, et inter fe contraries. For it is 
the Solecifm of Power, to think to command the 
End, and yet not to endure the Mean. 

Kings have to deal with their Neighbours, their 
Wives, their Children, their Prelates or Clergy, 
their Nobles, their Second Nobles or Gentle?nen, their 
Merchants, their Commons, and their Men of War : 
And from all thefe arife Dangers, if Care and Cir- 
cumfpection be not ufed. 

Firft for their Neighbours ; There can no general 
Rule be given, (the Occafions are fo variable,) fave 
one ; which ever holdeth : which is, That Princes 
do keep due Sentinel, that none of their Neighbours 
do overgrow fo, (by increafe of Territory, by em- 
bracing of Trade, by Approaches, or the like) as they 
become more able to annoy them, than they were. 
And this is, generally, the Work of Standing Coun- 
fels to forefee, and to hinder it. During that Tri- 
umvirate of Kings {King Henry the Eighth of Eng- 
land, Francis the Firft King of France, and Charles 
the Fifth Emperor), there was fuch a Watch kept, 


68 Essays. 

that none of the Three could win a Palm of Ground, 
but the other two would ftraightways balance it, either 
by Confederation, or, if need were, by a War : and 
would not, in any wife, take up Peace at Intereft. 
And the like was done by that League (which, Guic- 
ciardini faith, was the Security of Italy) made be- 
tween Ferdinando King of Naples j Lorenzius Me 
dicis, and Ludovicus Sforza, Potentates, the one of 
Florence, the other of Milan. Neither is the Opi- 
nion, of fome of the Schoolmen, to be received ; 
That a War cannot juflly be made, but upon a prece- 
dent Injury, or Provocation. For there is no Quef- 
tion, but a jufl: Fear of an imminent Danger, though 
there be no Blow given, is a lawful Caufe of a War. 

For Wives ; There are cruel Examples of them. 
Livia is infamed for the poifoning of her Hufband : 
Roxalana, Soly man's Wife, was the Deftruction of 
that renowned Prince, Sultan Muflapha ; and other- 
wife troubled his Houfe, and Succemon : Edward 
the Second of England, his Queen had the principal 
hand in the Depofmg and Murder of her Hufband. 
This kind of Danger is then to be feared, chiefly, 
when the Wives have Plots, for the raifing of their 
own Children, or elfe that they be Advoutreffes. 

For their Children; The Tragedies likewife of 
Dangers from them, have been many. And generally, 
the Entering of Fathers into Sufpicion of their Chil- 
dren, hath been ever Unfortunate. The Deftru&ion 
of Muflapha, (that we named before) was fo fatal to 
Solyman's Line, as the Succemon of the Turks, from 

Of Empire. 69 

Solyman, until this day, is fufpecled to be untrue, 
and of ftrange Blood ; for that Selymus the Second, 
was thought to be fuppofititious. The Deft-ruction of 
Crifpus, a young Prince, of rare Towardnefs, by 
Confiantinus the Great, his Father, was in like man- 
ner fatal to his Houfe ; for both Confiantinus and 
Conftance, his Sons, died violent deaths ; and Con- 
ftantius his other Son, did little better ; who died, 
indeed, of Sicknefs, but after that Julianus had 
taken Arras againft him. The Deftru&ion of De- 
metrius, Son to Philip the Second, of Macedon, 
turned upon the Father, who died of Repentance. 
And many like Examples there are : but few, or none, 
where the Fathers had good by fuch Diftruft ; except 
it were, where the Sons were up, in open Arms 
againft them, as was Selymus the Firft againft Bdja- 
zet : and the three Sons of Henry the Second, King 
of England. 

For their Prelates; When they are proud and 
great, there is alfo Danger from them : as it was in 
the times of Anfelmus, and Thomas Becket, Arch- 
bifhops of Canterbury ; who with their Crofters 
did almoft try it with the King's Sword ; and yet 
they had to deal with ftout and haughty Kings ; Wil- 
liam Rufus, Henry the Firft, and Henry the Second. 
The Danger is not from that State, but where it hath 
a Dependence of foreign Authority ; or where the 
Churchmen come in, and are elected, not by the 
Collation of the King, or particular Patrons, but by 
the People. 

70 Essays. 

For their Nobles y To keep them at a dillance, it 
is not amifs ; But to deprefs them, may make a King 
more Abfolute, but lefs Safe ; and lefs able to per- 
form any thing that he delires. I have noted it, in 
my Hiftory of King Henry the Seventh, of England, 
who depreffed his Nobility y whereupon, it came to 
pafs, that his Times were full of Difficulties, and 
Troubles ; for the Nobility, though they continued 
loyal unto him, yet did they not co-operate with him, 
in his Bulinefs. So that in efFect, he was fain to do 
all things himfelf. 

For their Second Nobles y There is not much 
Danger from them, being a Body difperfed. They 
may fometimes difcourfe high, but that doth little 
Hurt : belides, they are a Counterpoife to the Higher 
Nobility, that they grow not too Potent : and laftly, 
being the moll immediate in Authority with the 
Common People, they do bell temper Popular Com- 

For their Merchants y They are Vena Porta y and 
if they flourifh not, a Kingdom may have good Limbs, 
but will have empty Veins, and nourifh little. Taxes, 
and Impofls upon them, do feldom good to the Kings 
Revenue ; for that that he wins in the Hundred, he 
lofeth in the Shire; the particular Rates being in- 
creafed, but the total Bulk of Trading rather de- 

For their Commons y There is little Danger from 
them, except it be, where they have Great and Potent 
Heads ; or where you meddle with the Point of Re- 
ligion ; or their Cufloms, or Means of Life. 

Of Empire. 71 

For their Men of War ; It is a dangerous State, 
where they live and remain in a Body, and are ufed 
to Donatives ; whereof we fee Examples in the Jani- 
zaries, and Pretorian Bands of Rome : but Trainings 
of Men, and Arming them in feveral places, and 
under feveral Commanders, and without Donatives, 
are Things of Defence, and no Danger. 

Princes are like to Heavenly Bodies, which caufe 
good or evil Times ; and which have much Fenera- 
tion, but no Reft. All precepts concerning Kings, 
are in effect comprehended in thofe two Remem- 
brances : Memento quod es Homo ; And Memento 
quod es Deus, or Vice Dei : The one bridleth their 
Power, and the other their Will. 

xx. Of CounfeL 

HE greateft Truft, between Man and 
Man, is the Truft of giving CounfeL 
For in other Confidences, Men commit 
the parts of life; their Lands, their 
Goods, their Children, their Credit, fome particular 
Affair : but to fuch, as they make their Counfellors, 
they commit the whole. By how much the more, 
they are obliged to all Faith and Integrity. The 
wifeft Princes need not think it any Diminution to 
their Greatnefs, or Derogation to their Sufficiency, 
to rely upon CounfeL God himfelf is not without : 
but hath made it one of the great Names, of his 

72 Essays. 

bleffed Son; The Counfellor, Solomon hath pro- 
nounced, that In Counfel is Stability. Things will 
have their firft, or fecond Agitation ; if they be not 
toffed upon the Arguments of Counfel, they will be 
toffed upon the Waves of Fortune ; and be full of 
Inconftancy, doing and undoing, like the Reeling of 
a drunken Man. Solomon's Son found the Force of 
Counfel, as his Father faw the Neceflity of it. For 
the beloved Kingdom of God was firft rent, and 
broken by ill Counfel ; upon which Counfel there 
are fet, for our Inftru&ion, the two Marks, whereby 
Bad Counfel is, for ever, beft difcerned : that it was 
young Counfel, for the Perfons ; and violent Counfel 
for the Matter. 

The ancient Times do fet forth in Figure, both 
the Incorporation, and infeparable Conjunction of 
Counfel with Kings / and the wife and politic ufe 
of Counfel by Kings : the one, in that they fay, Ju- 
piter did marry Metis, which ngnifieth Counfel y 
whereby they intend, that Sovereignty is married to 
Counfel: The other, in that which followeth, which 
was thus : They fay after Jupiter was married to 
Metis, fhe conceived by him, and was with Child ; 
but Jupiter fuffered her not to ftay, till fhe brought 
forth, but eat her up ; whereby he became himfelf 
with Child, and was delivered of Pallas Armed, out 
of his Head. Which monftrous Fable, containeth a 
Secret of Empire ; how Kings are to make ufe of 
their Counfel of State. That firft, they ought to 
refer Matters unto them, which is the firft Begetting 

Of Counsel. 73 

or Impregnation ; but when they are elaborate, 
moulded, and fhaped, in the Womb of their Council, 
and grow ripe, and ready to be brought forth ; that 
then, they fuiFer not their Council to go through with 
the Refolution, and Direction, as if it depended on 
them; but take the Matter back into their own 
Hands, and make it appear to the World, that the 
Decrees, and final Directions, (which, becaufe they 
come forth with Prudence, and Power, are refembled 
to Pallas Armed) proceeded from themfelves : And 
not only from their Authority, but (the more to add 
Reputation to themfelves) from their Head, and 

Let us now fpeak of the Inconveniences of Counfel, 
and of the Remedies. The Inconveniences, that have 
been noted in calling, and uiing Counfel, are three. 
Firft, the Revealing of Affairs, whereby they become 
lefs Secret. Secondly, the Weakening of the Autho- 
rity of Princes, as if they were lefs of themfelves. 
Thirdly, the Danger of being unfaithfully counfelled, 
and more for the good of them that counfel, than of 
him that is counfelled. For which Inconveniences, 
the Doctrine of 'Italy, and Practice of France, in fome 
Kings' times, hath introduced Cabinet Councils 5 a 
Remedy worfe than the Difeafe. 

As to Secrecy / Princes are not bound to commu- 
nicate all Matters, with all Counfellors ; but may 
extract and felect. Neither is it neceflary, that he 
that confulteth what he mould do, mould declare what 
he will do. But let Princes beware, that the unfe- 

74 Essays. 

creting of their Affairs, comes not from themfelves. 
And as for Cabinet Councils, it may be their Motto ; 
Plenus rimarum fum : one futile perfon, that maketh 
it his glory to tell, will do more Hurt, than many, 
that know it their Duty to conceal. It is true, there 
be fome Affairs, which require extreme Secrecy, 
which will hardly go beyond one or two Perfons, 
befides the King : neither are thofe Counfels unprof- 
perous : for befides the Secrecy, they commonly go 
on conftantly in one Spirit of Direction, without 
Diftradtion. But then it mull be a prudent King, 
fuch as is able to grind with a Hand- Mill j and thofe 
inward Counfellors had need alfo, be Wife Men, and 
efpecially true and trufly to the King's Ends ; as it 
was with King Henry the Seventh of England, who 
in his greateft Bufinefs, imparted himfelf to none, ex- 
cept it were to Morton, and Fox. 

For Weakening of Authority s The Fable fhoweth 
the Remedy. Nay the Majefty of Kings is rather 
exalted, than diminifhed, when they are in the Chair 
of Council : neither was there ever Prince, bereaved 
of his Dependencies, by his Council; except where 
there hath been, either an Overgreatnefs in one Coun- 
fellor, or an Overftrict Combination in divers ; which 
are Things foon found, and holpen. 

For the laft Inconvenience, that Men will Counfel 
with an Eye to themfelves ; certainly, Non inveniet 
Fidemfuper terram, is meant of the Nature of Times, 
and not of all particular Perfons ; there be, that are in 
Nature, faithful, and fincere, and plain, and direct ; 

Of Counsel. 75 

not crafty, and involved : Let Princes, above all, 
draw to themfelves fuch Natures. Befides, Counfel- 
lors are not commonly fo united, but that one Coun- 
fellor keepeth Sentinel over another ; fo that if any 
do Counfel out of Faction, or private Ends, it com- 
monly comes to the King's Ear. But the bell Re- 
medy is, if Princes know their Counfellors, as well as 
their Counfellors know Them : 

Principis eft Virtus maxima nojjfe fuos. 

And on the other fide, Counfellors fhould not be too 
fpeculative, into their Sovereign's Perfon. The true 
Compofition of a Counfellor, is rather to be fkilful in 
their Mailer's Bufinefs, than in his Nature ; for then 
he is like to advife him, and not to feed his Humour. 
It is of lingular ufe to Princes, if they take the Opi- 
nions of their Council, both feparately, and together. 
For private Opinion is more free ; but Opinion be- 
fore others is more reverend. In private, Men are 
more bold in their own Humours ; and in confort, 
Men are more obnoxious to others' Humours ; there- 
fore it is good to take both : and of the inferior Sort, 
rather in private, to preferve Freedom ; of the greater, 
rather in confort, to preferve Refpett. It is in vain for 
Princes to take Counfel concerning Matters, if they 
take no Counfel likewife concerning Perfons : for all 
Matters are as dead Images ; and the Life of the 
Execution of Affairs, refleth in the good Choice of 
Perfons. Neither is it enough to confult concerning 
Perfons, fecundum Genera, as in an Idea, or Mat be- 

76 Essays. 

matical Defcription, what the Kind and Character of 
the Per/on mould be ; for the greateft Errors are 
committed, and the molt Judgment is fhown, in the 
choice of Individuals. It was truly faid ; Optimi 
Conjiliarii mortui ; Books will fpeak plain, when 
Counfellors blanch. Therefore it is good to be con- 
verfant in them ; fpecially the Books of fuch, as 
themfelves have been Actors upon the Stage. 

The Councils , at this Day, in moil places, are but 
familiar Meetings ; where Matters are rather talked 
on, than debated. And they run too fwift to the 
Order or Acl: of Council. It were better, that in 
Caufes of weight, the Matter were propounded one 
day, and not fpoken to, till the next day ; In Nocle 
Conjilium. So was it done, in the Commimon of 
Union, between England and Scotland j which was 
a grave and orderly AfTembly. I commend fet Days 
for Petitions : for both it gives the Suitors more cer- 
tainty for their Attendance ; and it frees the Meetings 
for Matters of Eftate, that they may Hoc agere. In 
choice of Committees, for ripening Bufinefs, for the 
Council, it is better to choofe Indifferent Perfons, 
than to make an IndifFerency, by putting in thofe, 
that are ftrong, on both fides. I commend alfo 
/landing CommiJJions ; as for Trade ; for Treafure ; 
for War ; for Suits ; for fome Provinces : for where 
there be divers particular Councils, and but one 
Council of Eftate, (as it is in Spain) they are in effecl: 
no more, than Standing CommiJJions ; fave that they 
have greater Authority. Let fuch, as are to inform 

Of Counsel. 77 

Councils, out of their particular Profemons, (as Law- 
yers, Seamen, Mintmen, and the like) be firft heard, 
before Committees; and then, as Occafion ferves, 
before the Council. And let them not come in mul- 
titudes, or in a tribunitious manner ; for that is, to 
clamour Councils, not to inform them. A long 
Table, and a fquare Table, or Seats about the Walls, 
feem Things of Form, but are Things of Subftance ; 
for at a long Table, a few at the upper end, in effedt, 
fway all the Bufinefs : but in the other Form, there 
is more ufe of the Counfellors^ Opinions, that fit 
lower. A King, when he prefides in Council, let 
him beware how he opens his own Inclination too 
much, in that which he propoundeth : for elfe Coun- 
fellors will but take the Wind of him ; and inftead 
of giving free Counfel, fing him a Song of Placebo, 

xxi. Of Delays. 

ORTUNE is like the Market; where 
many times, if you can flay a little, the 
Price will fall. And again, it is fome- 
times like Sy&illa's Offer ; which at 
firft offereth the Commodity at full, then confumeth 
part and part, and ftill holdeth up the Price. For 
Occafion (as it is in the common Verfe) turneth a 
Bald Noddle, after Jhe hath prefented her Locks in 
front, and no hold taken: or at leaft turneth the 

78 Essays. 

Handle of the Bottle, firft to be received, and after 
the Belly, which is hard to clafp. There is furely no 
greater Wifdom, than well to time the Beginnings, 
and Onfets of Things. Dangers are no more light, 
if they once feem light : and more Dangers have de- 
ceived Men, than forced them. Nay, it were better, 
to meet fome Dangers half way, though they come 
nothing near, than to keep too long a watch upon their 
Approaches ; for if a Man watch too long, it is odds 
he will fall afleep. On the other fide, to be deceived, 
with too long Shadows (as fome have been, when the 
Moon was low, and lhone on their Enemies' Back), 
and fo to moot off before the time ; or to teach Dan- 
gers to come on, by over early buckling towards 
them, is another Extreme. The Ripenefs, or Un- 
ripenefs, of the Occafion (as we faid) muft ever be 
well weighed ; and generally, it is good, to commit 
the Beginnings of all great Actions, to Argus with his 
hundred Eyes ; and the Ends to Briar eus with his 
hundred Hands : Firft to Watch, and then to Speed. 
For the Helmet of Pluto, which maketh the politic 
Man go invifible, is Secrecy in the Council, and Ce- 
lerity in the Execution. For when Things are once 
come to the Execution, there is no Secrecy comparable 
to Celerity ; like the Motion of a Bullet in the Air, 
which flieth fo fwift, as it outruns the Eye. 


xxn. Of Cunning. 

E take Cunning for a fmifter or crooked 
Wifdom. And certainly, there is great 
difference, between a cunning Man, and 
a wife Man ; not only in Point of Ho- 
nefty, but in point of Ability. There be that can 
pack the Cards, and yet cannot play well ; fo there 
are fome, that are good in Canvaffes, and Factions, 
that are otherwife weak Men. Again, it is one thing 
to underftand Perfons, and another thing to under- 
ftand Matters ; for many are perfect in Men's Hu- 
mours, that are not greatly capable of the real Part 
of Bufinefs ; which is the Conftitution of one, that 
hath ftudied Men, more than Books. Such Men are 
fitter for practice, than for Counfel ; and they are good 
but in their own Alley : turn them to new Men, 
and they have loft their Aim ; fo as the old Rule, to 
know a Fool from a Wife Man ; Mitte ambos nudos 
ad ignotoSy et videbis j doth fcarce hold for them. 
And becaufe thefe Cunning Men, are like Haber- 
dafhers of fmall Wares, it is not amifs to fet forth 
their Shop. 

It is a Point of Cunning ; to wait upon him, with 
whom you fpeak, with your Eye ; as the Jefuits give 
it in precept : for there be many Wife Men, that 
have fecret Hearts, and tranfparent Countenances. 
Yet this would be done, with a demure abafing of 
your Eye fometimes, as the Jefuits alfo do ufe. 

80 Essays. 

Another is, that when you have any Thing to ob- 
tain of prefent Difpatch, you entertain, and amufe the 
Party, with whom you deal, with fome other Dif- 
courfe; that he be not too much awake, to make 
Objections. I knew a Counfellor and Secretary, 
that never came to Queen Elizabeth of England, 
with Bills to fign, but he would always firfl put her 
into fome Difcourfe of Eftate, that fhe might the lefs 
mind the Bills. 

The like Surprife may be made, by moving Things, 
when the Party is in hafte, and cannot flay, to con- 
lider advifedly, of that is moved. 

If a Man would crofs a Bufinefs, that he doubts 
fome other would handfomely and effe&ually move, 
let him pretend to wifh it well, and move it himfelf, 
in fuch fort, as may foil it. 

The breaking off, in the midft of that, one was 
about to fay, as if he took himfelf up, breeds a greater 
Appetite in him, with whom you confer, to know 

And becaufe it works better, when any Thing 
feemeth to be gotten from you by Queftion, than if 
you offer it of yourfelf, you may lay a Bait for a 
Queftion, by mowing another Vifage and Counte- 
nance, than you are wont ; to the end, to give Occa- 
fion for the party to afk what the Matter is of the 
Change ? As Nebemiab did ; And I had not before 
that time been fad before the King. 

In Things, that are tender and unpleafing, it is 
good to break the ice, by fome whofe Words are of 

Of Cunning. 8i 

lefs weight, and to referve the more weighty Voice, 
to come in, as by chance, fo that he may be afked 
the Queftion upon the other's Speech. As NarciJJus 
did, in relating to Claudius, the Marriage of Mejja- 
lina and Silius. 

In Things, that a Man would not be feen in him- 
felf ; it is a Point of Cunning, to borrow the Name 
of the World ; as to fay; The World fays, or, There 
is a Speech abroad. 

I knew one, that when he wrote a Letter, he 
would put that which was moft Material, in the 
Poft-fcript, as if it had been a By-Matter. 

I knew another, that when he came to have Speech, 
he would pafs over that, that he intended moft, and 
go forth, and come back again and fpeak of it, as of 
a Thing that he had almoft forgot. 

Some procure themfelves, to be furprized, at fuch 
times, as it is like, the party that they work upon will 
fuddenly come upon them : and to be found with a 
Letter in their hand, or doing fomewhat which they 
are not accuftomed ; to the end, they may be appofed 
of thofe things, which of themfelves they are deiirous 
to utter. 

It is a Point of Cunning, to let fall thofe Words, 
in a Man's own Name, which he would have ano- 
ther Man learn, and ufe, and thereupon take Advan- 
tage. I knew two, that were Competitors, for the 
Secretary's Place, in Queen Elizabeth's time, and 
yet kept good Quarter between themfelves ; and 
would confer, one with another, upon the Bufinefs ; 

82 Essays. 

and the one of them faid, That to be a Secretary, in 
the Declination of a Monarchy, was a ticklilh Thing, 
and that he did not affecl: it : the other, ftraight caught 
up thofe Words, and difcourfed with divers of his 
Friends, that he had no reafon to delire to be Secre- 
tary, in the Declination of a Monarchy. The firfl 
Man took hold of it, and found Means, it was told 
the Queen ; who hearing of a Declination of a Mo- 
narchy, took it fo ill, as fhe would never after hear 
of the other's Suit. 

There is a Cunning, which we in England call, 
the Turning of the Cat in the Pan ; which is, when 
that which a Man fays to another, he lays it, as if 
another had faid it to him. And to fay Truth, it is 
not eafy, when fuch a Matter panned between two, to 
make it appear, from which of them, it firfh moved 
and began. 

It is a way, that fome men have, to glance and 
dart at others, by juftifying themfelves, by Negatives; 
as to fay, This I do not : as Tigillinus did towards 
Burrhus y Se non diver/as /pes, fed Incolumitatem 
Imp er at or is fmp licit er fp eel are. 

Some have in readinefs, fo many Tales and Stories, 
as there is Nothing, they would infinuate, but they 
can wrap it into a Tale ; which ferveth both to keep 
themfelves more in Guard, and to make others carry 
it, with more Pleafure. 

It is a good Point of Cunning, for a Man, to fhape 
the Anfwer he would have, in his own Words, and 
Propofitions ; for it makes the other Party ftick the 

Of Cunning. 83 

It is ftrange, how long fome Men will lie in wait, 
to fpeak fomewhat, they defire to fay ; and how far 
about they will fetch ; and how many other Matters 
they will beat over, to come near it. It is a Thing 
of great Patience, but yet of much Ufe. 

A fudden, bold, and unexpected Queftion, doth 
many times furprife a Man, and lay him open. Like 
to him, that having changed his Name, and walking 
in Paul's, another fuddenly came behind him, and 
called him by his true Name, whereat ftraightways 
he looked back. 

But thefe fmall Wares, and petty Points of Cun- 
ning, are infinite : And it were a good deed, to make 
a Lift of them : for that nothing doth more hurt in 
a State, than that Cunning Men pafs for Wife. 

But certainly, fome there are, that know the Re- 
forts and Falls of Bulinefs, that cannot fink into the 
Main of it : like a Houfe that hath convenient Stairs, 
and Entries, but never a fair Room. Therefore, you 
fhall fee them find out pretty Loofes in the Conclu- 
fion, but are no ways able to examine, or debate 
Matters. And yet commonly they take advantage of 
their Inability, and would be thought Wits of direc- 
tion. Some build rather upon the abufing of others, 
and (as we now fay;) putting Tricks upon tbem ; 
than upon Soundnefs of their own Proceedings. But 
Salomon faith ; Prudens advertit ad Grejfus fuos : 
Stultus divertit ad Dolos. 




xxiii. Of Wifdom for a Man's 

N Ant is a wife Creature for it Self; 
but it is a fhrewd Thing, in an Orchard, 
or Garden. And certainly, Men that 
are great Lovers of Themf elves, waile 
the Publick. Divide with reafon between Self-love, 
and Society : and be fo true to thy Self, as thou be 
not falfe to Others ; fpecially to thy King, and Coun- 
try. It is a poor Centre of a Man's actions, Himfelf 
It is right Earth. For that only Hands fall upon his 
own Centre ; whereas all Things, that have Affinity 
with the Heavens, move upon the Centre of another, 
which they benefit. The Referring of all to a Man's 
Self, is more tolerable in a Sovereign Prince ; be- 
caufe Themf elves are not only Themf elves y but their 
Good and Evil, is at the peril of the publick Fortune. 
But it is a defperate Evil in a Servant to a Prince, or a 
Citizen in a Republick. For whatfoever Affairs pafs 
fuch a Man's Hands, he crooketh them to his own 
Ends : which muft needs be often Eccentrick to the 
Ends of his Mailer, or State. Therefore let Princes, 
or States, choofe fuch Servants, as have not this mark; 
except they mean their Service mould be made but 
the Acceffary. That which maketh the Effect more 
pernicious is, that all Proportion is loft. It were 
Difproportion enough, for the Servant's Good, to be 
preferred before the Mailer's ; but yet it is a greater 

Of Wisdom for a Man's Self. 85 

Extreme, when a little Good of the Servant, fhall 
carry Things againft a great Good of the Mailer's. 
And yet that is the cafe of bad Officers, Treafurers, 
AmbafTadors, Generals, and other falfe and corrupt 
Servants ; which fet a Bias upon their Bowl, of their 
own petty Ends, and Envies, to the overthrow of 
their Mailer's great and important Affairs. And for 
the moil part, the Good fuch Servants receive, is after 
the Model of their own Fortune ; but the Hurt they 
fell for that Good, is after the Model of their Mailer's 
Fortune. And certainly, it is the Nature of extreme 
Self-Lovers ; as they will fet an Houfe on Fire, and 
it were but to roafl their Eggs : and yet thefe Men, 
many times, hold credit with their Mailers ; becaufe 
their Study is but to pleafe Them, and profit Them- 
felves : and for either refpecl, they will abandon the 
Good of their Affairs. 

Wifdom for a Man's Self is in many Branches 
thereof, a depraved Thing. It is the Wifdom of Rats, 
that will be fure to leave a Houfe, fomewhat before it 
fall. It is the Wifdom of the Fox, that thrufls out 
the Badger, who digged and made Room for him. 
It is the Wifdom of Crocodiles, that fhed tears, when 
they would devour. But that which is fpecially to 
be noted is, that thofe, which (as Cicero fays of Pom- 
fey) are, Sui Amantes fine Rivali, are many times 
unfortunate. And whereas they have all their time 
facrificed to Themfelves, they become in the end 
themfelves Sacrifices to the Inconilancy of Fortune ; 
whofe Wings they thought, by their Self-Wifdom, to 
have pinioned. 


86 Essays, 

xxiv. Of Innovations. 

S the Births of Living Creatures, at firft. 
are ill fhapen; fo are all Innovations, 
which are the Births of Time. Yet 
notwithftanding,as thofe that firft bring 
Honour into their Family, are commonly more wor- 
thy, than moft that fucceed ; fo the firft Precedent (if 
it be good) is feldom attained by Imitation. For 111, 
to Man's Nature, as it Hands perverted, hath a natu- 
ral Motion, ftrongeft in continuance : but Good, as 
a forced Motion, ftrongeft at firft. Surely every Me- 
dicine is an Innovation ,* and he that will not apply 
new Remedies, muft expert new Evils : for Time is 
the greater! Innovator ; and if Time, of courfe, alter 
Things to the worfe, and Wifdom, and Counfel fhall 
not alter them to the better, what fhall be the End ? 
It is true, that what is fettled by Cuftom, though it be 
not good, yet at leaft it is fit. And thofe Things, which 
have long gone together, are as it were confederate 
within themfelves : whereas new Things piece not {o 
well ; but though they help by their utility, yet they 
trouble, by their Inconformity. Befides, they are 
like Strangers j more admired, and lefs favoured. 
All this is true, if Time flood ftill ; which contrari- 
wife moveth fo round, that a froward Retention of 
Cuftom, is as turbulent a Thing, as an Innovation : 
and they that reverence too much Old Times, are but 

Of Innovations. 87 

a Scorn to the New. It were good therefore, that 
Men in their Innovations, would follow the Example 
of Time itfelf; which indeed innovateth greatly, but 
quietly, and by degrees, fcarce to be perceived : for 
otherwife, whatfoever is new, is unlooked .for; and 
ever it mends fome, and pairs other : and he that is 
holpen, takes it for a Fortune, and thanks the Time ; 
and he that is hurt, for a wrong, and imputeth it to 
the Author. It is good alfo, not to try Experiments 
in States ; except the Neceffity be urgent, or the 
Utility evident : and well to beware, that it be the 
Reformation, that draweth on the Change ; and not 
the defire of Change, that pretendeth the Reformation. 
And laftly, that the Novelty, though it be not rejected, 
yet be held for a Sufpect : and, as the Scripture faith; 
That we make a ft and upon the Ancient Way, and 
then look about us, and difcover, what is theftraight, 
and right way, and fo to walk in it. 

xxv. Of Difpatch. 

FFECTED Difpatch is one of the moll 
dangerous things to Bufinefs that can 
be. It is like that, which the Phyli- 
cians call Predigejiion, or Hafty Digef- 
tion 5 which is fure to fill the Body, full of Crudities, 
and fecret Seeds of Difeafes. Therefore, meafure no 
Difpatch, by the Times . of Sitting, but by the Ad- 

88 Essays. 

vancement of the Bulinefs. And as in Races, it is 
not the large Stride, or High Lift, that makes the 
Speed : fo in Bufinefs, the Keeping clofe to the mat- 
ter, and not Taking of it too much at once, procureth 
Difpatcb. It is the Care of fome, only to come off 
fpeedily, for the time ; or to contrive fome falfe 
Periods of Bufinefs, becaufe they may feem Men of 
Difpatcb. But it is one Thing, to abbreviate by 
contracting, another by cutting off: and Bufinefs fo 
handled at feveral Sittings or Meetings, goeth com- 
monly backward and forward, in an unfteady Manner. 
I knew a wife Man, that had it for a By-word, when 
he faw Men haften to a conclufion ; Stay a little, 
that we may make an End tbe fooner. 

On the other fide, true Difpatcb is a rich Thing. 
For Time is the meafure of Bulinefs, as Money is of 
Wares : and Bufinefs is bought at a dear Hand, where 
there is fmall Difpatcb. The Spartans, and Span- 
iards, have been noted to be of fmall Difpatcb; Mi 
venga la Muerte de Spagna ; Let my Deatb come from 
Spain j for then it will be fure to be long in coming. 

Give good Hearing to thofe, that give the firft In- 
formation in Bufinefs ; and rather direct them in the 
beginning, than interrupt them in the continuance of 
their Speeches : for he that is put out of his own 
Order, will go forward and backward, and be more 
tedious while he waits upon his Memory, than he 
could have been, if he had gone on, in his own courfe. 
But fometimes it is feen, that the Moderator is more 
troublefome than the Actor. 

Of Dispatch. 89 

Iterations are commonly lofs of Time : but there 
is no fuch gain of Time, as to iterate often the State 
of the Queftion : for it chafeth away many a Frivolous 
Speech, as it is coming forth. Long and curious 
Speeches, are as fit for Difpatcb, as a Robe or Man- 
tle with a long Train is for Race. Prefaces, and 
PafTages, and Excufations, and other Speeches of Re- 
ference to the Perfon, are great waftes of Time ; and 
though they feem to proceed of Modefty, they are 
Bravery. Yet beware of being too Material, when 
there is any Impediment or Obftruction in Men's 
Wills ; for Pre-occupation of Mind, ever requireth 
preface of Speech ; like a Fomentation to make the 
unguent enter. 

Above all things, Order, and Diftribution, and 
Singling out of Parts, is the life of Difpatcb ; fo as 
the Diftribution be not too fubtil : for he that doth 
not divide, will never enter well into Bufinefs ; and 
he that divideth too much, will never come out of it 
clearly. To choofe Time, is to fave Time ; and an 
unfeafonable Motion is but beating the Air. There 
be three Parts of Bufinefs : the Preparation ; the 
Debate, or Examination ; and the Perfection. Where- 
of, if you look for Difpatcb, let the Middle only be 
the Work of Many, and the Firft and Laft the Work 
of Few. The Proceeding upon fomewhat conceived 
in Writing, doth for the moft part facilitate Difpatcb : 
for though it mould be wholly rejected, yet that 
Negative is more pregnant of Direction, than an 
Indefinite ; as Afties are more generative than Duft. 

90 Essays. 

xxvi. Of Seeming Wife. 

T hath been an Opinion, that the French 
are wifer than they feem ; and the 
Spaniards feem wifer than they are. But 
howfoever it be between Nations, cer- 
tainly it is fo between Man and Man. For as the 
Apoftle faith of Godlinefs ; Having a Jhew of Godli- 
nefs, but denying the Power thereof; fo certainly, 
there are in Points of Wifdom, and Sufficiency, that do 
nothing or little, very folemnly ; Magno conatu Nu- 
gas. It is a ridiculous Thing, and fit for a Satire, to 
Perfons of Judgment, to fee what fhifts thefe Forma- 
lifts have, and what Profpeclives, to make Superficies 
to feem Body, that hath Depth and Bulk. Some are 
fo clofe and referved, as they will not mew their 
Wares, but by a dark Light : and feem always to 
keep back fomewhat ; and when they know within 
themfelves, they fpeak of that they do not well know, 
would neverthelefs feem to others, to know of that 
which they may not well fpeak. Some help them- 
felves with Countenance, and Gefture, and are wife 
by Signs ; as Cicera faith of Pifo, that when he an- 
fwered him, he fetched one of his Brows, up to his 
Forehead, and bent the other down to his Chin : 
Refpondes, alter o ad Frontem fublato, altero ad Men- 
turn depreffo fupercilio 5 Crudelitatem tibi non placere. 
Some think to bear it, by fpeaking a great Word, and 

Of Seeming Wise. 91 

being peremptory ; and go on, and take by admittance 
that which they cannot make good. Some, whatfo- 
ever is beyond their reach, will feem to defpife or 
make light of it, as impertinent, or curious ; and fo 
would have their Ignorance feem Judgment. Some 
are never without a Difference, and commonly by 
amufmg Men with a Subtilty, blanch the matter; 
Of whom A. Gellius faith ; Hominem delirum, qui 
Verborum Minutiis Rerum frangit Pondera. Of 
which kind alfo, Plato in his Protagoras bringeth in 
Prodicus, in Scorn, and maketh him make a Speech, 
that confifteth of Diitinctions from the Beginning to 
the End. Generally, fuch Men in all Deliberations, 
find eafe to be of the negative Side ; and affect a 
Credit, to object and foretell Difficulties : for when 
propofitions are denied, there is an End of them : but 
if they be allowed, it requireth a new Work : which 
falfe Point of Wifdom, is the Bane of Bufinefs. To 
conclude, there is no decaying Merchant, or inward 
Beggar, hath fo many Tricks, to uphold the Credit 
of their Wealth, as thefe empty Perfons have, to 
maintain the Credit of their Sufficiency. Seeming 
Wife-men may make fliift to get Opinion : but let no 
Man choofe them for Employment ; for certainly, 
you were better take for Bufinefs, a Man fomewhat 
abfurd, than over formal. 

92 Essays. 

xxvii. Of Friendship. 

T had been hard for him that fpake it, 
to have put more Truth and Untruth 
together, in few Words, than in that 
Speech, Wbofoever is delighted in foli- 
tude, is either a wild Beaft, or a God. For it is mofl 
true, that a natural and fecret Hatred, and Averfation 
towards Society, in any Man, hath fomewhat of the 
favage Beaft; but it is moft untrue, that it mould 
have any Character at all, of the Divine Nature ; ex- 
cept it proceed, not out of a Pleafure in Solitude, but 
out of a Love and Defire, to fequefter a Man's Self, 
for a higher Converfation : fuch as is found, to have 
been falfely and feignedly, in fome of the Heathen ; 
as Epimenides the Candian, Numa the Roman, Em- 
pedocles the Scicilian, and Apollonius of Tyana; and 
truly and really, in divers of the ancient Hermits, 
and holy Fathers of the Church. But little do Men 
perceive what Solitude is, and how far it extendeth. 
For a Crowd is not Company ; and Faces are but a 
Gallery of Pictures ; and Talk bat a tinkling Cymbal, 
where there is no Love. The Latin Adage meeteth 
with it a little ; Magna Civitas, magna Solitudo ,* be- 
caufe in a great Town, Friends are fcattered ; fo that 
there is not that Fellowfhip, for the moft Part, which 
is in lefs Neighbourhoods. But we may go further, 
and affirm moft truly, That it is a mere and miferable 

Of Friendship. 93 

Solitude, to want true Friends ; without which the 
World is but a Wildernefs : and even in this fenfe 
alfo of Solitude, whofoever in the Frame of his Nature 
and Affections, is unfit for Friendjbip, he taketh it 
of the Beaft, and not from Humanity. 

A principal Fruit of Friend/hip, is the Eafe and 
Difcharge of the Fulnefs and Swellings of the Heart, 
which Pafhons of all kinds do caufe and induce. We 
know Difeafes of Stoppings, and Suffocations, are the 
moil dangerous in the Body; and it is not much 
otherwife in the Mind : You may take Sarza to open 
the . Liver ; Steel to open the Spleen ; Flower of 
Sulphur for the Lungs ; Caftoreum for the Brain ; 
but no Receipt openeth the Heart, but a true Friend, 
to whom you may impart Griefs, Joys, Fears, Hopes, 
Sufpicions, Counfels, and whatfoever liveth upon the 
Heart, to opprefs it, in a kind of civil Shrift or 

It is a ftrange Thing to obferve, how high a Rate, 
great Kings and Monarchs do fet upon this Fruit of 
Friendjbip, whereof we fpeak : fo great, as they pur- 
chafe it, many times, at the hazard of their own 
Safety and Greatnefs. For Princes, in regard of the 
diftance of their Fortune, from that of their Subjects 
and Servants, cannot gather this Fruit >• except (to 
make themfelves capable thereof) they raife fome Per- 
fons to be, as it were, Companions, and almoft Equals 
to themfelves, which many times forteth to inconve- 
nience. The modern Languages give unto fuch 
Perfons, the name of Favourites, or Privadoes ; as if 

94 Essays. 

it were matter of Grace, or Converfation. But the 
Roman Name attaineth the true Ufe, and Caufe 
thereof j Naming them Participes Cur arum ; for i t 
is that, which tieth the knot. And we fee plainly, 
that this hath been done, not by weak and pamonate 
Princes only, but by the wifeft and moil politick 
that ever reigned ; who have oftentimes joined to 
themfelves, fome of their Servants, whom both them- 
felves have called Friends ; and allowed others like- 
wife to call them in the fame manner ; ufing the Word 
which is received between private Men. 

L. Sylla, when he commanded Rome, raifed Pom- 
pey (after furnamed the Great) to that Height, that 
Pompey vaunted himfelf for Sylla' s Overmatch. For 
when he had carried the Confuljhip for a Friend of 
his, againft the purfuit of Sylla, and that Sylla did a 
little refent thereat, and began to fpeak great, Pompey 
turned upon him again, and in effedl bade him be 
quiet ; For that more Men adored the Sun fifing, 
than the Sun Jetting. With Julius Ctefar, Decimus 
Brutus had obtained that Intereft, as he fet him 
down, in his Teflament, for Heir, in Remainder after 
his Nephew. And this was the Man, that had power 
with him, to draw him forth to his Death. For 
when C<efar would have difcharged the Senate, in 
regard of fome ill Prefages, and fpecially a Dream of 
Calfurnia, this Man lifted him gently by the Arm, 
out of his Chair, telling him, he hoped he would not 
difmifs the Senate, till his Wife had dreamt a better 
Dream. And it feemeth, his Favour was fo great, 

Of Friendship. 95 

as Antonius in a Letter, which is recited verbatim, 
in one of Cicero's Philippics, calleth him Venefica, 
Witch ; as if he had enchanted Cezfar. Auguflus 
raifed Agrippa (though of mean Birth) to that Height, 
as when he confulted with Maecenas, about the 
Marriage of his Daughter Julia, Maecenas took the 
Liberty to tell him ; That he muft either marry his 
Daughter to Agrippa, or take away his life, there 
was no third way, he had made him fo great. With 
Tiberius Ccefar, Sejanus had afcended to that Height, 
as they Two were termed and reckoned, as a Pair of 
Friends. Tiberius in a Letter to him faith ; Hac 
pro Amicitid noftrd non occultavi : and the whole 
Senate, dedicated an Altar to Friendjhip, as to a 
Goddefs, in refpect of the great Dearnefs of Friend- 
jhip, between them Two. The like or more was 
between Septimius Severus, and Plantianus. For he 
forced his eldeft Son to marry the Daughter of Plan- 
tianus, and would often maintain Plantianus, in 
doing Affronts to his Son : and did write alfo in 
a Letter to the Senate, by thefe Words : / love 
the Man fo well, as I wijh he may over-live me. 
Now if thefe Princes had been as a Trajan, or a 
Marcus Aurelius, a Man might have thought, that 
this had proceeded of an abundant Goodnefs of Na- 
ture ; but being Men fo Wife, of fuch Strength and 
Severity of Mind, and fo extreme Lovers of them- 
felves, as all thefe were ; it proveth moil plainly, that 
they found their own Felicity (though as great as ever 
happened to mortal Men) but as an Half Piece, ex- 

96 Essays. 

cept they might have a Friend to make it entire ; and 
yet, which is more, they were Princes , that had Wives, 
Sons, Nephews ; and yet all thefe could not fupply 
the Comfort of Friendjhip. 

It is not to be forgotten, what Commineus obferveth, 
of his iirit Mailer Duke Charles the Hardy 3 namely 
that he would communicate his Secrets with none ; 
and leaft of all, thofe Secrets which troubled him 
mod. Whereupon he goeth on, and faith, that to- 
wards his latter time ; That Clofenefs did impair, 
and a little perijl? his Underfianding. Surely Com- 
mineus might have made the fame Judgment alfo, if 
it had pleafed him, of his fecond Matter Louis the 
Eleventh, whofe Clofenefs was indeed his Tormen- 
tor. The Parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true ; 
Cor ne edito 3 Eat not the Heart. Certainly, if a 
Man would give it a hard Phrafe, thofe that want 
Friends to open themfelves unto, are Cannibals of 
their own Hearts. But one Thing is moil admira- 
ble, (wherewith I will conclude this firft Fruit of 
Friendjhip) which is, that this communicating of a 
Man's felf to his Friend, works two contrary Effects ; 
for it redoubleth Joys, and cutteth Griefs in Halves. 
For there is no Man, that imparteth his Joys to his , 
Friend, but hzjoyeth the more; and no Man, that 
imparteth his Griefs to his Friend, but he grieveth 
the lefs. So that it is, in Truth of Operation upon 
a Man's Mind, of like virtue, as the Alchymijls ufe 
to attribute to their Stone, for Man's Body : that it 
worketh all contrary Effects, but ftill to the Good, 

Of Friendship. 97 

and Benefit of Nature. But yet, without praying in 
Aid of Alchymifts, there is a manifeft Image of this, 
in the ordinary courfe of Nature. For in Bodies, 
Union ftrengtheneth and cherifheth any natural Ac- 
tion; and, on the other fide, weakeneth and dulleth 
any violent Imprefiion : and even fo is it of Minds. 
The fecond Fruit of Friendjhip, is healthful and 
fovereign for the Underftanding, as the firft is for the 
Affections. For Friend/hip maketh indeed a fair 
Day in the Affeclions, from Storm and Tempefts : 
but it maketh Day-light in the Underftanding, out 
of Darknefs and Confufion of Thoughts. Neither 
is this to be underftood only of Faithful Counfel, 
which a Man receiveth from his Friend ; but before 
you come to that, certain it is, that whofoever hath 
his Mind fraught with many Thoughts, his Wits 
and Underftanding do clarify and break up, in the 
communicating and difcourling with Another : he 
tofleth his Thoughts more eafily; he marfhalleth 
them more orderly ; he feeth how they look when 
they are turned into Words ; finally, he waxeth 
wifer than himfelf ; and that more by an hour's Dif- 
courfe, than by a Day's Meditation. It was well 
faid by Tbemiftocles to the King of Perjia ,• That 
fpeech was like Cloth of Arras, opened, and put 
abroad ; whereby the Imagery doth appear in Fi- 
gure, whereas in Thoughts, they lie but as in Packs. 
Neither is this fecond Fruit of Friendfhip, in open- 
ing the Underftanding, reftrained only to fuch 
Friends, as are able to give a Man Counfel : (they 


98 Essays. 

indeed are bell) but even, without that, a Man 
learneth of himfelf, and bringeth his own Thoughts 
to Light, and whetteth his Wits as againft a Stone 
which itfelf cuts not. In a word, a Man were better 
relate himfelf to a Statua, or Picture, than to fuffer 
his Thoughts to pafs in fmother. 

Add now, to make this fecond Fruit of Friend- 
Jbip complete, that other Point, which lieth more 
open, and falleth within vulgar Obfervation ; which 
is Faithful Counfel from a Friend. Heraclitus faith 
well, in one of his Enigmas ; Dry Light is ever the 
left. And certain it is, that the Light, that a man 
receiveth, by Counfel from another, is drier, and 
purer, than that which cometh from his own Under- 
ftanding, and Judgment ; which is ever infufed and 
drenched in his Affections and Cufloms. So as, 
there is as much difference, between the Counfel, that 
a Friend giveth, and that a Man giveth himfelf, as 
there is between the Counfel of a Friend, and of a 
Flatterer. For there is no fuch Flatterer, as is a 
Man's Self; and there is no fuch Remedy, againft 
Flattery of a Man's Self, as the Liberty of a Friend. 
Counfel is of two forts ; the one concerning Manners, 
the other concerning Bufinefs. For the Firft ; the 
beft Prefervative to keep the Mind in Health, is the 
faithful Admonition of a Friend. The calling of a 
Man's Self to a ftridt Account, is a Medicine, fome- 
time, too piercing and corrofive. Reading good Books 
of Morality, is a little flat, and dead. Obferving our 
Faults in others, is fometimes improper for our cafe. 

Of Friendship. 99 

But the beft Receipt (beft, I fay, to work, and bell 
to take) is the Admonition of a Friend, It is a 
ftrange thing to behold, what grofs Errors, and ex- 
treme Abfurdities, many (efpecially of the greater 
Sort) do commit, for want of a Friend, to tell them 
of them ; to the great damage, both of their Fame 
and Fortune. For as S. James faith ; They look 
fometimes into a Glafs, and prefently forget their own 
Shape and Favour. As for Bujinefs, a Man may- 
think, if he will, that two Eyes fee no more than 
one ; or that a Gamefter feeth always more than a 
Looker on ; or that a Man in Anger, is as Wife as 
he, that hath faid over the four and twenty Letters ; 
or that a Muflcet may be mot off, as well upon the 
Arm, as upon a Reft ; and fuch other fond and high 
Imaginations, to think himfelf all in all. But when 
all is done, the Help of good Counfel, is that which 
fetteth Bujinefs ftraight. And if any Man think 
that he will take Counfel, but it mall be by pieces ; 
afking Counfel in one Bulinefs of one man, and in 
another Bufinefs of another man ; it is well, (that is 
to fay, better perhaps than if he afked none at all ;) 
but he runneth two dangers : one, that he fhall not 
be faithfully counfelled ; for it is a rare Thing except 
it be from a perfect and entire Friend, to have Coun- 
fel given, but fuch as fhall be bowed and crooked to 
fome ends, which he hath that giveth it. The other, 
that he fhall have Counfel given, hurtful, and unfafe, 
(though with good meaning) and mixt, partly of 
Mifchief, and partly of Remedy : Even as if you 



ioo Essays. 

would call a Phyfician, that is thought good, for the 
Cure of the Difeafe, you complain of, but is unac- 
quainted with your body ; and therefore, may put 
you in way for a prefent Cure, but overthroweth 
your Health in fome other kind ; and {o cure the 
Difeafe, and kill the Patient. But a Friend, that is 
wholly acquainted with a man's eftate, will beware 
by furthering any prefent Bufinefs, how he dafheth 
upon other Inconvenience. And therefore, reft not 
upon fcattered Counfels : they will rather diftrac~t, 
and miflead, than fettle, and dire£l. 

After thefe two noble Fruits of Friendjhip / 
(Fence in the Affeclions, and Support of the Judg~ 
ment,) followeth the laft Fruit ; which is like the 
Pomegranate, full of many kernels ; I mean Aid, 
and bearing a Fart, in all Aclions and Occafons. 
Here, the beft way, to reprefent to life the manifold 
ufe of Friendjhip, is to call and fee, how many things 
there are, which a Man cannot do himfelf ; and then 
it will appear, that it was a fparing Speech of the 
Ancients, to fay, That a Friend is another himfelf: 
For that a Friend is far more than himfelf Men 
have their time, and die many times in defire of fome 
things, which they principally take to Heart; the 
bellowing of a Child, the finifhing of a Work, or the 
like. If a Man have a true Friend, he may reft 
almoft fecure, that the Care of thofe things, will con- 
tinue after him. So that a man hath as it were two 
Lives in his defires. A Man hath a Body, and that 
Body is confined to a Place ; but where Friendjhip 

Of Friendship. ioi 

is, all Offices of Life, are as it were granted to him, 
and his deputy. For he may exercife them by his 
Friend. How many things are there, which a Man 
cannot, with any face or comelinefs, fay or do him- 
felf ? A Man can fcarce allege his own Merits with 
modefty, much lefs extol them : A Man cannot 
fometimes brook to fupplicate or beg : And a num- 
ber of the like. But all thefe things, are graceful in 
a Friend's Mouth, which are blufhing in a Man's 
own. So again, a Man's perfon hath many proper 
Relations, which he cannot put off. A Man cannot 
fpeak to his Son, but as a Father ; to his Wife, but 
as a Hufband ; to his Enemy, but upon Terms : 
Whereas a Friend may fpeak, as the cafe requires, 
and not as it forteth with the perfon. But to enu- 
merate thefe things were endlefs : I have given the 
Rule, where a Man cannot fitly play his own Part : 
If he have not a Friend, he may quit the ftage. 

xxviii. Of Expenfe, 

ICHES are for Spending ; and Spending 
for Honour and good Actions. There- 
fore extraordinary Expenfe mull be lim- 
ited by the worth of the occafion : For 
voluntary Undoing may be as well for a Man's 
Country, as for the Kingdom of Heaven. But ordi- 
nary Expenfe ought to be limited by a man's Eftate ; 

102 Essays. 

and governed with fuch regard, as it be within his 
compafs; and not fubjedt to Deceit and Abufe of 
Servants; and ordered to the beft Shew, that the 
Bills may be lefs, than the Eftimation abroad. Cer- 
tainly, if a Man will keep but of Even Hand, his 
ordinary Expenfes ought to be, but to the Half of 
his Receipts ; and if he think to wax Rich, but to 
the third part. It is no Bafenefs, for the Greateft, 
to defcend and look, into their own Eft ate* Some 
forbear it, not upon Negligence alone, but doubting 
to bring themfelves into Melancholy, in refpect they 
mall find it broken. But Wounds cannot be cured 
without fearching. He that cannot look into his 
Own Eftate at all, had need both choofe well thofe 
whom he employeth, and change them often : For 
New are more timorous, and lefs fubtile. He that 
can look into his Eftate but feldom, it behoveth him 
to turn all to certainties. A Man had need, if he be 
plentiful, in fome kind of Expenfe, to be as faving 
again, in fome other. As if he be plentiful in Diet, 
to be faving in Apparel : if he be plentiful in the 
Hall, to be faving in the Stable : And the like. For 
he that is plentiful in Expenfes of all kinds, will 
hardly be preferved from decay. In clearing of a 
Man's Eftate, he may as well hurt himfelf in being 
too fudden, as in letting it run on too long. For 
hafty Selling is commonly as difadvantageable as in- 
tereft. Befides, he that clears at once, will relapfe ; 
for finding himfelf out of Straights, he will revert to 
his Cuftoms : But he that cleareth by Degrees, in^ 

Of Expense. 103 

duceth a Habit of Frugality, and gaineth as well 
upon his Mind, as upon his Eftate. Certainly, who 
hath a State to repair, may not defpife fmall things : 
And commonly, it is lefs difhonourable, to abridge 
petty Charges, than to ftoop to petty gettings. A 
Man ought warily to begin Charges which once 
begun will continue : but in Matters that return not, 
he may be more magnificent. 

xxix. Of the true Greatnefs of 
Kingdoms and Eftates. 

HE Speech of Themifiocles the Athe- 
nian, which was haughty and arrogant, 
in taking fo much to himfelf, had been 
a grave and wife Obfervation and Cen- 
fure, applied at large to others. Delired at a Feaft 
to touch a Lute, he faid ; He could not fiddle, but yet 
he could make a fmall Town, a great City. Thefe 
words (holpen a little with a Metaphor) may ex- 
prefs two different Abilities, in thofe that deal in 
Bufinefs of Eftate. For if a true Survey be taken, of 
Counfellors and Statefmen, there may" be found 
(though rarely) thofe, which can make a Small State 
great, and yet cannot fiddle : As on the other fide, 
there will be found a great many, that can fiddle very 
cunningly, but yet are fo far from being able, to 
make a Small State great, as their Gift lieth the 

104 Essays. 

other way ; to bring a great and flourifhing Eftate to 
Ruin and Decay. And certainly, thofe degenerate 
Arts and Shifts whereby many Counfellors and Go- 
vernors gain both Favour with their Mailers, and 
Eftimation with the Vulgar, deferve no better name 
than Fiddling y being things, rather pleafmg for the 
time, and graceful to themfelves only, than tending 
to the Weal and Advancement of the State, which 
they ferve. There are alfo (no doubt) Counfellors 
and Governors, which may be held fufficient, {Nego- 
tiis pares,) able to manage Affairs, and to keep them 
from Precipices, and manifeft Inconveniences ; which 
neverthelefs, are far from the Ability, to raife and 
amplify an Eftate, in Power, Means, and Fortune. 
But be the workmen what they may be, let us fpeak 
of the Work ; that is ; The true Greatnefs of King' 
doms and EJiates ; and the Means thereof. An 
Argument, fit for great and mighty Princes, to have 
in their hand ; to the end, that neither by over-mea- 
furing their Forces, they lofe themfelves in vain En- 
terprifes ; nor on the other fide, by undervaluing 
them, they defcend to fearful and pufillanimous 

The Greatnefs of an Eftate in Bulk and Territory, 
doth fall under Meafure ; and the Greatnefs of Fi- 
nances and Revenue doth fall under Computation. 
The Population may appear by Mufters : And the 
Number and Greatnefs of Cities and Towns, by 
Cards and Maps. But yet there is not any thing 
amongft civil Affairs, more fubjec~t to Error, than the 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. 105 

right Valuation, and true Judgment, concerning the 
Power and Forces of an Eftate. The Kingdom of 
Heaven is compared, not to any great Kernel or Nut, 
but to a Grain of Muftard-feed ; which is one of the 
leaft grains, but hath in it a Property and Spirit, 
haftily to get up and fpread. So are there States, 
great in Territory, and yet not apt to enlarge, or 
command ; and fome, that have but a fmall Dimen- 
lion of Stem, and yet apt to be the Foundations of 
great Monarchies. 

Walled Towns, ftored Arfenals and Armouries, 
goodly Races of Horfe, Chariots of War, Elephants, 
Ordnance, Artillery, and the like : all this is but a 
Sheep in a Lion's Skin, except the Breed and Difpo- 
fition of the People, be flout and warlike. Nay, 
Number itfelf in Armies, importeth not much, where 
the People is of weak Courage : For (as Virgil 
faith) It never troubles a Wolf, how many the 
Jbeep be. The Army of the Per/tans, in the Plains 
of Arbela, was fuch a vaft Sea of People, as it did 
fomewhat aftonifh the Commanders in Alexander's 
Army ; who came to him therefore, and wifhed him, 
to fet upon them by Night ; but he anfwered, He 
would not pilfer the Viclory. And the Defeat was 
eafy. When Tigranes the Armenian, being en- 
camped upon a Hill, with 400,000 Men, difcovered 
the Army of the Romans, being not above 14,000, 
marching towards him, he made himfelf merry with 
it, and faid ; Yonder Men, are too Many for an Am- 
bajfage, and too Few for a Fight. But before the Sun 

106 Essays. 

fet, he found them enough to give him the Chafe, 
with infinite Slaughter. Many are the examples, of 
the great odds between Number and Courage : So 
that a Man may truly make a Judgment ; that the 
principal Point of Greatnefs in any State, is to have 
a Race of Military Men. Neither is Money the 
Sinews of War, (as it is trivially faid) where the 
Sinews of Men's Arms in bafe and effeminate Peo- 
ple, are failing. For Solon faid well to Crcefus (when 
in Oftentation he fhewed him his Gold) ; Sir, if any 
other come, that hath better Iron than you, he will 
be Mafter of all this Gold. Therefore let any Prince 
or State, think foberly of his Forces, except his Mi- 
litia of Natives be of good and valiant Soldiers. And 
let Princes, on the other fide, that have Subjects of 
martial Difpofition, know their own Strength ; unlefs 
they be otherwife wanting unto themfelves. As for 
mercenary Forces, (which is the Help in this Cafe) 
all Examples Ihow ; that whatfoever Eftate or Prince 
doth reft upon them ; He may fpread his Feathers 
for a time, but he will mew them foon after. 

The Blefing of Judah and IJfachar will never 
meet ; That the fame People or Nation, Jhould be 
both the Lion's Whelp, and the Afs between Bur- 
thens : Neither will it be that a People overlaid with 
Taxes, mould ever become valiant, and martial. It 
is true, that Taxes levied by Confent of the Eftate, 
do abate Men's Courage lefs ; as it hath been feen 
notably, in the Excifes of the Low Countries; and 
in fome degree, in the Subfdies of England. For 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. 107 

you muft note, that we fpeak now, of the Heart, and 
not of the Purfe. So that, although the fame Tri- 
bute and Tax, laid by Confent, or by Impoling, be 
all one to the Purfe, yet it works diverfly upon the 
Courage. So that you may conclude ; That no Peo- 
ple over-charged with Tribute, is fit for Empire. 

Let States that aim at Greatnefs, take heed how 
their Nobility and Gentlemen, do multiply too fall. 
For that maketh the common Subjecl grow to be a 
Peafant, and bafe Swain, driven out of Heart, and in 
efFe6l but the Gentleman's Labourer. Even as you 
may fee in Coppice Woods ; If you leave your ft ad- 
dles too thick, you Jhall never have clean Underwood, 
hut Shrubs and Bujhes, So in Countries, if the 
Gentlemen be too many, the Commons will be bafe ; 
and you will bring it to that, that not the hundred 
poll will be fit for an Helmet : efpecially as to the 
Infantry, which is the Nerve of an Army : and fo 
there will be great Population, and little Strength. 
This, which I fpeak of, hath been no where better 
feen, than by comparing of England and France 3 
whereof England, though far lefs in Territory and 
Population, hath been (neverthelefs) an Overmatch ; 
In regard, the Middle People of England make good 
Soldiers, which the Peafants of France do not. And 
herein, the device of King Henry the Seventh, 
(whereof I have fpoken largely in the Hiftory of his 
Life) was profound and admirable ; In making 
Farms, and houfes of Hufbandry, of a Standard; 
That is, maintained with fuch a Proportion of Land 

108 Essays. 

unto them, as may breed a Subject to live in conve- 
nient Plenty, and no fervile Condition ; and to keep 
the Plough in the Hands of the Owners, and not 
mere Hirelings. And thus indeed, you mail attain 
to VirgiVs Character, which he gives to Ancient 

Terra pot ens Armis, at que ubere Glebte. 

Neither is that State (which for any thing I know, is 
almoft peculiar to England, and hardly to be found 
any where elfe, except it be perhaps in Poland) to be 
paffed over ; I mean the State of free Servants and 
Attendants upon Noblemen and Gentlemen ; which 
are no ways inferior unto the Yeomanry, for Arms. 
And therefore, out of all Queftion, the Splendour, 
and Magnificence, and great Retinues, and Hofpitality 
of Noblemen, and Gentlemen, received into Cuflom, 
doth much conduce unto Martial Greatnefs . Whereas, 
contrariwife, the clofe and referved living of Noble- 
men, and Gentle?nen, caufeth a Penury of Military 

By all means, it is to be procured, that the Trunk 
of Nebuchadnezzar 1 s Tree of Monarchy, be great 
enough to bear the Branches, and the Boughs ; that 
is, that the natural Subjecls of the Crown or State, 
bear a fufficient Proportion, to the fir anger Subjecls, 
that they govern. Therefore all States, that are 
liberal of Naturalization towards Strangers, are fit for 
Empire. For to think that an Handful of People, 
can, with the greateft Courage, and Policy in the 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. 109 

World, embrace too large Extent of Dominion, it 
may hold for a time, but it will fail fuddenly. The 
Spartans were a nice People, in Point of Naturaliza- 
tion ; whereby, while they kept their Compafs, they 
flood firm; but when they did fpread, and their 
Boughs were becoming too great for their Stem, they 
became a Windfall upon the fudden. Never any 
State was, in this Point, fo open to receive Strangers 
into their Body, as were the Romans. Therefore it 
forted with them accordingly ; for they grew to the 
greater!: Monarchy. Their manner was, to grant 
Naturalization, (which they called Jus Civitatis) 
and to grant it in the higheft Degree ; that is, Not 
only Jus Commercii, Jus Connubii, Jus Haredita- 
tis 1 but alfo, Jus Suffragii, and Jus Honorum. 
And this, not to fingular Perfons alone ; but likewife 
to whole Families ; yea, to Cities, and fometimes to 
Nations. Add to this, their Cuflom of Plantation 
of Colonies y whereby the Roman Plant was removed 
into the Soil of other Nations. And putting both 
Confutations together, you will fay, that it was not 
the Romans that fpread upon the World y but it was 
the World, that fpread upon the Romans : And that 
was the fure Way of Greatnefs. I have marvelled 
fometimes at Spain, how they clafp and contain fo 
large Dominions, with fo few Natural Spaniards : 
But fure, the whole Compafs of Spain is a very 
great Body of a Tree ; far above Rome, and Sparta, 
at the firft. And befides, though they have not had 
that ufage, to Naturalize liberally; yet they have. 

no Essays. 

that, which is next to it ; that is, To employ, almoft 
indifferently, all Nations, in their Militia of ordinary 
Soldiers : yea, and fometimes in their Highejl Com- 
mands. Nay, it feemeth at this inftant, they are 
fenfible of this want of Natives ; as by the Prag- 
matical Sanclion, now publifhed, appeareth. 

It is certain, xhztfedentary, and witbin-door Arts, 
and delicate Manufactures (that require rather the 
Finger, than the Arm) have, in their Nature, a Con- 
trariety, to a Military Difpofition. And generally, 
all Warlike People are a little idle ; and love Danger 
better than Travail : Neither muft they be too much 
broken of it, if they mall be preferved in vigour. 
Therefore, it was great Advantage, in the ancient 
States of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that 
they had the ufe of Slaves, which commonly did rid 
thofe Manufactures. But that is abolifhed, in greateft 
part, by the Chrijlian Law. That which cometh 
neareft to it, is, to leave thofe Arts chiefly to Strangers, 
(which for that purpofe are the more ealily to be 
received) and to contain, the principal Bulk of the 
vulgar Natives, within thofe three kinds ; Tillers of 
the Ground; Free Servants ; and Handy-Crafts- 
Men, of Strong, and Manly Arts, as Smiths, Mafons, 
Carpenters, &c. Not reckoning ProfefTed Soldiers. 

But above all, for Empire and Greatnefs, it im- 
porteth molt; That a Nation do profefs Arms, as 
their principal Honour, Study, and Occupation. For 
the Things, which we formerly have fpoken of, 
are but Habilitations towards Arms : And what is 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. hi 

Habilitation without Intention and Aft? Romulus, 
after his death (as they report, or feign) fent a Prefent 
to the Romans ; that, above all, they fhould intend 
Arms ; and then, they mould prove the greateft 
Empire of the World. The Fabrick of the State of 
Sparta was wholly (though not wifely) framed, and 
compofed, to that Scope and End. The Per/tans, 
and Macedonians, had it for a flafh. The Gauls, 
Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others, had 
it for a Time. The Turks have it, at this day, 
though in great Declination. Of Chriftian Europe, 
they that have it, are, in effect, only the Spaniards. 
But it is fo plain, That every Man profiteth in that 
he mojl intendeth, that it needeth not to be flood 
upon. It is enough to point at it ; that no Nation, 
which doth not directly profefs Arms, may look to 
have Greatnefs fall into their Mouths. And, on the 
other fide, it is a molt certain Oracle of Time ; That 
thofe States, that continue long in that Profeffion (as 
the Romans and Turks principally have done) do 
wonders. And thofe, that have profeffed Arms but 
for an Age, have notwithstanding, commonly, attained 
that Greatnefs in that Age, which maintained them 
long after, when their Profeffion and Exercife of 
Arms had grown to decay. 

Incident to this Point is; For a State, to have 
thofe Laws or Cuftoms, which may reach forth unto 
them, juft Occafions (as may be pretended) of War. 
For there is that Juftice imprinted in the Nature of 
Men, that they enter not upon Wars (whereof fo 

H2 Essays. 

many Calamities do enfue) but upon fome, at the 
leaft Specious, Grounds and Quarrels. The Turk 
hath at hand, for Caufe of War, the Propagation of 
his Law or Seel; a Quarrel that he may always 
Command. The Romans, though they efteemed 
the Extending the Limits of their Empire, to be 
great Honour to their Generals, when it was done, 
yet they never refted upon that alone, to begin a 
Warre. Firft therefore, let Nations, that pretend to 
Greatnefs, have this ; That they be fenfible of 
Wrongs, either upon Borderers, Merchants, or Poli- 
tick Minifters ; and that they fit not too long upon 
a Provocation. Secondly, let them be preiTed, and 
ready, to give Aids and Succours, to their Confede- 
rates : As it ever was with the Romans : In fo much, 
as if the Confederate had Leagues defenfive with 
divers other States, and upon Invafion oifered, did 
implore their Aids feverally, yet the Romans would 
ever be the foremoft, and leave it to none Other to 
have the Honour. As for the Wars, which were 
anciently made on the behalf of a kind of Party, or 
tacit Conformity of Eftate, I do not fee how they 
may be well juftified : As w T hen the Romans made a 
War for the Liberty of Grecia : Or when the Lace- 
demonians, and Athenians, made Wars, to fet up or 
pull down Democracies, and Oligarchies : Or when 
Wars were made by Foreigners, under the pretence 
of Juftice, or Protection, to deliver the Subjects of 
others from Tyranny, and Oppreffion ; And the 
like. Let it fuffice, that no Eftate expect to be 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. 113 

Great, that is not awake, upon any juft Occafion of 

No Body can be healthful without Exercife, 
neither Natural Body, nor Politick : And certainly, 
to a Kingdom or Eftate, a Juft and Honourable 
War is the true Exercife. A Civil War, indeed, is 
like the Heat of a Fever ; but a Foreign War is like 
the Heat of Exercife, and ferveth to keep the Body 
in Health : For in a Slothful Peace, both Courages 
will effeminate, and Manners Corrupt. But how- 
foever it be for Happinefs, without all Queftion, for 
Greatnefs, it maketh, to be ftill, for the moft Part, 
in Arms : And the Strength of a Veteran Army, 
(though it be a chargeable Bulinefs) always on Foot, 
is that which commonly giveth the Law ; or at leaft 
the Reputation amongft all neighbour States ; as may 
well be feen in Spain y which hath had, in one Part 
or other, a Veteran Army, almoft continually, now 
by the Space of Six-fcore Years. 

To be Mafter of the Sea is an Abridgement of 
a Monarchy. Cicero writing to Atticus, of Pom- 
peys* Preparation againft Ctefar, faith ; Conftlium 
Pompeii plan} Themift odeum eft ; putat enim, qui 
Mari potitur, eum Rerum potiri. And, without 
doubt, Pompey had tired out Ctefar, if upon vain 
Confidence, he had not left that Way. We fee the 
great Effects of Battles by Sea, The Battle of 
Aclium decided the Empire of the World. The 
Battle of Lepanto arretted the Greatnefs of the Turk. 
There be many Examples, where Sea- Fights have 

ii4 Essays. 

been Final to the War ; but this is, when Princes or 
States have fet up their Reft, upon the Battles. But 
thus much is certain ; that he that commands the 
Sea, is at great liberty, and may take as much, and 
as little of the War, as he will. Whereas thofe, 
that be ftrongeft by Land, are many times neverthe- 
lefs in great Straights. Surely, at this Day, with us 
of Europe, the Vantage of Strength at Sea (which is 
one of the Principal Dowries of this Kingdom of 
Great Britain) is great ; Both becaufe, moft of the 
Kingdoms of Europe, are not merely Inland, but 
girt with the Sea, moft part of their Compafs ; and 
becaufe, the Wealth of both Indies feems in great 
Part, but an acceflary, to the Command of the Seas. 
The Wars of Latter Ages feem to be made in 
the Dark, in refpect of the Glory and Honour, which 
reflected upon Men, from the Wars in Ancient Time. 
There be now, for Martial Encouragement, fome 
Degrees and Orders of Chivalry ; which, neverthe- 
less, are conferred promifcuoufly, upon Soldiers, and 
no Soldiers ; and fome Remembrance perhaps upon 
the Scutchion ; and fome Hofpitals for maimed 
Soldiers; and fuch like Things. But in Ancient 
Times ; the Trophies erected upon the Place of the 
Victory ; the Funeral Laudatives and Monuments 
for thofe that died in the Wars ; the Crowns and 
Garlands perfonal ; the Stile of Emperor, which the 
Great Kings of the World after borrowed; the 
Triumphs of the Generals upon their Return ; the 
great Donatives and LargeiTes upon the Difbanding 

Greatness of Kingdoms, etc. 115 

of the Armies ; were Things able to enflame all Men's 
Courages. But above all, That of the Triumph, 
amongft the Romans , was not Pageants or Gaudery, 
but one of the wifeft and noblefl Institutions, that 
ever was. For it contained three Things ; Honour 
to the General ; Riches to the Treafury out of the 
Spoils ; and Donatives to the Army. But that 
Honour, perhaps, were not fit for Monarchies ,• ex- 
cept it be in the Perfon of the Monarch himfelf, or 
his Sons ; as it came to pafs, in the Times of the 
Roman Emperors, who did impropriate the aftual 
Triumphs to themfelves, and their Sons, for fuch 
Wars, as they did achieve in Perfon : And left only, 
for Wars achieved by Subjects, fome Triumphal 
Garments, and Enligns, to the General. 

To conclude ; No Man can, by Care taking (as 
the Scripture faith) add a Cubit to his Stature ; in 
this little Model of a Man's Body : But in the great 
Frame of Kingdoms, and Commonwealths, it is in the 
power of Princes, or Eftates, to add Amplitude and 
Greatnefs to their Kingdoms. For by introducing 
fuch Ordinances, Conftitutions, and Cufloms, as we 
have now touched, they may fow Greatnefs to their 
Pofterity, and Succemon. But thefe Things are 
commonly not obferved, but left to take their Chance. 



xxx. Of Regimen of Health. 

HERE is a wifdom in this, beyond the 
Rules of Phyfick : A Man's own Ob- 
fervation, what he finds Good of, and 
what he finds Hurt of, is the bell Phy- 
fick to preferve Health. But it is a fafer Conclusion 
to fay ; This agreeth not well with me, therefore I 
will not continue it ; than this ; I find no offence of 
this, therefore I may ufe it. For Strength of Nature 
in Youth pafTeth over many Exceffes, which are 
owing a Man till his Age. Difcern of the coming 
on of Years, and think not, to do the fame Things 
ftill ; for Age will not be defied. Beware of fudden 
Change in any great point of Diet, and if neceffity 
enforce it, fit the reft to it. For it is a Secret, both 
in Nature, and State ; that it is fafer to change Many 
Things, than one. Examine thy Cuftoms, of Diet, 
Sleep, Exercife, Apparel, and the like; and try in 
any Thing, thou fhalt judge hurtful, to difcontinue 
it by little and little ; but fo, as if thou doft find any 
Inconvenience by the Change, thou come back to 
it again : For it is hard to diilinguifh, that which is 
generally held good, and wholefome, from that, which 
is good particularly, and fit for thine own Body. To 
be free minded, and cheerfully difpofed, at Hours of 
Meat, and of Sleep, and of Exercife, is one of the 

Of Regimen of Health. 117 

beft Precepts of Long lafting. As for the Paffions 
and Studies of the Mind ; Avoid Envy ; anxious 
Fears ; Anger fretting inwards ; fubtile and knotty 
Inquifitions ; Joys, and Exhilarations in Excefs ; 
Sadnefs not communicated. Entertain Hopes ; Mirth 
rather than Joy ; variety of Delights, rather than 
Surfeit of them ; Wonder, and Admiration, and 
therefore Novelties ; Studies that fill the Mind with 
Splendid and Illuftrious Objects, as Hiftories, Fables, 
and Contemplations of Nature. If you fly Phyfick 
in Health altogether, it will be too flrange for your 
Body, when you mall need it. If you make it too 
familiar, it will work no extraordinary EfrecT:, when 
Sicknefs cometh. I commend rather, fome Diet, 
for certain Seafons, than frequent Ufe of 'Phyfick, ex- 
cept it be grown into a Cuftom. For thofe Diets 
alter the Body more, and trouble it lefs. Defpife no 
new Accident, in your Body, but afk Opinion of it. 
In Sicknefs , refpecl: Health principally ; and in 
Health, Aclion. For thofe that put their Bodies, to 
endure in Health, may in mod Sicknejjes, which are 
not very fharp, be cured only with Diet, and Ten- 
dering. Celfus could never have fpoken it as a Phy- 
fician, had he not been a Wife Man withal ; when 
he giveth it, for one of the great precepts of Health 
and Lafting ; that a Man do vary and interchange 
Contraries ; but with an Inclination to the more 
benign Extreme : Ufe Falling, and full Eating, but 
rather full Eating ; Watching and Sleep, but rather 
Sleep ; Sitting, and Exercife, but rather Exercife ; 

u8 Essays. 

and the like. So fhall Nature be cheriftied, and yet 
taught Mafteries. Pbyficians are fome of them fo 
pleafing, and conformable to the Humour of the 
Patient, as they prefs not the true Cure of the Dif- 
eafe ; and fome other are fo Regular, in proceeding 
according to Art, for the Difeafe, as they refpecl not 
fufficiently the Condition of the Patient. Take one 
of a Middle Temper ; or if it may not be found in 
one Man, combine two of either fort : And forget 
not to call, as well the belt acquainted with your 
Body, as the bell reputed of for his Faculty. 

xxxi. Of Sufpicion, 

USPICIONS amongft Thoughts, are 
like Bats amongft Birds, they ever fly 
by Twilight. Certainly, they are to 
be repreffed, or, at the leaft, well 
guarded ; For they cloud the Mind ; they lofe Friends '■> 
and they check with Bulinefs, whereby Bufinefs can- 
not go on, currently, and conftantly. They difpofe 
Kings to Tyranny, Hufbands to Jealoufy, Wife Men 
to Irrefolution and Melancholy. They are Defects, 
not in the Heart, but in the Brain; for they take 
Place in the Stouteft Natures : As in the Example of 
Henry the Seventh of England: There was not a 
more Sufpicious Man, nor a more Stout : And in 
fuch a Composition, they do fmall Hurt. For com- 

Of Suspicion. 119 

monly they are not admitted, but with Examination, 
whether they be likely or no ? But in fearful Natures, 
they gain Ground too faft. There is nothing makes 
a Man Sufpecl much, more than to Know little : 
And therefore Men mould remedy Sufpicion, by pro- 
curing to know more, and not to keep their Sufpi- 
cions in Smother. What would Men have ? Do they 
think, thofe they employ and deal with, are Saints ? 
Do they not think, they will have their own Ends, 
and be truer to Themfelves, than to them ? There- 
fore, there is no better Way to moderate Sufpicions, 
than to account upon fuch Sufpicions as true, and yet 
to bridle them, as falfe. For fo far, a Man ought to 
make ufe of Sufpicions, as to provide, as if that mould 
be true, that he Sufpetts, yet it may do him no 
Hurt. Sufpicions, that the Mind, of itfelf, gathers, 
are but Buzzes ; but Sufpicions, that are artificially 
nourifhed, and put into Men's Heads, by the Tales, 
and Whifperings of others, have Stings. Certainly, 
the beft Mean, to clear the Way, in this fame Wood 
of Sufpicions, is frankly to communicate them, with 
the Party, that he Sufpecls : For thereby, he mail be 
fure, to know more of the Truth of them, than he 
did before ; and withal, fhall make that Party more 
circumfpecl, not to give further Caufe of Sufpicion. 
But this would not be done to Men of bafe Natures : 
For they, if they find themfelves once fufpected, will 
never be true. The Italian fays ; Sofpetto licentia 
fede : As if Sufpicion did give a PafTport to Faith : 
But it ought rather to kindle it, to difcharge itfelf. 

120 Essays. 

xxxii. Of Difcourfe, 

OME in their Difcourfe, defire rather 
Commendation of Wit, in being able 
to hold all Arguments, than of Judg- 
ment, in difcerning what is True : 
As if it were a Praife, to know what might be Said, 
and not what mould be Thought. Some have cer- 
tain Common Places, and Themes, wherein they are 
good, and want Variety : Which kind of Poverty is 
for the molt part tedious, and when it is once per- 
ceived ridiculous. The honourable!!: part of Talk, 
is to give the Occafion ; and again to moderate and 
pafs to fomewhat elfe ; for then a Man leads the 
Dance. It is good, in Difcourfe, and Speech of 
Converfation, to vary, and intermingle Speech, of 
the prefent Occafion with Arguments ; Tales with 
Reafons ; afking of QuefKons, with telling of Opin- 
ions ; and Jell with Earnefl : For it is a dull Thing 
to tire, and, as we fay now, to jade, any Thing too 
far. As for Jeft, there be certain Things, which 
ought to be privileged from it; namely Religion, 
Matters of State, Great Perfons, any Man's prefent 
Bulinefs of Importance, and any Cafe that deferveth 
Pity. Yet there be fome, that think their Wits have 
been afleep, except they dart out fomewhat that is 
piquant and to the quick : That is a vein, which 
would be bridled ; 

Of Discourse. 121 

Parce Puer flimulis, et fortius utere Loris. 
And generally, Men ought to find the difference be- 
tween Saltnefs and Bitternefs. Certainly, he that 
hath a fatirical vein, as he maketh others afraid of his 
Wit, fo he had need be afraid of others' Memory. 
He that queftioneth much, mail learn much, and 
content much ; but efpecially, if he apply his Quef- 
tions, to the Skill of the Perfons, whom he afketh : 
For he fhall give them occafion, to pleafe themfelves 
in fpeaking, and himfelf fhall continually gather 
Knowledge. But let his Queftions not be trouble- 
fome ; for that is fit for a Pofer. And let him be 
fure, to leave other Men their Turns to fpeak. Nay, 
if there be any, that would reign, and take up all the 
time, let him find means to take them off, and to 
bring others on ; as Muficians ufe to do, with thofe 
that dance too long Galliards. If you diffemble 
fometimes your knowledge, of that you are thought 
to know, you fhall be thought another time, to 
know that you know not. Speech of a Man's Self 
ought to be feldom, and well chofen. I knew 
One, was wont to fay, in fcorn ; He mujl needs be 
a Wife Man, he fpeaks fo much of Himfelf: And 
there is but one Cafe, wherein a Man may commend 
himfelf, with good Grace ; and that is in commending 
Virtue in another ; efpecially, if it be fuch a Virtue, 
whereunto himfelf pretendeth. Speech of Touch 
towards others, mould be fparingly ufed : For Dif 
courfe ought to be as a Field, without coming home 
to any Man. I knew two Nobleme?i, of the Weft 

122 Essays. 

Part of England ; whereof the one was given to 
feoff, but kept ever royal Cheer in his Houfe : The 
other, would afk of thofe, that had been at the other's 
Table ; Tell truly, was there never a Flout or dry 
Blow given ? to which the Gueft would anfwer ; 
Such and fuch a Thing pajfed : The Lord would 
fay ; / thought he would mar a good Dinner. Dif- 
cretion of Speech, is more than Eloquence ; and to 
fpeak agreeably to him, with whom we deal, is more 
than to fpeak in good Words, or in good Order. A 
good continued Speech, without a good Speech of 
Interlocution, fhews Slownefs : And a good Reply, 
or fecond Speech, without a good fettled Speech, 
fheweth S hallo wnefs and Weaknefs. As we fee in 
Beafts, that thofe that are weakeft in the Courfe, are 
yet nimbleft in the Turn : As it is betwixt the Grey- 
hound, and the Hare. To ufe too many Circum- 
ftances, ere one come to the Matter, is wearifome ; 
to ufe none at all, is blunt. 

xxxiii. Of Plantations. 

LJNTATIONS are amongft ancient, 

primitive, and heroical Works. When 
the World was young, it begat more 
Children ; but now it is old, it begets 
fewer : For I may juftly account new Plantations 
to be the Children of former Kingdoms. I like a 

Of Plantations. 123 

Plantation in a pure Soil ; that is, where People are 
not difplanted, to the end, to plant in others. For 
elfe, it is rather an Extirpation than a Plantation. 
Planting of Countries is like Planting of Woods ; 
for you mull make account, to lofe almoft Twenty 
Years' Profit, and expect your Recompenfe, in the 
end. For the principal Thing, that hath been the 
Deflruction of moll Plantations, hath been the bafe, 
and hally Drawing of Profit, in the firil Years. It is 
true, Speedy Profit is not to be neglected, as far as 
may Hand, with the Good of the Plantation, but no 
farther. It is a fhameful and unbleffed Thing, to 
take the Scum of People, and wicked condemned 
Men, to be the People with whom you Plant : And 
not only fo, but it fpoileth the Plantation, For they 
will ever live like Rogues, and not fall to work, but 
be lazy, and do Mifchief, and fpend Victuals, and 
be quickly weary, and then certify over to their 
Country, to the Difcredit of the Plantation. The 
People wherewith you Plant, ought to be Gardeners, 
Ploughmen, Labourers, Smiths, Carpenters, Joiners, 
Fifhermen, Fowlers, with fome few Apothecaries, 
Surgeons, Cooks, and Bakers. In a Country of 
Plantation, firfl look about, what kind of Victual 
the Country yields of itfelf, to hand : As Chefnuts, 
Walnuts, Pineapples, Olives, Dates, Plums, Cherries, 
Wild Honey, and the like : and make ufe of them. 
Then confider, what Victual or Efculent Things 
there are, which grow fpeedily, and within the year; 
as Parfnips, Carrots, Turnips, Onions, Radifh, Ar* 

124 Essays. 

tichokes of Jerufalem, Maize, and the like. For 
Wheat, Barley, and Oats, they afk too much Labour : 
But with Peafe and Beans, you may begin ; both 
becaufe they afk lefs Labour, and becaufe they ferve 
for Meat, as well as for Bread. And of Rice likewife 
cometh a great Increafe, and it is a kind of Meat. 
Above all, there ought to be brought Store of Bifcuit, 
Oatmeal, Flour, Meal, and the like, in the begin- 
ning, till Bread may be had. For Beafts, or Birds, 
take chiefly fuch as are leaft fubjecl: to Difeafes, and 
multiply fafteft : as Swine, Goats, Cocks, Hens, 
Turkies, Geefe, Houfe Doves, and the like. The 
Victual in Plantations, ought to be expended, almoft 
as in a befieged Town ; that is, with certain Allow- 
ance. And let the Main Part of the Ground em- 
ployed to Gardens or Corn, be to a common Stock ; 
and to be laid in, and ftored up, and then delivered 
out in proportion ; befides fome Spots of Ground, 
that any particular Perfon will manure for his own 
Private ufe. Confider likewife, what Commodities the 
Soil, where the Plantation is, doth naturally yield, 
that they may fome way help to defray the Charge 
of the Plantation : So it be not, as was faid, to the 
untimely Prejudice, of the main Bufmefs : as it hath 
fared with Tobacco in Virginia. Wood commonly 
aboundeth but too much ; and therefore, Timber is 
fit to be one. If there be Iron Ore, and Streams 
whereupon to fet the Mills ; Iron is a brave Com- 
modity, where Wood aboundeth. Making of Bay 
Salt, if the Climate be proper for it, would be put in 

Of Plantations. 125 

Experience. Growing Silk likewife, if any be, is a 
likely commodity. Pitch and Tar, where ftore of 
Firs and Pines are, will not fail. So Drugs, and 
Sweet Woods, where they are, cannot but yield great 
Profit. Soap Ames likewife, and other Things, that 
may be thought of. But moil not too much under 
Ground : For the Hope of Mines is very uncertain, 
and ufeth to make the Planters lazy, in other Things. 
For Government, let it be in the Hands of one, 
arnfted with fome Counfel : and let them have Com- 
miffion, to exercife martial Laws, with fome Limita- 
tion. And above all, let Men make that profit of 
being in the Wildernefs, as they have God always, 
and his Service before their Eyes. Let not the 
Government of the Plantation, depend upon too 
many Counfellors, and Undertakers, in the Country 
that Planteth, but upon a temperate Number ; and 
let thofe be rather Noblemen, and Gentlemen, than 
Merchants : For they look ever to the prefent Gain. 
Let there be Freedoms from Cuftom, till the Plant- 
ation be of Strength : And not only Freedom from 
Cuftom, but Freedom to carry their Commodities, 
where they may make their Bell of them, except 
there be fome fpecial Caufe of Caution. Cram not 
in People, by fending too faft, Company after Com- 
pany ; but rather hearken how they wafte, and fend 
Supplies proportionably ; but fo, as the Number 
may live well, in the Plantation, and not by Sur- 
charge be in Penury. It hath been a great endan- 
gering, to the Health of fome Plantations, that they 

126 Essays. 

have built along the Sea, and Rivers, in Marifh and 
unwholefome Grounds. Therefore, though you 
begin there, to avoid Carriage, and other like Dis- 
commodities, yet build ftill, rather upwards, from 
the ftreams, than along. It concerneth likewife, 
the Health of the Plantation, that they have good 
Store of Salt with them, that they may ufe it, in 
their Victuals, when it mall be neceiTary. If you 
Plant, where Savages are, do not only entertain them 
with Trifles, and Gingles ; but ufe them juftly, and 
gracioufly, with fumcient Guard neverthelefs : and 
do not win their favour, by helping them to invade 
their Enemies, but for their Defence it is not amifs 1 : 
And fend oft of them, over to the Country, that 
Plants, that they may fee a better Condition -than 
their own, and commend it when they return. 
When the Plantation grows to Strength, then it is 
time to Plant with Women, as well as with Men ; 
that the Plantation may fpread into Generations, 
and not be ever pieced from without. It is the fm- 
fulleft Thing in the world, to forfake or deftitute a 
Plantation, once in Forwardness : For befides the 
Difhonour, it is the Guiltinefs of Blood, of many 
commiferable Perfons. 

xxxvi. Of Riches, 

CANNOT call Riches better, than the 
Baggage of Virtue. The Roman Word 
is better, Impedimenta, For as the 
Baggage is to an Army, fo is Riches to 
Virtue. It cannot be fpared, nor left behind, but it 
hindereth the March ; yea, and the care of it, fome- 
times, lofeth or difturbeth the Victory : Of great 
Riches, there is no real Ufe, except it be in the Dif- 
tribution ; the reft is but Conceit. So faith Solomon; 
Where much is, there are Many to confume it ; and 
what hath the Owner, but the Sight of it, with his 
Eyes P The perfonal Fruition in any Man, cannot 
reach to feel Great Riches : There is a Cuftody of 
them ; or a Power of Dole and Donative of them ; or 
a Fame of them ; but no folid Ufe to the Owner. 
Do you not fee, what feigned Prices are fet upon little 
Stones, and Rarities ? and what Works of Oftenta- 
tion, are undertaken, becaufe there might feem to be, 
fome Ufe of great Riches P But then you will fay, 
they may be of ufe, to buy Men out of Dangers or 
Troubles. As Solomon faith; Riches are as a ftrong 
Hold, in the Imagination of the Rich Man. But this 
is excellently exprefted, that it is in Imagination, and 
not always in Fad. For certainly great Riches have 
fold more Men, than they have bought out. Seek 
not Proud Riches, but fuch as thou mayeft get juftly, 

128 Essays. 

ufe foberly, diftribute cheerfully, and leave content- 
edly. Yet have no abilracl nor friarly Contempt of 
them. But diftinguifh, as Cicero faith well of Rabi- 
rius Pofthumus ; In ftudio rei amplificandte, appare- 
bat, non Avaritia prtedam, fed Inftrumentum Boni- 
tati quteri. Hearken alfo to Solomon, and beware 
of hafty Gathering of Riches : Qui f eft in at ad Divi- 
tias, non erit in/ons. The Poets feign that when 
Plutus (which is Riches,) is fent from Jupiter, he 
limps and goes flowly ; but when he is fent from 
Pluto, he runs, and is fwift of Foot. Meaning, that 
Riches gotten by good Means, and jufl Labour, pace 
flowly ; but when they come by the death of others, 
(as by the Courfe of Inheritance, Teflaments, and 
the like,) they come tumbling upon a Man. But it 
might be applied likewife to Pluto, taking him for 
the Devil. For when Riches come from the Devil, 
(as by Fraud, and Oppreffion, and unjuft Means,) they 
come upon fpeed. The Ways to enrich are many, 
and moll: of them foul. Parjimony is one of the 
bell, and yet is not innocent: for it with-holdeth 
Men, from Works of Liberality, and Charity. The 
Improvement of the Ground is the moll Natural ob- 
taining of Riches ; for it is our great Mother's Blef- 
ling, the Earth's ; but it is flow. And yet, where 
Men of great wealth, do Hoop to hufbandry, it mul- 
tiplieth Riches exceedingly. I knew a Nobleman in 
England, that had the greatell Audits, of any Man in 
my Time : a great Grazier, a great Sheep-Mailer, a 
great Timber-Man, a great Collier, a great Corn- 

Of Riches. 129 

Mafter, a great Lead-Man, and fo of Iron, and a 
Number of the like Points of Hufbandry. So as the 
Earth feemed a Sea to him, in refpecl of the perpe- 
tual Importation. It was truly obferved by one, 
that himfelf came very hardly to a little Riches, and 
very ealily to great Riches. For when a Man's 
Stock is come to that, that he can expeft the Prime 
of Markets, and overcome thofe Bargains, which 
for their Greatnefs are few Men's Money, and be 
Partner in the Induftries of Younger Men, he can- 
not but increafe mainly. The Gains of ordinary 
Trades and Vocations, are honeft ; and furthered by 
two things, chiefly : By Diligence ; and by a good 
Name, for good and fair dealing. But the Gains 
of Bargains, are of a more doubtful Nature; when 
Men fhall wait upon others' Neceffity, broke by 
Servants and Inftruments to draw them on, put off 
others cunningly that would be better Chapmen, and 
the like Practices, which are crafty and naught. 
As for the chopping of Bargains, when a Man buys, 
not to hold, but to fell over again, that commonly 
grindeth double, both upon the Seller, and upon the 
Buyer. Sharings do greatly enrich, if the Hands be 
well chofen, that are trailed. Ufury is the certaineft 
Means of Gain, though one of the worft ; as that, 
whereby a Man doth eat his Bread ; In fudore vul- 
tus alieni: And befides, doth Plough upon Sundays. 
But yet certain though it be, it hath Flaws ; for that 
the Scriveners and Brokers, do value unfound Men, 
to ferve their own Turn. The Fortune, in being 

130 Essays. 

the Firft in an Invention, or in a Privilege, doth caufe 
fometimes a wonderful Overgrowth in Riches ; as 
it was with the firft Sugar Man, in the Canaries: 
Therefore, if a Man can play the true Logician, to 
have as well Judgment, as Invention, he may do 
great Matters, efpecially if the Times be fit. He that 
refteth upon Gains certain, mall hardly grow to 
great Riches : And he that puts all upon Adventures, 
doth often times break, and come to Poverty : It is 
good therefore, to guard Adventures with Certainties, 
that may uphold loffes. Monopolies, and Coemption 
of Wares for Re f ale, where they are not reftrained, 
are great means to enrich ; efpecially, if the Party 
have intelligence, what Things are like to come into 
Requeft, and fo flore himfelf before hand. Riches 
gotten by Service, though it be of the beft Rife, yet 
when they are gotten by Flattery, feeding Humours, 
and other fervile Conditions, they may be placed 
amongft the Worft. As for Fiihing for Tejlaments 
and Executor/hips (as Tacitus faith of Seneca ; Teft- 
amenta et Or bos, tanquam indagine capi ;) It is yet 
worfe ; by how much Men fubmit themfelves, to 
Meaner Perfons, then in Service. Believe not much 
them, that feem to defpife Riches : For they defpife 
them, that defpair of them ; and none worfe, when 
they come to them. Be not Penny-wife ; Riches have 
Wings, and fometimes they fly away of themfelves, 
fometimes they muft be fet flying to bring in more. 
Men leave their Riches, either to their Kindred ; or 
to the Publick : and moderate Portions profper beft 

Of Riches. 131 

in both. A great State left to an Heir, is as a Lure 
to all the Birds of Prey round about, to feize on him, 
if he be not the better ftablifhed in Years and Judg- 
ment. Likewife glorious Gifts and Foundations, are 
like Sacrifices without Salt / and but the painted 
Sepulchres of Alms, which foon will putrify, and 
corrupt inwardly. Therefore, Meafure not thine 
Advancements by Quantity, but Frame them by 
Meafure ; and defer not Charities till Death : For 
certainly, if a Man weigh it rightly, he that doth fo, 
is rather liberal of an other Man's, than of his Own. 

xxxv. Of Prophecies. 

MEAN not to fpeak of Divine Pro- 
phecies ; nor of Heathen Oracles ; nor 
of natural Predictions; but only of 
Prophecies, that have been of certain 
Memory, and from hidden Caufes. Saith the Py- 
thonijfa to Saul ; To-morrow thou and thy Jon Jhall 
be with me. Homer hath thefe Verfes. 

At Domus JEnete cunclis dominabitur Oris, 
Et Nati Natorum, et qui nafcentur ab illis ; 

A Prophecy, as it feems, of the Roman Empire, 
Seneca the Tragedian hath thefe Verfes. 

Venient Annis 

Secula feris, quibus Oceanus 

7/f55 Kssiv 

132 Essays. 

Vinculo. Rerum laxet, et i?igens 
Pateat Tellus, Typhyfque novos 
Detegat Orbes s nee Jit Terr is 
Ultima Thule : 

A Prophecy of the Difcovery of America. The 
Daughter of Poly crates dreamed, that Jupiter bathed 
her Father, and Apollo anointed him : And it came 
to pafs, that he was crucified in an open Place, 
where the Sun made his Body run with Sweat, and 
the Rain warned it. Philip of Macedon dreamed, 
he fealed up his Wife's Belly : Whereby he did ex- 
pound it, that his Wife mould be barren : But Arif- 
tander the Soothfayer, told him, his Wife was with 
Child, becaufe Men do not ufe to Seal Veffels that 
are empty. A Phantafm, that appeared to M. Brutus 
in his Tent, faid to him ; Philippis iterum me videbis. 
Tiberius faid to Galba ; Tu quoque, Galba, deguf- 
tabis Impefium. In Vefpafiatfs Time, there went 
a Prophecy in the Eaft ; That thofe that mould come 
forth of J udea, mould reign over the World : which 
though it may be was meant of our Saviour, yet 
Tacitus expounds it of Vefpafian. Domitian dreamed, 
the Night before he was flam, that a Golden Head 
was growing out of the Nape of his Neck : And 
indeed, the Succefhon that followed him, for many 
years, made Golden Times. Henry the Sixth of 
England faid of Henry the Seventh, when he was a 
Lad, and gave him Water; This is the Lad, that 
Jhall enjoy the Crown, for which we ft rive. When 

Of Prophecies. 133 

I was in France, I heard from one Dr. Pena, that 
the j^. Mother, who was given to curious Arts, 
caufed the King her Hufband's Nativity, to be cal- 
culated, under a falfe Name; and the Aftrologer 
gave a Judgment, that he mould be killed in a 
Duel; at which the Queen laughed, thinking her 
Hufband to be above Challenges and Duels : but he 
was flain, upon a Courfe at Tilt, the Splinters of 
the Staff of Montgomery, going in at his Beaver. 
The trivial Prophecy, which I heard, when I was a 
Child, and Queen Elizabeth was in the Flower of 
her Years, was ; 

When Hemp is f pun ; 
England's done. 

Whereby, it was generally conceived, that after the 
Princes had reigned, which had the principal Letters, 
of that Word Hemp, (which were Henry, Edward, 
Mary, Philip, and Elizabeth), England mould come 
to utter Confufion. Which, thanks be to God, is 
verified only, in the Change of the Name : for that 
the King's Style is now no more of England, but of 
Britain. There was alfo another Prophecy, before 
the year of 88, which I do not well underftand. 

There Jh all be feen upon a day, 
Between the Baugh, and the May, 
The Black Fleet of Norway. 
When that that is come and gone, 
England build Houfes of Lime and Stone, 
For after Wars Jh all you have None. 

134 Essays. 

It was generally conceived, to be meant of the Spanifh 
Fleet, that came in 88. For that the King of Spain's 
Surname, as they fay, is Norway. The Prediction 
of Regiomontanus s 

Bogejimus oclavus mirabilis Annus ; 

Was thought likewife accomplifhed, in the fending 
of that great Fleet, being the greater!: in Strength, 
though not in Number, of all that ever fwam upon 
the Sea. As for Cleotfs Dream, I think it was a 
Jeft. It was, that he was devoured of a long Dra- 
gon ; and it was expounded of a Maker of Saufages, 
that troubled him exceedingly. There are numbers 
of the like kind ; efpecially if you include Dreams , 
and Predictions of Aft ro logy. But I have fet down 
thefe few only of certain Credit, for example. My 
Judgment is, that they ought all to be defpifed ; 
and ought to ferve, but for Winter Talk, by the 
Fire-fide. Though when I fay defpifed, I mean it 
as for Belief: For otherwife, the fpreading or pub- 
liming of them, is in no fort to be defpifed. For 
they have done much Mifchief: and I fee many 
fevere Laws made to fupprefs them. That, that 
hath given them Grace, and fome Credit, confifteth 
in three Things. Firft, that Men mark, when they 
hit, and never mark, when they mifs : As they do, 
generally, alfo of Dreams. The fecond is, that pro- 
bable Conjectures, or obfcure Traditions, many times, 
turn themfelves into Prophecies : While the Nature 
of Man, which coveteth Divination, thinks it no 

Of Prophecies. 135 

Peril to foretell that, which indeed they do but col- 
left. As that of Seneca's Verfe. For fo much was 
then fubjecl: to Demonftration, that the Globe of the 
Earth, had great Parts beyond the Atlantic ; which 
might be probably conceived, not to be all Sea : 
And adding thereto, the Tradition in Plato's Timeus, 
and his Atlanticus, it might encourage one, to turn 
it to a Prediction. The third, and laft (which is 
the great one) is, that almofl all of them, being infi- 
nite in Number, have been Impoftures, and by idle 
and crafty Brains, merely contrived and feigned, 
after the Event pail. 

xxxvi. Of Ambition. 

MBITION is like C holer ; which is 
a Humour, that maketh Men active, 
earnefl, full of alacrity, and flirring, if 
it be not flopped. But if it be flopped, 
and cannot have its Way, it becometh adufl, and 
thereby malign and venomous. So Ambitious Men, 
if they find the way open for their Rifing, and Hill 
get forward, they are rather bufy than dangerous ; 
but if they be check' t in their defires, they become 
fecretly difcontent, and look upon Men and Matters, 
with an evil Eye ; and are befl pleafed, when Things 
go backward ; which is the word Property, in a Ser- 
vant of a Prince or State. Therefore it is good for 

136 Essays. * 

Princes, if they ufe Ambitious Men, to handle it fo, 
as they be flill progreffive, and not retrograde : which 
becaufe it cannot be without Inconvenience, it is 
good not to ufe fuch Natures at all. For if they rife 
not with their Service, they will take Order to make 
their Service fall with them. But fince we have faid, 
it were good not to ufe Men of Ambitious Natures, 
except it be upon neceffity, it is fit we fpeak, in what 
Cafes, they are of neceffity. Good Commanders in 
the Wars, mull be taken, be they never fo Ambi- 
tious : For the Ufe of their Service difpenfeth with 
the reft ; and to take a Soldier without Ambition, is 
to pull off his Spurs. There is alfo great ufe of Am- 
bitious Men, in being Screens to Princes, in Matters 
of Danger and Envy : for no Man will take that 
Part, except he be like a feal'd Dove, that mounts 
and mounts, becaufe he cannot fee about him. There 
is Ufe alfo of Ambitious Men, in pulling down the 
Greatnefs of any Subject that over-tops : As Tiberius 
ufed Macro in the Pulling down of Sejanus. Since 
therefore they mull be ufed, in fuch Cafes, there reft- 
eth to fpeak, how they are to be bridled, that they may 
be lefs dangerous. There is lefs Danger of them, if 
they be of mean Birth, than if they be Noble : And 
if they be rather harfh of Nature, than gracious and 
popular : And if they be rather new raifed, than 
grown cunning, and fortified in their Greatnefs. It 
is counted by fome, a weaknefs in Princes, to have 
Favourites : but it is, of all others, the beft Remedy 
againft Ambitious Great-Ones. For when .the way 

Of Ambition. 137 

of Pleafuring and Difpleafuring,lieth by the Favourite, 
it is impoffible, any other fhould be over-great. 
Another means to curb them, is to balance them by 
others, as proud as they. But then, there muft be 
fome middle Counfellors, to keep Things fteady : for 
without that Ballaft, the Ship will roll too much. 
At the leaft, a Prince may animate and inure fome 
meaner Perfons, to be, as it were, Scourges to Ambi* 
tious Men. As for the having of them obnoxious to 
Ruin, if they be of fearful Natures, it may do well : 
But if they be ftout, and daring, it may precipitate 
their Defigns, and prove dangerous. As for the 
pulling of them down, if the Affairs require it, and 
that it may not be done with fafety fuddenly, the 
only Way is, the interchange continually of Favours, 
and Difgraces ; whereby they may not know, what 
to expect; and be, as it were, in a Wood. Of 
Ambitions, it is lefs harmfull, the Ambition to pre- 
vail in great Things, than that other, to appear in 
every thing; for that breeds Confufion, and mars 
Bulinefs. But yet, it is lefs danger, to have an Am- 
bitious Man, ftirring in Bulinefs, than Great in De- 
pendencies. He that feeketh to be eminent amongft 
able Men, hath a great Tafk ; but that is ever good 
for the Publick. But he that plots, to be the only 
Figure amongft Ciphers, is the decay of a whole 
Age. Honour hath three Things in it : The Vantage 
Ground to do good : The Approach to Kings, and 
principal Perfons : And the Raifing of a Man's own 
Fortunes. He that hath the beft of thefe Intentions, 

138 Essays. 

when he afpireth, is an honeft Man : And that 
Prince, that can difcern of thefe Intentions, in 
another that afpireth, is a wife Prince. Generally, 
let Princes and States choofe fuch Minifters as are 
more fenfible of Duty, than of Rifmg ; and fuch as 
love Bufinefs rather upon Confcience, than upon 
Bravery : And let them Difcern a bufy Nature, from 
a willing Mind. 

xxxvii. Of Mafques and 

HESE Things are but Toys, to come 
amongfl: fuch ferious Obfervations. But 
yet, fince Princes will have fuch Things, 
i it is better, they fhould be graced with 
Elegancy, than daubed with Coft. Dancing to Song, 
is a thing of great State, and Pleafure. I underftand 
it, that the Song be in Quire, placed aloft, and ac- 
companied with fome broken Muiick : And the 
Ditty fitted to the Device. Ailing in Song, efpecially 
in Dialogues, hath an extreme good Grace: I fay 
acling, not dancing, (for that is a mean and vulgar 
Thing ;) and the Voices of the Dialogue, would be 
ftrong and manly, (a Bafe, and a Tenor ; no Treble ;) 
and the Ditty high and tragical ; not nice or dainty. 
Several Quires, placed one over againft another, and 
taking the Voice by Catches, Antbem-w'ife, give 

Of Masques and Triumphs. 139 

great Pleafure. Turning Dances into Figure , is a 
childilh Curiofity. And generally, let it be noted, 
that thofe Things, which I here fet down, are fuch, 
as do naturally take the Senfe, and not refpect petty 
Wonderments. It is true, the Alterations of Scenes, 
fo it be quietly, and without Noife, are Things of 
great Beauty, and Pleafure ; for they feed and relieve 
the Eye, before it be full of the fame Objedl. Let 
the Scenes abound with Light, fpecially coloured and 
varied: And let the Mafquers, or any other, that 
are to come down from the Scene, have fome Motions, 
upon the Scene itfelf, before their Coming down ; 
for it draws the Eye fbangely, and makes it with 
great pleafure, to defire to fee that, it cannot perfectly 
difcern. Let the Songs be loud, and cheerful, and 
not Chirpings, or Pulings. Let the Mujick like- 
wife be Jharp, and loud, and well placed. The C0- 
lours, that mew bell by Candlelight, are; White, Car- 
nation, and a kind of Sea- water Green ; and Ouches, 
or Spangs, as they are of no great Coll, fo they are 
of moll Glory. As for rich Embroidery, it is loft, 
and not difcerned. Let the Suits of the Mafquers 
be Graceful, and fuch as become the Perfon, when 
the Vizors are off: Not after Examples of known 
Attires; Turks, Soldiers, Mariners, and the like. 
Let Anti-mafques not be long ; they have been com- 
monly of Fools, Satyrs, Baboons, Wild Men, An- 
ticks, Beafts, Sprites, Witches, Ethiopes, Pigmies, 
Turquets, Nymphs, Ruftics, Cupids, Statues moving, 
and the like. As for Angels, it is not comical 



enough, to put them in Anti-mafques ; and any Thing 
that is hideous, as Devils, Giants, is on the other 
fide as unfit. But chiefly, let the Mufick of them, 
be recreative, and with fome ftrange Changes. Some 
Sweet Odours, fuddenly coming forth, without any 
drops falling, are, in fuch a Company, as there is 
Steam and Heat, Things of great Pleafure ; and Re- 
frefhment. Double Mafques, one of Men, another 
of Ladies, addeth State and Variety. But all is 
nothing, except the Room be kept clear, and neat. 

For Jufis, and Tournies, and Barriers; the 
Glories of them are chiefly in the Chariots, wherein 
the Challengers make their Entry ; efpecially if they 
be drawn with flrange Beafts ; as Lions, Bears, Ca- 
mels, and the like : or in the Devices of their En- 
trance; or in the Bravery of their Liveries; or in 
the Goodly Furniture of their Horfes and Armour. 
But enough of thefe Toys. 

xxxviii. Of Nature in Men. 

ATVRE is often hidden; fometimes 
overcome; feldom extinguished. Force 
maketh Nature more violent in the Re- 
turn : Doctrine and Difcourfe maketh 
Nature lefs importune : But Cuflom only doth alter 
and fubdue Nature. He that feeketh Victory over 
his Nature, let him not fet himfelf too great, nor 

Of Nature in Men. 141 

fmall Tafks : For the firft will make him dejected 
by often Failings ; and the fecond will make him a 
fmall Proceeder, though by often Prevailings. And 
at the firft, let him pra&ife with Helps, as Swimmers 
do with Bladders, or Rufhes : But after a time, let 
him praftife with Difadvantages, as Dancers do with 
thick Shoes. For it breeds great Perfection, if the 
Practice be harder than the Ufe. Where Nature is 
mighty, and therefore the Victory hard, the Degrees 
had need be ; firft to ftay and arreft Nature in time ; 
like to him, that would fay over the four-and- twenty 
Letters, when he was angry : Then to go lefs in 
quantity ; as if one fhould, in forbearing Wine, come 
from drinking Healths, to a draught at a Meal : And 
laftly, to difcontinue altogether. But if a Man have 
the Fortitude, and Refolution, to enfranchife him- 
felf at once, that is the beft ; 

Optimus ille Animi V index, leedeniia peel us 
Vincula qui rupit, dedoluitque feme I. 

Neither is the ancient Rule amifs, to bend Nature 
as a Wand, to a contrary Extreme, whereby to fet 
it right : Underftanding it, where the contrary Ex- 
treme is no Vice. Let not a man force a Habit 
upon himfelf, with a perpetual Continuance, but 
with fome Intermiffion. For both the Paufe re- 
inforceth the new Onfet ; and if a Man, that is 
not perfect, be e.ver in Practice, he fhall as well 
pra&ife his Errors, as his Abilities ; and induce 

142 Essays. 

one Habit of both : and there is no Means to 
help this, but by feafonable Intermiffions. But let 
not a man trull his Victory over his Nature too far ; 
for Nature will lie buried a great Time, and yet 
revive, upon the Occafion or Temptation. Like as 
it was with JEfop's Dam/el, turned from a Cat to 
a Woman, who fat very demurely, at the Board's 
End, till a Moufe ran before her. Therefore let a 
Man, either avoid the Occafion altogether ; or put 
himfelf often to it, that he may be little moved with 
it. A Man's Nature is belt, perceived in Privatenefs, 
for there is no Affectation ; in Paffion, for that put- 
teth a Man out of his Precepts ; and in a new Cafe 
or Experiment, for there Cuftom leaveth him. They 
are happy Men, whofe Natures fort with their Vo- 
cations ; otherwife they may fay, Multum hicolafuit 
Anima mea ; when they converfe in thofe Things, 
they do not Affect. In Studies, whatsoever a Man 
commandeth upon himfelf, let him fet Hours for it : 
But whatfoever is agreeable to his Nature, let him 
take no Care, for any fet Times : For his Thoughts 
will fly to it of themfelves ; fo as the Spaces of other 
Bufmefs, or Studies, will fuffice. A Man's Nature 
runs either to Herbs, or Weeds ; therefore let him 
feafonably water the One, and deflroy the Other. 


xxxix. Of Cuftom and 

ENS Thoughts are much according to 
their Inclination : Their Difcourfe and 
Speeches according to their Learning, 
and infufed Opinions ; but their Deeds 
are after as they have been accuftomed. And there- 
fore, as Machiavel well noteth (though in an evil 
favoured Inftance) there is no trufting to the Force 
of Nature, nor to the Bravery of Words ; except it 
be corroborate by Cuftom. His Inftance is, that 
for the achieving of a defperate Confpiracy, a Man 
fhould not reft upon the Fiercenefs of any man's 
Nature, or his refolute Undertakings ; but take 
fuch a one, as hath had his Hands formerly in 
Blood. But Machiavel knew not of a Friar Cle- 
ment, nor a Ravillac, nor a Jaureguy, nor a Bal- 
tazar Gerard,' yet his Rule holdeth ftill, that Na- 
ture, nor the Engagement of Words, are not {o 
forcible, as Cuftom. Only Superftition is now (o 
well advanced, that Men of the firft Blood, are as 
Firm, as Butchers by Occupation : And votary Re- 
folution is made equipollent to Cuftom, even in mat- 
ter of Blood. In other Things, the Predominancy 
of Cuftom is every where vilible ; in fo much, as a 
Man would wonder, to hear Men profefs, proteft, 


144 Essays. 

engage, give great Words, and then do juft as they have 
done before : As if they were dead Images, and Engines 
moved only by the wheels of Cuflom. We fee alfo 
the Reign or Tyranny of Cujlom, what it is. The 
Indians (I mean the Seel of their Wife Men) lay 
themfelves quietly upon a Stack of Wood, and fo 
Sacrifice themfelves by Fire. Nay the Wives ftrive 
to be burned with the Corpfes of their Hufbands. 
The Lads of Sparta, of ancient Time, were wont to 
be fcourged upon the Altar of Diana, without fo 
much as Quecking. I remember in the beginning 
of Queen Elizabeth's time of England, an Irijh 
Rebel condemned, put up a Petition to the Deputy, 
that he might be hanged in a Withe, and not in a 
Halter, becaufe it had been fo ufed, with former 
Rebels. There be Monks in RuJJia, for Penance, 
that will lit a whole Night, in a VefTel of Water, 
till they be engaged with hard Ice. Many Exam- 
ples may be put, of the Force of Cujlom, both upon 
Mind, and Body. Therefore, fince Cuflom is the 
principal Magiftrate of Man's Life ; let Men by all 
Means endeavour to obtain good Cufioms. Cer- 
tainly Cujlom is moll perfect, when it beginneth in 
young Years : This we call Education j which is, 
in Effect, but an early Cujlom. So we fee, in Lan- 
guages the Tongue is more Pliant to all Expreffions 
and Sounds, the Joints are more Supple to all Feats 
of Activity, and Motions, in Youth than afterwards. 
For it is true, that late Learners, cannot fo well take 
the Ply ; except it be in fome Minds, that have not 

Of Custom and Education. 145 

fuffered themfelves to fix, but have kept themfelves 
open and prepared to receive continual Amendment, 
which is exceeding rare. But if the Force of Cuf- 
tom fimple and feparate, be great; the Force ofCuj- 
tom copulate, and conjoined, and collegiate, is far 
greater. For there Example teacheth ; Company 
comforteth, Emulation quickeneth ; Glory raifeth : 
So as in fuch Places the Force of Cuftom is in his 
Exaltation. Certainly, the great Multiplication of 
Virtues upon human Nature, refteth upon Societies 
well ordained, and difciplined. For Commonwealths, 
and good Governments, do nourifh Virtue grown, 
but do not much mend the Seeds. But the Mifery 
is, that the molt effe&ual Means, are now applied to 
the Ends, leaft to be defired. 

xl. Of Fortune, 

T cannot be denied, but outward Acci- 
dents conduce much to Fortune : Fa- 
vour, Opportunity, Death of Others, 
Occafion fitting Virtue. But chiefly, 
the Mould of a Man's Fortune is in his own hands. 
Faber qui/que Fortune fua ; faith the Poet. And 
the moft Frequent of external Caufes is, that the 
Folly of one Man is the Fortune of Another. For 
no man profpers fo fuddenly, as by other's Errors. 
Serpens nifi Serpent em comederit non fit Draco. 


146 Essays. 

Overt, and apparent Virtues bring forth Praife ; but 
there be fecret and hidden Virtues, that bring Forth 
Fortune. Certain Deliveries of a Man's Self, which 
have no Name. The Spanifh Name, Defemboltura, 
partly expreifeth them : When there be not Stonds, 
nor Reftivenefs in a Man's Nature ; but that the 
wheels of his Mind keep way, with the wheels of 
his Fortune. For fo Livy (after he had defcribed 
Cato Major, in thefe words ; In Mo viro, tantum 
Robur Corporis et Animifuit, ut quocunque loco na- 
tus ejfet, Fortunam fibi faclurus videretur ;) falleth 
upon that, that he had, verfatile Ingenium. There- 
fore, if a Man look fharply, and attentively, he fhall 
fee Fortune : For though fhe be blind, yet {he is not 
invifible. The Way of Fortune is like the Milky 
Way in the Sky ; which is a Meeting or Knot, of a 
Number of fmall Stars ; not Seen afunder, but giving 
Light together. So are there, a Number of little, 
and fcarce difcerned Virtues, or rather Faculties and 
Cuftoms, that make Men Fortunate. The Italians 
note fome of them, fuch as a Man would little think. 
When they fpeak of one, that cannot do amifs, they 
will throw in, into his other Conditions, that he 
hath, Poco di Matto. And certainly, there be not 
two more Fortunate Properties ; than to have a little 
of the Fool ; and not too much of the Honefl. There- 
fore, extreme Lovers of their Country, or Mailers, 
were never Fortunate, neither can they be. For 
when a Man placeth his Thoughts without him- 
felf, he goeth not his own Way. A hafty Fortune 

Of Fortune. 147 

maketh an Enterprifer, and Remover (the French 
hath it better; Entreprenant, or Remuant). But 
the exercifed Fortune maketh the able Man. For- 
tune is to be honoured, and refpecled, and it be but 
for her Daughters, Confidence and Reputation. For 
thofe two Felicity breedeth : The firft within a 
Man's Self; the latter, in others towards Him. All 
wife Men, to decline the Envy of their own Virtues, 
ufe to afcribe them to Providence and Fortune ; for 
fo they may the better afTume them : And befides, 
it is Greatnefs in a Man, to be the Care of the 
Higher Powers. So Cafar faid to the Pilot in the 
Tempeft, Cafarem portas, et Fortunam ejus. So 
Sylla chofe the Name of Felix, and not of Magnus. 
And it hath been noted, that thofe, that afcribe 
openly too much to their own Wifdom, and Policy, 
end Unfortunate. It is written, that Timotheus 
the Athenian, after he had, in the Account he gave 
to the State, of his Government, often interlaced this 
Speech; And in this Fortune had no Part never 
profpered in any thing he undertook afterwards. 
Certainly, there be, whofe Fortunes are like Homer s 
Verfes, that have a Slide, and Eafinefs, more than 
the Verfes of other Poets : As Plutarch faith of 
Timoleorfs Fortune, in refpect of that of Agefilaus, 
or Epaminondas. And that this mould be, no doubt 
it is much, in a Man's Self. 

148 Essays. 

xli. Of Ufury. 

ANY have made witty Inveclives again ft 
Ufury. They fay, that it is Pity, the 
Devil fhould have God's Part, which 
is the Tithe. That the Vfurer is the 
greateft Sabbath Breaker, becaufe his Plough goeth 
every Sunday. That the Vfurer is the Drone, that 
Virgil fpeaketh of : . . 

Ignavum Fucos Pecus a pr&fepibus arcent. 

That the Vfurer breaketh the firft Law, that was 
made for Mankind, after the Fall ; which was, In 
Sudor e Vultus tui comedes Panem tuum j Not, In 
Sudore Vultus alieni. That Vfurers fhould have 
Orange-tawny Bonnets, becaufe they do Judaize. 
That it is againft Nature, for Money to beget Money j 
and the like. I fay this only, that Ufury is a Con- 
cejfum propter Duritiem Cordis: For fince there 
mull: be borrowing and lending, and Men are fo 
hard of Heart, as they will not lend freely, Vfury 
mull be permitted. Some Others have made fuf- 
picious, and cunning Propofitions, of Banks, Difco- 
very of Men's Eilates, and other Inventions. But 
few have fpoken of Vfury ufefully. It is good to 
fet before us, the Incommodities, and Commodities of 
Ufury / that the Good may be, either weighed out, 

Of Usury. 149 

or culled out ; and warily to provide, that while we 
make forth, to that which is better, we meet not, 
with that which is worfe. 

The D if commodities of U/ury are : Firft, that it 
makes fewer Merchants. For were it not, for this 
kzy Trade of U/ury, Money would not lie Mill, but 
would, in great Part, be employed upon Merchan- 
dizing ; which is the Vena Porta of Wealth in a 
State. The Second, that it makes poor Merchants. 
For as a Farmer cannot hufband his Ground fo well, 
if he fit at a great Rent ; fo the Merchant cannot 
drive his Trade fo well, if he fit at great U/ury. 
The Third is incident to the other two ; and that 
is, the Decay of Cuftoms of Kings or States, which 
ebb or flow with Merchandizing. The Fourth, that 
it bringeth the Treafure of a Realm or State, into a 
few Hands. For the U/urer being at Certainties, 
and others at Uncertainties, at the end of the Game ; 
mod of the Money will be in the Box ; and ever a 
State flourifheth, when Wealth is more equally fpread. 
The Fifth, that it beats down the Price of Land : 
For the Employment of Money is chiefly, either 
Merchandizing, or Purchasing ; and U/ury Waylays 
both. The Sixth, that it doth dull and damp all 
Induftries, Improvements, and new Inventions, 
wherein Money would be ftirring, if it were not for 
this Slug. The Laft, that it is the Canker and Ruin 
of many Men's Eftates ; which in procefs of Time 
breeds a public Poverty. 

On the other lide, the Commodities of U/ury are* 

150 Essays. 

Firft, that howfoever Ufury in fome refpecl hindreth 
Merchandizing, yet in fome other it advanceth it : 
For it is certain, that the greateft Part of Trade, is 
driven by young Merchants, upon borrowing at In- 
tereft : So as if the Ufurer, either call in, or keep 
back his Money, there will enfue prefently a great 
Stand of Trade. The Second is, That were it not, 
for this eafy borrowing upon Intereft, Men's Necef- 
fities would draw upon them, a moil fudden undoing; 
in that they would be forced to fell their Means (be 
it Lands or Goods) far under Foot ; and fo, whereas 
Ufury doth but gnaw upon them, bad Markets would 
fwallow them quite up. As for mortgaging, or 
pawning, it will little mend the matter ; for either 
Men will not take Pawns without Ufe 5 or if they 
do, they will look precifely for the Forfeiture. I 
remember a cruel moneyed Man, in the Country, 
that would fay ; the Devil take this Ufury , it keeps 
us from Forfeitures of Mortgages, and Bonds. The 
third and lafl is ; That it is a Vanity to conceive, 
that there would be ordinary Borrowing without 
Profit ; and it is impoffible to conceive, the Number 
of Inconveniences, that will enfue, if Borrowing be 
cramped. Therefore, to fpeak of the abolifhing of 
Ufury is idle. All States have ever had it, in one 
kind or rate, or other. So as that Opinion mult be 
fent to Utopia. 

To fpeak now, of the Reformation and Reglement 
of Ufury y how the Difcommodities of it may be bell 
avoided, and the Commodities retained. It appears 
by the Balance, of Commodities, and Difcommodities 

Of Usury. 151 

of Ufury, two Things are to be reconciled. The 
one, that the Tooth of Ufury be grinded, that it bite 
not too much : The other, that there be left open a 
Means, to invite moneyed Men, to lend to the Mer- 
chants, for the continuing and quickening of Trade. 
This cannot be done,exceptyou introduce, two feveral 
Sorts of Ufury ; a Lefs, and a Greater. For if you 
reduce Ufury, to one Low Rate, it will eafe the com- 
mon Borrower, but the Merchant will be to feek for 
Money. And it is to be noted, that the Trade of 
Merchandize, being the moll lucrative, may bear 
Ufury at a good Rate ; Other Contracts not To. 

To ferve both Intentions, the way would be 
briefly thus. That there be Two Rates of Ufury, 
The one Free, and General for All; The other 
under Licenfe only, to certain Perfons, and in cer- 
tain Places of Merchandizing. Firft, therefore, let 
Ufury, in general, be reduced to Five in the Hundred ; 
and let that Rate be proclaimed to be free and cur- 
rent ; and let the State fhut itfelf out, to take any 
Penalty for the fame. This will preferve Borrowing 
from any general Stop or Drynefs. This will eafe 
infinite Borrowers in the Country. This will, in 
good Part, raife the Price of Land, becaufe Land 
purchafed at Sixteen Years' Purchafe, will yield Six 
in the Hundred, and fomewhat more, whereas this 
Rate of Intereft yields but Five. This, by like 
reafon, will Encourage and edge induftrious and 
profitable Improvements ; becaufe Many will rather 
venture in that kind, than take Five in the Hundred, 
efpecially having been ufed to greater Profit. Secondly, 

152 Essays. 

let there be certain Perfons licenfed to Lend, to known 
Merchants, upon Ufury at a higher Rate / and let 
it be with the Cautions following. Let the Rate be, 
even with the Merchant himfelf, fomewhat more 
eafy, than that he ufed formerly to pay: For, by 
that Means, all Borrowers mall have fome eafe, by 
this Reformation, be he Merchant, or whofoever. 
Let it be no Bank or Common Stock, but every 
Man be Mailer of his own Money : Not that I 
altogether Miflike Banks, but they will hardly be 
brooked, in regard of certain fufpicions. Let the 
State be anfwered, fome fmall Matter, for the Licenfe, 
and the reft left to the Lender : For if the Abatement 
be but fmall, it will no whit difcourage the Lender. 
For he, for Example, that took before Ten or Nine 
in the Hundred, will fooner defcend to Eight in the 
Hundred, than give over his Trade of Ufury , and 
go from certain Gains, to Gains of Hazard. Let 
thefe licenfed Lenders be in Number indefinite, but 
reftrained to certain Principal Cities and Towns of 
Merchandizing : For then they will be hardly able, 
to colour other Men's Monies, in the Country : So 
as the Licenfe of Nine will not fuck away the cur- 
rent Rate of Five : For no Man will fend his Monies 
far off, nor put them into unknown Hands. 

If it be objected, that this doth, in a fort, author- 
ize Ufury, which before was, in fome places, but 
permimve : The Anfwer is ; That it is better, to 
mitigate Ufury by Declaration, than to fuffer it to 
rage by Connivance. 


xlii. Of Youth and Age, 

MAN that is young in Years, may be 
old in Hours, if he have loll no Time. 
But that happeneth rarely. Generally, 
Youth is like the firft Cogitations, not 
fo wife as the fecond. For there is a Youth in 
thoughts as well as in Ages. And yet the Invention 
of young Men is more lively, than that of old : 
And Imaginations ftream into their Minds better, 
and, as it were, more divinely. Natures that have 
much Heat, and great and violent Defires and Per- 
turbations, are not ripe for Aftion, till they have 
pafled the Meridian of their years : As it was with 
Julius Ctefar, and Septimius Severus. Of the latter 
of whom, it is faid ; Juventutem egit Erroribus, 
irrib Furoribusy plenam. And yet he was the ableft 
Emperor, almoft, of all the Lift. But repofed Na- 
tures may do well in Youth. As it is feen in Au- 
guflus Gafar, Cofmus Duke of Florence, Gafton de 
FoiSy and others. On the other fide, Heat and Vi- 
vacity in Age, is an Excellent Compofition for 
Bufinefs. Young Men are Fitter to invent, than to 
judge ; fitter for Execution, than for Counfell ; and 
fitter for new Projects, than for fettled Bulinefs. For 
the Experience of Age, in Things that fall within 
fhe compafs of it, diredleth them ; but in new 

154 Essays. 

Things, abufeth them. The Errors of young Men 
are the Ruin of Bufinefs ; but the Errors of aged 
Men amount but to this ; that more might have 
been done, or fooner. Toung Men, in the conducl 
and Manage of Adlions, embrace more than they 
can hold, ftir more than they can quiet ; fly to the 
End, without Consideration of the Means, and De- 
grees ; purfue fome few Principles, which they have 
chanced upon abfurdly ; care not to innovate, which 
draws unknown Inconveniences; ufe extreme Re- 
medies at firll ; and, that which doubleth all Errors, 
will not acknowledge or retracl: them ; like an unready 
Horfe, that will neither flop, nor turn. Men of Age 
objecl: too much, confult too long, adventure too little, 
repent too foon, and feldom drive Bufinefs home to 
the full Period; but content themfelves with a 
Mediocrity of Succefs. Certainly, it is good to com- 
pound Employments of both ; for that will be good 
for the Prefent, becaufe the Virtues of either Age 
may correct the defefts of both : and good for Suc- 
ceffion, that Toung Men may be Learners, while 
Men in Age are Adtors : And laftly, good for externe 
Accidents , becaufe Authority folio we th old Men, and 
Favour and Popularity Youth. But for the moral 
Part, perhaps Youth will have the pre-eminence, as 
Age hath for the Politick. A certain Rabbin, upon 
the Text ; Your Young Men Jhall fee vifions, and 
your Old Men Jhall dream dreams ; inferreth, that 
young Men are admitted nearer to God than old ; 
becaufe Vifion is a clearer Revelation, than a Dream. 

Of Youth and Age. 155 

And certainly, the more a Man drinketh of the 
World, the more it intoxicateth ; and Age doth 
profit rather in the Powers of Underftanding, than 
in the Virtues of the Will and Affeftions. There 
be fome have an over-early Ripenefs in their years, 
which fadeth betimes : Thefe are firft, fuch as have 
brittle Wits, the Edge whereof is foon turned ; fuch 
as was Hermogenes the Rhetorician, whofe Books are 
exceeding fubtile ; who afterwards waxed ftupid. A 
fecond Sort is of thofe, that have fome natural Dif- 
pofitions, which have better Grace in Toutb, than in 
Age ; fuch as is a fluent and luxuriant Speech; which 
becomes Toutb well, but not Age ; fo Tully faith of 
Hortenfius; Idem manebat, neque idem decebat. The 
third is of fuch, as take too high a Strain at the Firft ; 
and are magnanimous, more than Tracl: of years can 
uphold. As was Scipio Africanus, of whom Lky 
faith in effect ; Ultima Primis cedebant. 

xliii. Of Beauty. 

IRTUE is like a rich Stone, beft plain 
fet: And furely, Virtue is beft in a 
Body, that is comely, though not of 
delicate Features : And that hath rather 
Dignity of Prefence, than Beauty of Afpecl:. Neither 
is it almoft feen, that very beautiful Perfons are 
otherwife of great Virtue ; as if Nature were rather 

156 Essays. 

bufy not to err, than in labour, to produce Excellency. 
And therefore, they prove accomplifhed, but not of 
great Spirit ; and Study rather Behaviour, than Virtue. 
But this holds not always ; for Augufius Ccefar, 
Titus Vefpafianus, Philip le Belle of France, Edward 
the Fourth of England, Alcibiades of Athens, Ifmael 
the Sophy of Perfia, were all high and great Spirits ; 
and yet the moft beautiful Men of their Times. In 
Beauty, that of Favour is more than that of Colour, 
and that of decent and gracious Motion, more than 
that of Favour. That is the beft Part of Beauty, 
which a Picture cannot exprefs ; no nor the iirft 
Sight of the Life. There is no excellent Beauty, 
that hath not fome Strangenefs in the Proportion. 
A Man cannot tell, whether Apelles, or Albert 
D urer, were the more Trifler : Whereof the one 
would make a Perfonage by Geometrical Proportions ; 
the other, by taking the beft Parts out of divers Faces, 
to make one Excellent. Such Perfonages, I think, 
would pleafe nobody, but the Painter, that made 
them. Not but I think, a Painter may make a 
better Face, than ever was ; but he mull do it, by a 
kind of Felicity (as a Mufician that maketh an ex- 
cellent Air in Mufick), and not by Rule. A Man 
mail fee Faces, that if you examine them, Part by 
Part, you mall find never a good ; and yet altogether 
do well. If it be true, that the principal Part of 
Beauty is in decent Motion, certainly it is no mar- 
vel, though Perfons in Tears feem many times more 
amiable; Pulchrorum Autumnus Pulcher: For no 

Of Beauty. 157 

Youth can be comely, but by Pardon, and confider- 
ing the Youth, as to make up the comelinefs. Beauty 
is as Summer Fruits, which are eafy to corrupt, and 
cannot laft : And, for the moft part, it makes a dif- 
folute Youth, and an Age a little out of countenance : 
But yet certainly again, if it light well, it maketh 
Virtues mine, and Vices blufh. 

xliv. Of Deformity. 

EFORMED Perfons are commonly 
even with Nature : for as Nature hath 
done ill by them : fo do they by Na- 
ture : Being for the moft part (as the 
Scripture faith), void of natural Affeftion ; and fo 
they have their Revenge of Nature. Certainly there 
is a Confent between the Body and the Mind ; and 
where Nature erreth in the one, fhe ventureth in 
the other. Vbi peccat in uno, periclitatur in altero. 
But becaufe, there is in Man, an Election touching 
the Frame of his Mind, and a Necefhty in the Frame 
of his Body, the Stars of natural Inclination are 
fometimes obfcured, by the Sun of Difcipline and 
Virtue. Therefore, it is good to confider of De- 
formity, not as a Sign, which is more deceivable ; 
but as a Caufe, which feldom faileth of the Effect. 
Whofoever hath any Thing fixed in his Perfon, that 
doth induce Contempt, hath alfo a perpetual Spur 

158 Essays. 

in himfelf, to refcue and deliver himfelf from Scorn : 
Therefore all deformed Perfons are extreme bold. 
Firft, as in their own Defence, as being expofed to 
Scorn ; but in Procefs of Time, by a general Habit. 
Alfo it flirreth in them Induflry, and efpecially of 
this kind, to watch and obferve the Weaknefs of 
others, that they may have fomewhat to repay. 
Again, in their Superiors, it quencheth Jealoufy 
towards them, as Perfons that they think they may 
at pleafure defpife : And it layeth their Competitors 
and Emulators afleep ; as never believing, they mould 
be in poffibility of advancement, till they fee them 
in PofTemon. So that, upon the matter, in a great 
Wit, Deformity is an Advantage to Rifing. Kings 
in ancient Times (and at this prefent in fome Coun- 
tries,) were wont to put great Truft in Eunuchs j 
becaufe they, that are envious towards all, are more 
obnoxious and officious towards one. But yet their 
Trull towards them hath rather been as to good 
Spials, and good Whifperers ; than good Magiltrates, 
and Officers. And much like is the Reafon of de- 
formed Perfons. Still the Ground is, they will, if 
they be of Spirit, feek to free themfelves from Scorn; 
which mull be, either by Virtue, or Malice : And 
therefore, let it not be marvelled, if fometimes they 
prove excellent Perfons : as was Agefilaus, Zanger 
the Son of So/yman, JEfop, Gafca Prefident of 
Peru ; and Socrates may go likewife amongfl them ; 
with others. 


xlv. Of Building, 

OUSES are built to live 'in, and not 
to look on : Therefore let Ufe be 
preferred before Uniformity; except 
where both may be had. Leave the 
goodly Fabricks of Houfes, for Beauty only, to the en- 
chanted Palaces of the Poets : Who build them with 
fmall Coft. He that builds a fair Houfe, upon an *// 
Seat, committeth himfelf to Prifon. Neither do I 
reckon it an ill Seat only, where the Air is unwhole- 
fome ; but likewife where the Air is unequal ; as you 
fhall fee many fine Seats, fet upon a knap of Ground, 
environed with higher Hills round about it : whereby 
the Heat of the Sun is pent in, and the Wind 
gathereth as in Troughs ; fo as you fhall have, and 
that fuddenly, as great Diverfity of Heat and Cold, 
as if you dwelt in feveral Places. Neither is it ill 
Air only, that maketh an ill Seat, but ill Ways, ill 
Markets ; and, if you will confult with Momus, ill 
Neighbours. I fpeak not of many More : Want of 
Water ; Want of Wood, Shade, and Shelter ; Want 
of Fruitfulnefs, and mixture of Grounds of feveral 
Natures; Want of Profpedt ; Want of level Grounds; 
Want of Places, at fome near Diftance, for Sports of 
Hunting, Hawking, and Races ; too near the Sea, 
^too remote ; having the Commodity of Navigable 

160 Essays. 

Rivers, or the Difcommodity of their Overflowing ; 
too far o£F from great Cities, which may hinder Bufi- 
nefs ; or too near them, which lurcheth all Provifions, 
and maketh every Thing dear : Where a Man hath 
a great Living laid together, and where he is fcanted : 
All which, as it is impoffible, perhaps, to find together, 
fo it is good to know them, and think of them, that 
a Man may take as many as he can : And if he have 
feveral Dwellings, that he fort them fo, that what 
hewanteth in the one, he may find in the other. 
Lucullus anfwered Pompey well ; who when he faw 
his Stately Galleries, and Rooms, fo large and light- 
fome, in one of his Houfes, faid ; Surely, an excellent 
Place for Summer, but how do you in Winter? Lu- 
cullus anfwered ; Why, do you not think me as wife 
as fome Fowls are, that ever change their Abode 
towards the Winter? 

To pafs from the Seat, to the Houfe itfelf ; we 
will do as Cicero doth, in the Orator's Art; who 
writes Books De Or at ore, and a Book he entitles 
Orator : Whereof the Former delivers the Precepts 
of the Art ; and the Latter the Perfeclion. We 
will therefore defcribe a Princely Palace, making a 
brief Model thereof. For it is ftrange to fee, now in 
Europe, fuch huge Buildings, as the Vatican, and 
Efcurial, and fome others be, and yet fcarce a very 
fair Room in them. 

Firft therefore, I fay, you cannot have a perfect 
Palace, except you have two feveral Sides ; a Side 
for the Banquet, as is fpoken of in the Book of 

Of Building. 161 

Hefter ; and a Side, for the Houfehold : The one 
for Feaits and Triumphs, and the other for Dwelling. 
I underftand both thefe Sides to be not only Returns, 
but Parts of the Front ; and to be uniform without, 
though feverally partitioned within ; and to be on 
both Sides, of a Great and Stately Tower, in the 
midft of the Front j that as it were, joineth them 
together, on either Hand. I would have on the 
Side of the Banquet, in Front, one only goodly Room, 
above Stairs, of fome Forty Foot high ; And under 
it, a Room, for a dr effing or preparing Place, at Times 
of Triumphs. On the other Side, which is the 
Houfehold Side, I wifh it divided at the firft, into a 
Hall, and a Cbapel (with a Partition between) ; 
both of good State, and Bignefs : And thofe not to 
go all the length, but to have, at the further end, a 
Winter, and a Summer Parlour, both fair. And 
under thefe Rooms, a fair and large Cellar, funk 
under Ground : And likewife, fome privy Kitchens, 
with Butteries, and Pantries, and the like. As for 
the Tower, I would have it two Stories, of Eighteen 
Foot high apiece, above the two Wings; and a 
goodly Leads upon the Top, railed with Statues in- 
terpofed; and the fame Tower to be divided into 
Rooms, as fhall be thought fit. The Stairs likewife, 
to the upper Rooms* let them be upon a fair open 
Newel, and finely railed in, with Images of Wood, 
call into a Brafs Colour : And a very fair Landing 
Place at the Top. But this to be, if you do not 
point any of the lower Rooms, for a Dining Place of 


162 Essays. 

Servants. For otherwife, you mall have the Servants' 
Dinner after your own : For the Steame of it will 
come up as in a Tunnel. And fo much for the 
Front. Only, I underftand the Height of the firil 
Stairs, to be Sixteen Foot, which is the Height of 
the Lower Room. 

Beyond this Front, is there to be a fair Court, 
but three Sides of it, of a far Lower building, than 
the Front. And in all the four Corners of that 
Court, fair Stair Cafes, caft into Turrets, on the 
Outride, and not within the Row of Buildings them- 
felves. But thofe Towers are not to be of the Height 
of the Front; but rather proportionable to the Lower 
Building. Let the Court not be paved, for that 
ftriketh up a great Heat in Summer, and much Cold 
in Winter. But only fome Side Alleys, with a Crofs, 
and the Quarters to Graze, being kept Shorn, but 
not too near Shorn. The Row of Return, on the 
Banquet Side, let it be all Stately Galleries; in 
which Galleries, let there be three, or five, fine Cu- 
polas, in the Length of it, placed at equal diftance : 
And fine coloured Windows of feveral works. On 
the Houfehold Side, Chambers of Prefence, and or- 
dinary Entertainments, with fome Bed-chambers y 
and let all three Sides, be a double Houfe, without 
thorough Lights, on the Sides, that you may have 
Rooms from the Sun, both for Forenoon, and After- 
noon. Caft it alfo, that you may have Rooms, both 
for Summer, and Winter : Shady for Summer, and 
Warm for Winter. You fhall have fometimes fair 

Of Building. 163 

Houfes, fo full of Glafs, that one cannot tell, where 
to become, to be out of the Sun, or Cold : For In- 
bowed Windows, I hold them of good Ufe (in Cities 
indeed, upright do better, in refpeft of the Uniform- 
ity towards the Street) ; for they be pretty Retiring 
Places for Conference ; and befides, they keep both 
the Wind, and Sun off: For that which would ftrike 
almoft through the Room, doth fcarce pafs the Win- 
dow. But let them be but few, Four in the Court, 
on the Sides only. 

Beyond this Court, let there be an inward Court 
of the fame Square, and Height ; which is to be en- 
vironed with the Garden, on all Sides : And in the 
Infide, cloiftered on all Sides, upon decent and beau- 
tiful Arches, as High as the firft Story. On the 
under Story, towards the Garden, let it be turned to 
Grotto, or Place of Shade, or Eftivation. And only 
have opening and Windows towards the Garden; 
and be level upon the Floor, no whit funk under 
Ground, to avoid all Dampifhnefs. And let there 
be a Fountain, or fome fair Work of Statues, in the 
Midft of this Court ; and to be paved as the other 
Court was. Thefe Buildings to be for privy Lodgings, 
on both Sides ; and the End, for privy Galleries. 
Whereof, you mull forefee, that one of them be for 
an Infirmary, if the Prince, or any Special Perfon 
mould be Sick, with Chambers, Bed-chamber, Anti- 
camera, and Re cam era, joining to it. This upon 
the Second Story. Upon the Ground Story, a fair 
Gallery, open, upon Pillars ; And upon the Third 


164 Essays. 

Story likewife, an open Gallery upon Pillars, to take 
the Profpe£t, and Frelhnefs of the Garden. At both 
Corners of the further Side, by way of Return, let 
there be two delicate or rich Cabinets, daintily paved, 
richly hanged, glazed with cryfialline Glafs, and a 
rich Cupola in the Midft; and all other Elegancy 
that can be thought upon. In the Upper Gallery 
too, I wifh that there may be, if the Place will yield 
it, fome Fountains running, in divers Places, from 
the Wall, with fome fine Avoidances. And thus 
much, for the Model of the Palace : Save that, you 
murt have, before you come to the Front, three 
Courts. A Green Court Plain, with a Wall about 
it : A Second Court of the fame, but more garnifhed, 
with little Turrets, or rather Embellifhments, upon 
the Wall : And a Third Court, to make a Square 
with the Front, but not to be built, nor yet enclofed 
with a Naked Wall, but enclofed with Terraces, 
leaded aloft, and fairly garnifhed, on the three Sides ; 
and cloiftered on the Infide, with Pillars, and not 
with Arches Below. As for Offices, let them Hand 
at Diflance, with fome low Galleries, to pafs from 
them, to the Palace itfelf. 

i6 5 

xlvi. Of Gardens, 

OD Almighty firft planted a Garden. 
And indeed, it is the pureft of Human 
Pleafures. It is the greateft, Refrefh- 
ment to the Spirits of Man ; without 
which, Buildings and Palaces are but grofs Handy- 
works : And a Man mall ever fee, that when Ages 
grow to Civility and Elegancy, Men come to Build 
Stately , fooner than to Garden finely : As if Gar- 
dening were the greater Perfection. I do hold it, 
in the royal Ordering of Gardens, there ought to be 
Gardens , for all the Months in the Year : In which, 
feverally, Things of Beauty may be then in Seafon. 
For December, and January, and the Latter Part 
of November, you mull take fuch Things, as are 
Green all Winter : Holly ; Ivy ; Bays ; Juniper ; 
Cyprefs Trees ; Yew ; Pine-apple Trees ; Fir Trees ; 
Rofemary; Lavender; Periwinkle, the white, the 
purple, and the blue ; Germander ; Flags ; Orange 
Trees ; Lemon Trees ; and Myrtles, if they be 
ftoved ; and Sweet Marjoram warm fet. There 
followeth, for the latter Part of January, and Febru- 
ary, the Mezerion Tree, which then blofToms ; Cro- 
cus vernus, both the yellow, and the gray; Primrofes ; 
Anemonies ; the early Tulipa ; Hyacinthus Orien- 
talis; Chamairis; Fritellaria. For March, There 

166 Essays. 

come Violets, fpecially the Angle blue, which are the 
earlier! ; the Yellow Daffodil ; the Daify ; the Almond 
Tree in bloflbm ; the Peach Tree in bloflbm ; the 
Cornelian Tree in bloflbm ; Sweet Briar. In April 
follow, the double white Violet; the Wallflower; 
the Stock Gilliflower; the Cowflip ; Flower de Luces, 
and Lillies of all natures ; Rofemary Flowers ; the 
Tulipa ; the Double Peony ; the pale Daffodil ; the 
French Honeyfuckle ; the Cherry Tree in blof- 
fom ; the Damfon, and Plum Trees in bloflbm ; the 
Whitethorn in leaf; the Lilac Tree. In May, and 
June, come Pinks of all forts, fpecially the Blufh 
Pink ; Rofes of all kinds, except the Mufk, which 
comes later ; Honeyfuckles ; Strawberries ; Buglofs ; 
Columbine ; the French Marygold ; Flos Africanus ; 
Cherry Tree in Fruit ; Ribes ; Figs in Fruit ; Rafps ; 
Vine Flowers ; Lavender in Flowers ; the Sweet 
Satyrian, with the White Flower ; Herba Mufcaria ; 
Lilium Convallium ; the Apple Tree in bloflbm. 
In July, come Gilliflowers of all varieties ; Mufk 
Rofes ; the Lime Tree in bloflbm, early Pears, and 
Plums in Fruit ; Gennitings; Quodlins. In A ugu/l, 
come Plums of all forts in fruit ; Pears ; Apricocks ; 
Barberries ; Filberds ; Mufk-Melons ; Monks Hoods, 
of all colours. In September, come Grapes ; Apples ; 
Poppies of all colours ; Peaches ; Melo-Catones ; 
Nectarines ; Cornelians ; Wardens ; Quinces. In 
Ofiober, and the beginning of November, come Ser- 
vices ; Medlars ; Bullaces ; Rofes cut or removed to 
come late ; Hollyoaks ; and fuch like. Thus, if you 

Of Gardens. 167 

will, you may have the Golden Age again, and a 
Spring all the year long. 

And, becaufe the Breath of Flowers is far Sweeter 
in the Air (where it comes and goes, like the War- 
bling of Mufick), than in the Hand, therefore nothing 
is more fit for that delight, than to know what be 
the Flowers and Plants, that do beft perfume the 
Air. Rofes Damafk and Red, are fail Flowers of 
their Smells ; fo that ; you may walk by a whole row 
of them, and find nothing of their Sweetnefs ; yea 
though it be, in a Morning's Dew. Bays likewife 
yield no Smell, as they grow. Rofemary little ; nor 
Sweet Marjoram. That which above all others, 
yields the Sweetejl Smell in the Air y is the Violet ; 
fpecially the White double Violet, which comes 
twice a Year ; about the middle of April, and about 
Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is, the Mufk Rofe. 
Then the Strawberry Leaves dying, with a moll 
excellent Cordial Smell. Then the Flower of the 
Vines ; it is a little duft, like the dull of a Bent, 
which grows upon the Clutter, in the Firfl coming 
forth. Then Sweet Briar. Then Wallflowers, 
which are very delightful, to be fet under a Parlour, 
or lower Chamber Window. Then Pinks, and 
Gillyflowers, fpecially the Matted Pink, and Clove 
Gilliflower. Then the Flowers of the Lime Tree. 
Then the Honeyfuckles, fo they be fomewhat afar 
off. Of Bean Flowers I fpeak not, becaufe they are 
Field Flowers. But thofe which Perfume the Air 
moll delightfully, not pajfed by as the reft, but being 

168 Essays. 

Trodden upon and crujhed, are three : That is Bur- 
net, Wild Thyme, and Water-Mints. Therefore, 
you are to fet whole Alleys of them, to have the 
Pleafure, when you walk or tread. 

For Gardens, (fpeaking of thofe, which are indeed 
prince-like, as we have done of Buildings) the Contents 
ought not well to be under Thirty Acres of Ground ; 
and to be divided into three Parts : A Green in the 
Entrance; a Heath or Defert in the Going forth; 
and the Main Garden in the midft. ; bendes Alleys, 
on both Sides. And I like well, that Four Acres 
of Ground be affigned to the Green; Six to the 
Heath ; Four and Four to either Side 5 and Twelve 
to the Main Garden. The Green hath two pleafures ; 
the one, becaufe nothing is more pleafant to the Eye, 
than green Grafs kept finely fhorn ; the other, becaufe 
it will give you a fair Alley in the midft, by which 
you may go in front upon a ftately Hedge, which is 
to enclofe the Garden. But, becaufe the Alley will 
be long, and in great Heat of the Year, or Day, you 
ought not to buy the made in the Garden, by going 
in the Sun through the Green, therefore you are, of 
either Side the Green, to Plant a Covered Alley, 
upon Carpenter's Work, about Twelve Foot in 
Height, by which you may go in Shade, into the 
Garden. As for the making of Knots, or Figures, with 
divers coloured Earths, that they may lie under the 
Windows of the Houfe,on that Side, which the Gar- 
den Hands, they be but Toys : You may fee as good 
Sights, many times, in Tarts. The Garden is bell 

Of Gardens. 169 

to be Square; encompaffed, on all the Four Sides 
with a Stately Arched Hedge. The Arches to be 
upon Pillars of Carpenter's Work, of fome Ten 
Foot high, and Six Foot broad : And the Spaces be- 
tween, of the fame Dimenfion, with the Breadth of 
the Arch. Over the Arches, let there be an entire 
Hedge, of fome Four Foot High, framed alfo upon 
Carpenter's Work : And over every Arch, and upon 
the upper Hedge, over every Arch, a little Turret, 
with a Belly, enough to receive a Cage of Birds : 
And over every Space, between the Arches, fome 
other little Figure, with broad Plates of round coloured 
Glafs, gilt, for the Sun to Play upon. But this Hedge 
I intend to be raifed upon a Bank, not ileep, but 
gently Hope, of fome Six Foot, fet all with Flowers* 
Alfo I underiland, that this Square of the Garden 
fhould not be the whole Breadth of the Ground, but 
to leave, on either Side, Ground enough for diverfity 
of Side Alleys : Unto which the Two covered Alleys 
of the Green, may deliver you. But there mull be 
no Alleys with Hedges, at either End, of this great 
Inclofure : Not at the hither End, for letting your 
ProfpecT: upon this fair Hedge from the Green ,• nor 
at the further End, for letting your ProfpecT: from 
the Hedge, through the Arches, upon the Heath. 

For the ordering of the Ground, within the Great 
Hedge, I leave it to Variety of Device ; advifing 
neverthelefs, that whatfoever form you call it into, 
firfl it be not too bufy, or full of Work. Wherein I, 
for my part, do not like Images cut out in Juniper, 

170 Essays. 

or other Garden fluff : They be for Children. Little 
low Hedges, round, like Welts, with fome pretty 
Pyramids, I like well : And in fome Places, fair 
Columns upon Frames of Carpenter's Work. I would 
alfo have the Alleys, fpacious and fair. You may 
have clofer Alleys upon the fide Grounds, but none 
in the main Garden. I wifti alfo, in the very middle, 
a fair Mount, with three Afcents and Alleys, enough 
for Four to walk abreaft ; which I would have to be 
perfect Circles, without any Bui warks, or Imboflments ; 
and the whole Mount, to be Thirty Foot high ; and 
fome fine Banquetting Houfe, with fome Chimneys 
neatly call, and without too much Glafs. 

For Fountains, they are a great Beauty, and Re- 
frefhment ; but Pools mar all, and make the Garden 
unwholefome, and full of Flies, and Frogs. Foun- 
tains I intend to be of two Natures : The One, that 
fprinkleth or fpouteth Water ; the other, ufair Re- 
ceipt of 'Water, of fome Thirty or Forty Foot Square, 
but without Fiih, or Slime, or Mud. For the firft, 
the Ornaments of Images gilt, or of Marble, which 
are in ufe, do well : But the main Matter is, fo to 
convey the Water, as it never Stay, either in the 
Bowls, or in the Ciftern ; that the Water be never 
by Reft difcoloured, green, or red, or the like ; or 
gather any MoJJinefs Putrefaction. Befides that, it 
is to be cleanfed every day by the Hand. Alfo fome 
Steps up to it, and fome fine Pavement about it, doth 
well. As for the other kind of Fountain, which we 
may call a Bathing Pool, it may admit much Cu- 

Of Gardens. 171 

riofity, and Beauty ; wherewith we will not trouble 
ourfelves : As, that the Bottom be finely paved, and 
with Images : The fides likewife ; and withall em- 
bellifhed with coloured Glafs, and fuch things of 
luftre; encompafTed alfo, with fine Rails of low 
Statues. But the main Point is the fame, which we 
mentioned, in the former kind of Fountain / which 
is, that the Water be in Perpetual Motion, fed by a 
Water higher than the Pool, and delivered into it by 
fair Spouts, and then difcharged away under Ground, 
by fome equality of Bores, that it flay little. And 
for fine Devices, of arching water without Spilling, 
and Making it rife in feveral Forms (of Feathers, 
Drinking Glaffes, Canopies, and the like), they be 
pretty things to look, but nothing to Health and 

For the Heath, which was the Third Part of our 
Plot, I wifh it to be framed, as much as may be, to 
a natural Wildnefs. Trees I would have none in it ; 
but fome Thickets, made only of Sweetbriar, and 
Honeyfuckle, and fome Wild Vine amongft ; and the 
Ground fet with Violets, Strawberries, and Prim- 
rofes. For thefe are fweet, and profper in the Shade. 
And thefe to be in the Heath, here and there, not in 
any Order. I like alfo little Heaps, in the Nature 
of Molehills, (fuch as are in Wild Heaths) to be fet, 
fome with Wild Thyme ; fome with Pinks ; fome 
with Germander, that gives a good Flower to the 
Eye ; fome with Periwinkle ; fome with Violets ; 
fome with Strawberries ; fome with Cowflips ; fome 

172 Essays. 

with Dailies; fome with red Rofes; fome with 
Lilium Convallium; fome with Sweet-Williams 
red ; fome with Bearsfoot ; and the like low Flow- 
ers, being withal fweet, and fightly. Part of which 
Heaps, to be with Standards, of little Bujhes, pricked 
upon their Top, and Part without. The Standards 
to be Rofes ; Juniper ; Holly ; Barberries (but here 
and there, becaufe of the Smell of their BloiTom) ; 
Red Currants ; Goofe-berries ; Rofemary ; Bays ; 
Sweetbriar; and fuch like. But thefe Standards , 
to be kept with Cutting, that they grow not out of 

For the Side Grounds, you are to fill them with 
Variety of Alleys, Private, to give a full Shade ; fome 
of them, wherefoever the Sun be. You are to frame 
fome of them likewife for Shelter, that when the 
Wind blows fharp, you may walk, as in a Gallery. 
And thofe Alleys muft be likewife hedged, at both 
Ends, to keep out the Wind ; and thefe clofer Alleys, 
muft be ever finely gravelled, and no Grass, becaufe 
of going wet. In many of thefe Alleys likewife, you 
are to fet Fruit Trees of all Sorts ; as well upon the 
Walls, as in Ranges. And this would be generally 
obferved, that the Borders, wherein you plant your 
Fruit Trees, be fair and large, and low, and not 
fteep ; and fet with fine Flowers, but thin and fpa- 
ringly, left they deceive the Trees. At the End of 
both the Side Grounds, I would have a Mount of 
fome pretty Height, leaving the Wall of the Enclofure 
breaft high, to look abroad into the fields. 

Of Gardens. 173 

For the Main Garden, I do not deny, but there 
mould be fome fair Alleys, ranged on both Sides, 
with Fruit Trees ; and fome pretty Tufts of Fruit 
Trees, and Arbours with Seats, fet in fome decent 
Order ; but thefe to be, by no Means, fet too thick ; 
but to leave the Main Garden, fo as it be not clofe, 
but the Air open and free. For as for Shade, I 
would have you reft, upon the Alleys of the Side 
Grounds, there to walk, if you be difpofed, in the 
Heat of the Year, or Day ; but to make account, 
that the Main Garden, is for the more temperate 
parts of the Year ; and in the Heat of Summer, for 
the Morning, and the Evening, or Overcaft Days. 

For Aviaries, I like them not, except they be of 
that Largenefs, as they may be Turfed, and have 
living Plants, and Bujbes, fet in them; that the 
Birds may have more Scope, and natural Neftling, 
and that no Foulnefs appear in the Floor of the 
Aviary. So I have made a Platform of a princely 
Garden, partly by Precept, partly by Drawing, not 
a Model, but fome general lines of it; and in this I 
have fpared for no Coft. But it is nothing for great 
Princes, that for the moft Part, taking advice with 
Workmen, with no lefs Coft, fet their Things to- 
gether ; and fometimes add Statues, and fuch Things, 
for State and Magnificence, but nothing to the true 
Pleafure of a Garden. 

174 Essays. 

xl vii. Of Negotiating. 


T is generally better to deal by Speech, 
than by Letter ; and by the Mediation 
of a Third, than by a Man's Self. 
Letters are good, when a Man would 
draw an anfwer by Letter back again ; or when it 
may ferve, for a Man's Juftification, afterwards to 
produce his own Letter ; or where it may be Dan- 
ger to be interrupted, or heard by Pieces. To deal 
in Per/on is good, when a Man's Face breedeth Re- 
gard, as commonly with Inferiors ; or in tender 
Cafes, where a Man's Eye, upon the Countenance 
of him with whom he fpeaketh, may give him a 
Direction, how far to go : And generally, where a 
Man will referve to himfelf Liberty, either to difavow, 
or to expound. In choice of ' Inftruments, it is better 
to choofe Men of a plainer Sort, that are like to do 
that, that is committed to them, and to report back 
again faithfully the Succefs ; than thofe, that are 
cunning to contrive out of other Men's Bulinefs, 
fomewhat to grace themfelves ; and will help the 
Matter, in Report, for Satisfaction fake. Ufe alfo 
fuch Perfons, as affect the Bulinefs, wherein they 
are employed ; for that quickeneth much ; and fuch, 
as are Fit for the Matter, as bold Men for Expoftula- 
tion, fair fpoken Men for Perfuafion, crafty Men for 
Enquiry and Obfervation, froward and abfurd Men 
for Bulinefs that doth not well bear out itfelf. Ufe 

Of Negotiating. 175 

alfo fuch, as have been lucky, and prevailed before in 
Things wherein you have employed them ; for that 
breeds Confidence, and they will ilrive to maintain 
their Prefcription. It is better, to found a Perfon, 
with whom one deals, afar off, than to fall upon 
the point at Firft ; except you mean to furprife him 
by fome Ihort Queftion. It is better dealing with 
Men in Appetite, than with thofe that are where 
they would be. If a Man deal with another upon 
Conditions, the Start or Firft Performance is all ; 
which a Man cannot reafonably demand, except 
either the Nature of the Thing be fuch, which mull 
go before ; or elfe a Man can perfuade the other 
Party, that he fhall Hill need him, in fome other 
Thing ; or elfe, that he be counted the honefter Man. 
All Practice, is to difcover, or to work. Men difcover 
themfelves, in Trull ; in Paffion ; at unawares ; and 
of Neceffity, when they would have fomewhat done, 
and cannot find an apt Pretext. If you would work 
any Man, you mull either know his Nature, and 
Fafhions, and fo lead him ; or his Ends, and fo per- 
fuade him : or his Weaknefs, and Difadvantages, and 
fo awe him ; or thofe that have Interelt in him, and 
fo govern him. In Dealing with cunning Perfons, 
we muil ever confider their Ends, to interpret their 
Speeches ; and it is good, to fay little to them, and 
that which they leaft look for. In all Negotiations 
of Difficulty, a Man may not look to fow and reap 
at once ; but mull prepare Bufmefs, and fo ripen it 
by Degrees. 

1 7 6 


xlviii. Of Followers and 

OSTLY Followers are not to be liked ; 
left while a Man maketh his Train 
longer, he make his wings fhorter. I 
reckon to be coftly, not them alone, 
which charge the Purfe, but which are wearifome 
and importune in Suits. Ordinary Followers ought 
to challenge higher Conditions, than Countenance, 
Recommendation, and Protection from Wrongs. 
Factious Followers are worfe to be liked, which fol- 
low not upon Affection to him, with whom they range 
themfelves, but upon Difcontentment conceived againft 
fome other : Whereupon commonly enfueth, that ill 
Intelligence, that we many times fee between great 
Perfonages. Like wife glorious Followers, who make 
themfelves as Trumpets, of the Commendation of 
thofe they follow, are full of inconvenience ; for they 
taint Bufinefs through Want of Secrecy ; and they 
export Honour from a Man, and make him a Return 
in Envy. There is a kind of Followers likewife, 
which are dangerous, being indeed Efpials ; which 
enquire the Secrets of the Houfe, and bear Tales 
of them to others. Yet fuch Men, many times, are 
in great Favour ; for they are officious, and com- 
monly exchange Tales. The Following by certain 
EJlates of Men 3 anfwerable to that, which a great 

Of Followers and Friends. 177 

Perfon himfelf profeffeth (as of Soldiers to him that 
hath been employed in the Wars, and the like), hath 
ever been a Thing civil, and well taken even in 
Monarchies ; fo it be without too much Pomp or 
Popularity. But the moft honourable kind of Fol- 
lowing, is to be followed, as one that apprehendeth, 
to advance Virtue and Defert, in all forts ofPerfons. 
And yet, where there is no eminent Odds in Suf- 
ficiency, it is better to take with the more paffable, 
than with the more able. And befides, to fpeak 
Truth, in bafe Times, active Men are of more ufe, 
than virtuous. It is true, that in Government, it is 
good to ufe Men of one Rank equally ; for to coun- 
tenance fome extraordinarily, is to make them info- 
lent, and the reft difcontent ; becaufe they may claim 
a Due. But contrariwife in Favour, to ufe Men 
with much difference and election, is good; for it 
maketh the Perfons preferred more thankful, and 
the Reft more officious ; becaufe all is of Favour. 
It is good Difcretion, not to make too much of any 
Man, at the firft ; becaufe one cannot hold out that 
Proportion. To be governed (as we call it) by One, 
is not fafe : for it fhews Softnefs, and gives a Freedom 
to Scandal and Difreputation : For thofe that would 
not cenfure, or fpeak ill of a Man immediately, will 
talk more boldly of thofe, that are fo great with them, 
and thereby wound their Honour. Yet to be dif- 
tratted with many is worfe ; for it makes Men, to 
be of the laft Impreffion, and full of Change. To 
take Advice of fome few Friends is ever honourable ; 

178 Essays. 

for Lookers on, many times, fee more than Gamefters ;• 
and the Vale beft difcoveretb the Hill. There is little 
Friend fhip in the World, and leaft of all between 
Equals, which was wont to be magnified. That that 
is, is between Superior and Inferior, whofe Fortunes 
may comprehend, the one the other. 

xlix. Of Suitors. 

ANY ill Matters and Projects are un- 
dertaken ; and private Suits do putrify 
the publick Good. Many good Mat- 
ters are undertaken with bad Minds ; 
I mean not only corrupt Minds, but crafty Minds, 
that intend not Performance. Some embrace Suits, 
which never mean to deal effectually in them ; but 
if they fee, there may be life in the Matter, by fome 
other mean, they will be content to win a Thank, 
or take a fecond Reward, or at leaft to make Ufe, 
in the mean time, of the Suitor's Hopes. Some 
take hold of Suits, only for an Occafion, to crofs 
fome other; or to make an Information, whereof 
they could not otherwife have apt Pretext ; without 
Care what become of the Suit, when that Turn is 
ferved : Or generally, to make other Men's Bufinefs, 
a kind of Entertainment, to bring in their own. Nay, 
fome undertake Suits, with a full Purpofe, to let them 
fall ; to the end, to gratify the adverfe Party, or Com- 

Of Suitors. 179 

petitor. Surely, there is, in fome fort, a Right in 
every Suits either a Right of Equity, if it be a Suit 
of Controverfy ; or a Right of Defert, if it be a Suit 
of Petition. If AfFedtion lead a Man, to favour the 
wrong Side in Juftice, let him rather ufe his Coun- 
tenance, to compound the Matter, than to carry it. 
If AfFedtion lead a Man, to favour the lefs Worthy 
in Defert, let him do it without depraving or difabling 
the better Deferver. In Suits, which a man doth 
not well underftand, it is good to refer them to fome 
Friend of Truft and Judgment, that may report 
whether he may deal in them with Honour : But 
let him choofe well his Referendaries ; for elfe he may 
be led by the Nofe. Suitors are fo diftafted with 
Delays, and Abufes, that plain Dealing, in denying 
to deal in Suits at firft, and reporting the Succefs 
barely, and in challenging no more Thanks than one 
hath deferved, is grown not only honourable, but 
alfo gracious. In Suits of Favour, the firft coming 
ought to take little Place : So far forth Confideration 
may be had of his Truft, that if Intelligence of the 
Matter, could not otherwife have been had, but by 
him, Advantage be not taken of the note, but the 
Party left to his other Means, and, in fome fort, re- 
compenfed for his Difcovery. To be ignorant of 
the value of a Suit, is Simplicity ; as well as to be 
ignorant of the Right thereof, is Want of Confcience. 
Secrecy in Suits is a great Mean of Obtaining ; for 
voicing them, to be in Forwardnefs, may difcourage 
fome Kind of Suitors ,* but doth quicken and awake 

i8o Essays. 

Others. But timing of the Suit, is the principal. 
Timing, I fay, not only in refpect of the Perfon, that 
mould grant it, but in refpect of thofe which are like 
to crofs it. Let a Man, in the choice of his Mean, 
rather choofe the fitteft Mean, than the greateft Mean : 
And rather them, that deal in certain Things, than 
thofe that are general. The Reparation of a Denial, 
is fometimes equal to the firft Grant ; if a Man fhew 
himfelf, neither dejected, nor difcontented. Iniquum 
pet as, ut JEquum feras ; is a good Rule, where a 
Man hath Strength of Favour : But otherwife, a 
Man were better rife in his Suit y for he that would 
have ventured at firft to have loft the Suitor, will 
not in the Conclufion, lofe both the Suitor, and his 
own former Favour. Nothing is thought fo eafy a 
Requeft, to a great Perfon, as his Letter ; and yet, 
if it be not in a good Caufe, it is fo much out of his 
Reputation. There are no worfe Inftruments, than 
thefe general Contrivers of Suits : For they are but 
a kind of Poifon and Infection topublick Proceedings. 

l. Of Studies. 

TUDIES ferve for Delight, for Orna- 
ment, and for Ability. Their chief 
Ufe for Delight, is in Privatenefs and 
Retiring; for Ornament, is in Dif- 
courfe; and for Ability, is in the Judgment and 

Of Studies. 181 

Difpofition of Bufinefs. For expert Men can execute, 
and perhaps judge of Particulars, one by one ; but 
the general Counfels, and the Plots, and marfhalling 
of Affairs, come bed from thofe that are learned. 
To fpend too much Time in Studies, is floth ; to 
ufe them too much for Ornament, is AfFe&ation ; to 
make Judgment wholly by their Rules is the Hu- 
mour of a Scholar. They perfect Nature, and are 
perfected by Experience : For natural Abilities are 
like natural Plants, that need pruning by Study : And 
Studies themfelves do give forth Directions too 
much at Large, except they be bounded in by Ex- 
perience. Crafty Men contemn Studies/ fimple 
Men admire them ; and wife Men ufe them : For 
they teach not their own Ufe ; But that is a Wifdom 
without them, and above them, won by Obfervation. 
Read not to contradict, and confute ; Nor to believe 
and take for granted ; nor to find Talk and Difcourfe ; 
but to weigh and confider. Some Books are to be 
tailed, others to be fwallowed, and fome Few to be 
chewed and digefled : That is, fome Books are to be 
read only in Parts ; others to be read but not curi- 
oufly ; and fome Few to be read wholly, and with- 
Diligence and Attention. Some Books alfo may be 
read by Deputy, and Extracts made of them by 
others : But that would be only in the lefs import- 
ant Arguments, and the meaner Sort of Books : elfe 
diftilled Books are like common diltilled Waters, 
flafhy Things. Reading maketh a full Man ; Con- 
ference a ready Man ; and Writing an exact Man. 

182 Essays. 

And therefore, if a Man write little, he had need 
have a great Memory ; if he confer little, he had 
need have a prefent Wit ; and if he read little, he 
had need have much Cunning, to feem to know that 
he doth not. Hiftories make Men wife; Poets 
Witty ; the Mathematicks fubtile ; natural Philofo- 
phy deep; moral Grave ; Logick and Rbetorick able 
to contend. Abeunt ftudia in Mores. Nay there 
is no Stand or Impediment in the Wit, but may be 
wrought out by fit Studies : Like as Difeafes of the 
Body may have Appropriate Exercifes. Bowling is 
good for the Stone and Reins ; Shooting for the 
Lungs and Breaft ; gentle Walking for the Stomach ; 
Riding for the Head ; and the like. So if a Man's 
Wit be wandering, let him Study the Mathematics 5 
for in Demonftrations, if his Wit be called away 
never fo little, he muft begin again ; if his Wit be 
not apt to diflinguifh or find difference, let him 
ftudy the Schoolmen ; for they are Cymini feclores. 
If he be not apt to beat over Matters, and to call up 
one Thing, to prove and illuftrate another, let him 
ftudy the Lawyer's Cafes; fo every Defecl of the 
Mind may have a fpecial Receipt. 


li. Of Fadtion. 

ANY have an Opinion not wife ; that 
for a Prince to govern his Eftate ; or 
for a great Perfon to govern his Pro- 
ceedings, according to the Refpecl: of 
Factions, is a Principal Part of Policy : whereas con- 
trariwife, the chiefeft Wifdom is, either in ordering 
thofe Things, which are general, and wherein Men 
of feveral Faftio?is do neverthelefs agree ; or in deal- 
ing with Correfpondence to particular Perfons, one 
by one. But I fay not, that the conlideration of 
Fattions is to be Neglecled. Mean Men, in their 
riling, muft adhere ; but great Men, that have Strength 
in themfelves, were better to maintain themfelves 
indifferent, and neutral. Yet even in Beginners, 
to adhere fo moderately, as he be a Man of the one 
Fattion, which is moft palTable with the other, com- 
monly giveth bell Way. The lower and weaker 
FaFrion, is the firmer in Conjunction : And it is 
often feen, that a Few, that are fliff, do tire out, a 
greater Number, that are more moderate. When 
One of the Factions is extinguifhed, the remaining 
fubdivideth : As the Faftion between Lucullus, and 
the Reft of the nobles of the Senate, (which they 
called Optifnates) held out a while, againft the Faffion 
of Pompey and Cafar : But when the Senate's Au- 

184 Essays. 

thority was pulled down, Cafar and Pompey foon 
after brake. The Faction or Party of Antonius, and 
Oclavianus Ctefar, againft Brutus and CaJJius, held 
out likewife for a time : But when Brutus and CaJJius 
were overthrown, then foon after Antonius and Qc- 
tavianus brake and fubdivided. Thefe Examples 
are of Wars, but the fame holdeth in private Factions, 
And therefore, thofe that are Seconds in Factions, 
do many times, when the Faction fubdivideth, prove 
Principals : But many times alfo, they prove Ciphers 
and cafhiered : For many a Man's ftrength is in op- 
position ; and when that faileth, he groweth out of 
ufe. It is commonly feen, that Men once placed, 
take in with the contrary Faction to that by which 
they enter ; thinking belike that they have the Firft 
fure ; and now are ready for a new Purchafe. The 
Traitor in Faction lightly goeth away with it; for 
when Matters have ftuck long in balancing, the 
winning of fome one Man cafteth them, and he 
getteth all the Thanks. The even Carriage between 
two Faff ions, proceedeth not always of Moderation, 
but of a Truenefs to a Man's Self, with End to make 
ufe of both. Certainly in Italy, they hold it a little 
fufpect in Popes, when they have often in their 
Mouth, Padre commune : And take it, to be a Sign 
of one, that meaneth to refer all to the Greatnefs of 
his own Houfe. Kings had need beware, how they 
fide themfelves, and make themfelves as of a Faction 
or Party : For Leagues within the State are ever 
pernicious to Monarchies ; for they raife an Obliga- 

Of Faction. 185 

tion, paramount to Obligation of Sovereignty, and 
make the King, Tanquam unus ex nobis : As was to 
be feen, in the League of France. When Faclions 
are carried too high, and too violently, it is a Sign of 
Weaknefs in Princes ; and much to the Prejudice, 
both of their Authority, and Bufinefs. The Motions 
of Faclions , under Kings, ought to be like the Mo- 
tions (as the Aftronomers fpeak) of the inferior Orbs ; 
which may have their proper Motions, but yet Hill, 
are quietly carried, by the higher Motion, of Primum 

lii. Of Ceremonies and 

E that is only real, had need have ex- 
ceeding great Parts of Virtue : As the 
Stone had need to be Rich, that is fet 
without Foil. But if a Man mark it 
well, it is in Praife and Commendation of Men, as it 
is in Gettings and Gains : For the Proverb is true, 
That light Gains make heavy Purfes j for light Gains 
come thick, whereas Great come but now and then. 
So it is true, that fmall Matters win great Commen* 
dation, becaufe they are continually in Ule, and in 
note : whereas the Occafion of any great Virtue, 
cometh but on Feftivals. Therefore it doth much 
add, to a Man's Reputation, and is, (as Queen Ifabella 

186 Essays. 

faid) Like perpetual Letters commendatory, to have 
good Forms. To attain them, it almoft fufficeth, not 
to defpife them : For fo fhall a Man obferve them in 
Others : And let him truft himfelf with the reft. 
For if he labour too much to exprefs them, he fhall 
lofe their Grace ; which is to be natural and unaf- 
fected. Some Men's Behaviour is like a Verfe, 
wherein every Syllable is meafured : How can a 
Man comprehend great Matters, that breaketh his 
Mind too much to fmall Obfervations ? Not to ufe 
Ceremonies at all is to teach Others not to ufe them 
again; and fo diminifheth Refpecl to himfelf: Efpe- 
cially they be not to be omitted to Strangers, and 
formal Natures : But the dwelling upon them, and 
exalting them above the Moon, is not only tedious, 
but doth diminiih the Faith and Credit of him that 
fpeaks. And certainly, there is a Kind of Conveying 
of effectual and imprinting Paffages, amongft Com- 
plements, which is of lingular ufe, if a Man can hit 
upon it. Amongft a Man's Peers, a Man fhall be 
fure of Familiarity ; and therefore, it is good a little 
to keep State. Amongft a Man's Inferiors, One fhall 
be fure of Reverence ; and therefore it is good a little 
to be familiar. He that is too much in any Thing, 
fo that he giveth another Occafion of Satiety, maketh 
himfelf cheap. To apply One's Self to others is 
good : So it be with Demonftration, that a Man 
doth it upon Regard, and not upon Facility. It is a 
good Precept, generally in feconding Another, yet to 
add fomewhat of One's own : As if you will grant 

Of Ceremonies and Respects. 187 

his Opinion, let it be with fome Diftindtion ; if you 
will follow his Motion, let it be with Condition ; if 
you allow his Counfel, let it be with alleging fur- 
ther Reafon. Men had need beware, how they be 
too Perfect in Complements ; for be they never fo 
fufficient otherwife, their Enviers will be fure to give 
them that Attribute, to the Difadvantage of their 
greater Virtues. It is lofs alfo in Bufmefs, to be too 
full of Refpetts, or to be too curious in obferving 
Times and Opportunities. Solomon faith ; He that 
confideretb the Wind, Jball not fow, and he that 
looketh to the Clouds, jball not reap. A wife Man 
will make more Opportunities than he finds. Men's 
Behaviour mould be like their Apparel, not too ftrait, 
or point device, but free for exercife or motion. 

liii. Of Praife, 

RAISE is the Reflection of Virtue. 
But it is Glafs, or Body, which giveth 
the Reflection. If it be from the Com- 
mon People, it is commonly falfe and 
naught: And rather followeth vain Perfons, than 
virtuous : For the Common People underfland not 
many excellent Virtues : The loweft Virtues draw 
Praife from them ; the middle Virtues work in 
them Aftonifhment, or Admiration; But of the 

i88 Essays. 

higheft Virtues, they have no Senfe, or perceiving at 
all. But Shews, and Species Virtutibus Jlmiles, ferve 
bell with them. Certainly, Fame is like a River, 
that beareth up Things light and fwollen, and drowns 
Things weighty and folid : But if Perfons of Quality 
and Judgment concur, then it is, (as the Scripture 
faith) Nomen bonum inftar Unguenti fragrantis. It 
filleth all round about, and will not eafily away. 
For the Odours of Ointments are more durable than 
thofe of Flowers. There be fo many falfe Points of 
Praife, that a Man may juftly hold it a fufpecl:. 
Some Praifes proceed merely of Flattery ; and if he 
be an ordinary Flatterer, he will have certain com- 
mon Attributes, which may ferve every Man ; if he 
be a cunning Flatterer, he will follow the Arch- 
flatterer, which is a Man's Self; and wherein a Man 
thinketh beft of himfelf, therein the Flatterer will 
uphold him moft : But if he be an impudent Flatterer, 
look wherein a Man is confcious to himfelf, that he 
is moft defective, and is moft out of Countenance in 
himfelf, that will the Flatterer entitle him to, perforce, 
Spretd Confcientid. Some Praifes come of good 
Wilhes, and Refpects, which is a Form due in Civi- 
lity to Kings, and Great Perfons, Laudando praci- 
pere i when by telling Men what they are, they 
reprefent to them what they mould be. Some Men 
are praifed malicioufly to their Hurt, thereby to ftir 
Envy and Jealoufy towards them ; Peffmum Genus 
Inimicorum Laudantium j Infomuch as it was a 
Proverb, amongft the Grecians j that, He that was 

Of Praise. 189 

praifed to his Hurt,jhould have a Pufh rife upon his 
Nofe : As we fay; That a B lifer will rife upon 
one's Tongue, that tells, a lie. Certainly moderate 
Praife, ufed with Opportunity, and not vulgar, is 
that which doth the Good. Solomon faith ; He that 
praifeth his Friend aloud, rifing early, it fhall be to 
him no better than a Curfe. Too much magnifying 
of Man or Matter, doth irritate Contradiction, and 
procure Envy and Scorn. To praife a Man's Self, 
cannot be decent, except it be in rare Cafes : But to 
praife a Man's Office or Profeffion, he may do it with 
good Grace, and with a kind of Magnanimity. The 
Cardinals of Rome, which are Theologues, and Friars, 
and Schoolmen, have a Phrafe of notable Contempt 
and Scorn, towards civil Bufinefs : for they call all 
temporal Bufinefs, of Wars, Embaffages, Judicature, 
and other Employments, Sbirrerie 5 which is, Under 
Sheriffries ; as if they were but matters for Under 
Sheriffs and Catchpoles ; though many times thofe 
Under Sheriffries do more good, than their High 
Speculations. St. Paul, when he boafts of himfelf, 
he doth oft interlace ; / fpeak like a Fool; but 
fpeaking of his calling, he faith ; Magnificabo Apof- 
tolatum meum. 

190 Essays. 

liv. Of Vain Glory. 

T was prettily devifed of JEfop ; the 
Fly fate upon the Axle-tree of the 
Chariot-wheel, and f aid, What a Duft 
do I raife ? So are there fome Vain 
Perfons, that whatfoever goeth alone, or moveth 
upon greater Means, if they have never fo little 
Hand in it, they think it is they that carry it. They 
that are Glorious, mull needs be Factious ; for all 
Bravery Hands upon Comparifons. They muft needs 
be violent, to make good their own Vaunts. Neither 
can they be fecret, and therefore not effectual ; but 
according to the French Proverb ; Beaucoup de Bruit, 
peu de Fruit : Much Bruit, little Fruit. Yet cer- 
tainly there is Ufe of this Quality, in civil Affairs. 
Where there is an Opinion, and Fame to be created, 
either of Virtue or Greatnefs, thefe Men are good 
Trumpeters. Again, as Titus Livius noteth, in 
the Cafe of Antiochus and the JEtolians ; There are 
fometimes great Effecls of crofs Lies ,■ as if a Man, 
that negotiates between Two Princes, to draw them 
to join in a War againft the Third, doth extol the 
Forces of either of them, above Meafure, the one to 
the other : And fometimes, he that deals between Man 
and Man, raifeth his own Credit, with Both, by 
pretending greater Intereft, than he hath in Either. 

Of Vain Glory. 191 

And in thefe, and the like kinds, it often falls out, 
that Somewhat is produced of Nothing: For Lies 
are fufficient to breed Opinion, and Opinion brings 
on Subftance. In military Commanders and Soldiers, 
Vain Glory is an effential Point ; for as Iron fharpens 
Iron, fo by Glory one Courage fharpeneth another. In 
Cafes of great Enterprife, upon charge and Adven- 
ture, a Compofition of Glorious Natures doth put 
Life into Bufmefs ; and thofe that are of Solid and 
fober Natures, have more of the Ballaft, than of the 
Sail. In Fame of Learning, the Flight will be flow, 
without fome Feathers of Oftentation. Qui de con- 
temnendd Gloria Libros fcribunt, Nomen fuum in- 
fcribunt. Socrates, Ariftotle, Galen, were Men full 
of OJlentation. Certainly Vain Glory helpeth to 
perpetuate a Man's Memory ; and Virtue was never 
fo beholden to human Nature, as it received his due 
at the Second Hand. Neither had the Fame of 
Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Secundus, borne her Age fo 
well, if it had not been joined with fome Vanity in 
themfelves : Like unto Varnifh, that makes Ceilings 
not only mine, but laft. But all this while, when I 
fpeak of Vain Glory, I mean not of that Property, 
that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus 5 Omnium, 
qua dixerat, feceratque, Arte quadam Oftentator : 
For that proceeds not of Vanity, but of natural Mag- 
nanimity, and Difcretion : And in fome Perfons, is 
not only comely, but gracious. For Excufations, 
Ceffions, Modefly itfelf well governed, are but Arts 
of Oftentation, And amongft thofe Arts, there is 



pone better, than that which Plinius Secundus fpeak- 
eth of; which is to be liberal of Praife and Com- 
mendation to others, in that, wherein a Man's Self 
hath any Perfection. For faith Pliny very wittily ; 
In commending another, you do yourfelf right j for 
he that you commend, is either fuperior to you, in that 
you commend, or inferior. If he be inferior, if he be 
to be commended, you much more : If he be fuperior, 
if he be not to be commended, you much lefs. Glorious 
Men are the Scorn of wife Men ; the Admiration of 
Fools ; the Idols of Parafites ; and the Slaves of their 
own Vaunts. 

lv. Of Honour and Repu- 

HE winning of Honour, is but the re- 
vealing of a Man's Virtue and Worth, 
without Difad vantage. For fome in 
their Actions, do Woo and affect 
Honour, and Reputation : Which Sort of Men are 
commonly much talked of, but inwardly little ad- 
mired. And fome, contrariwife, darken their Virtue 
in the Shew of it ; fo as they be undervalued in 
opinion. If a Man perform that which hath not 
been attempted before ; or attempted and given over; 
or hath been achieved, but not with fo good Cir- 
cumftance ; he fhall purchafe more Honour, than by 

Of Honour and Reputation. 193 

Effecting a Matter of greater Difficulty, or Virtue, 
wherein he is but a Follower. If a Man fo temper 
his Actions, as in fome one of them, he doth content 
every Faction, or Combination of People, the Mulick 
will be the fuller. A Man is an ill Hufband of his 
Honour, that entereth into any Action, the Failing 
wherein may difgrace him more, than the Carrying 
of it through can Honour him. Honour, that is 
gained and broken upon another, hath the quickeft 
Reflection ; like Diamonds cut with Fafcets. And 
therefore, let a Man contend, to excel any Compe- 
titors of his in Honour, in outfhooting them, if he can, 
in their own Bow. Difcreet Followers and Servants 
help much to Reputation : Omnis Fama a Do?nefiicis 
emanat. Envy, which is the Canker of Honour, is 
bell extinguiihed, by declaring a Man's Selfj in his 
Ends, rather to feek Merit, than Fame : And by 
Attributing a Man's SuccefTes, rather to divine Pro- 
vidence and Felicity, than to his own Virtue or 
Policy. The true marfhalling of the Degrees of 
Sovereign Honour are thefe. In the Firfl Place are 
Conditores Imperiorum ; Founders of States, and 
Com?nonwealths : Such as were Romulus, Cyrus, 
Cafar, Ottoman, Ifmael. In the Second Place are 
Legis-latores, Lawgivers y which are alfo called, 
Second Founders, or Perpetui Principes, becaufe 
they govern by their Ordinances, after they are 
gone: Such were Lycurgus, Solon, Jufiinian, Ed- 
gar, Alpbonfus of Cafiile the Wife, that made the 
Siete Partidas, In the Third Place, are Lit 

194 Essays. 

tores, or Sahatores : Such as compound the long 
Miferies of civil Wars, or deliver their Countries 
from Servitude of Strangers, or Tyrants ; as Augujlus 
Cafar, Vefpafianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, King 
Henry the Seventh of England, King Henry the 
Fourth of France. In the Fourth' Place, are Pro- 
pagator es or Propugnatores Imperii; fuch as in 
honourable Wars enlarge their Territories, or make 
noble Defence againft Invaders. And in the Laft 
Place are Patres P atria ; which reign juftly, and 
make the Times good, wherein they live. Both 
which laft Kinds, need no examples, they are in 
fuch Number. Degrees of Honour in Subjecls are ; 
firft, Participes Cur arum ; thofe upon whom Princes 
do difcharge the greateft Weight of their Affairs ; 
their Right Hands, as we call them. The next are, 
Duces Belli, Great Leaders j fuch as are Princes' 
Lieutenants, and do them notable Services in the 
Wars. The third are, Gratiojt ,• Favourites j fuch 
as exceed not this Scantling ; to be Solace to the 
Sovereign, and harmlefs to the People. And the 
fourth, Negotiis pares j fuch as have great Places 
under Princes, and execute their Places with Suf- 
ficiency. There is an Honour likewife, which may 
be ranked amongft the greateft, which happeneth 
rarely : That is, of fuch as Sacrifice tbemfelves, to 
Death or Danger, for the Good of their Country : 
As was M. Regulus, and the two Decii. 

J 95 

lvi. Of Judicature. 

UDGES ought to remember, that their 
Office is Jus dicer e, and not Jus dare j 
to interpret Law, and not to make 
Law, or give Law. Elfe will it be 
like the Authority, claimed by the Church of Rome j 
which under pretext of Expolition of Scripture, doth 
not flick to add and alter ; and to pronounce that, 
which they do not find; and by Shew of Antiquity, 
to introduce Novelty. Judges ought to be more 
learned, than witty ; more reverend, than plaufible ; 
and more advifed, than confident. Above all Things, 
Integrity is their Portion, and proper Virtue. Curfed 
(faith the Law) is he that removeth the Landmark. 
The Miflayer of a mere Stone is to blame. But it is 
the Vnjuft Judge, that is the capital Remover of 
Landmarks, when he define th amifs of Lands and 
Property. One foul Sentence doth more Hurt, than 
many foul Examples. For thefe do but corrupt the 
Stream; The other corrupteth the Fountain. So 
faith Solomon j Pons turbatus, et Vena corrupta, eft 
Juftus cadens in caufd fud cora?n Adverfario. The 
Office of Judges, may have Reference, unto the 
Parties that fue ; unto the Advocates that plead ; 
unto the Clerks and Minifters of Juftice underneath 
them ; and to the Sovereign or State above them. 

196 Essays. 

Firft, for the Caufes or Parties that fue. There 
be (faith the Scripture) that turn 'Judgment into 
Wormwood ; and furely, there be alio, that turn it 
into Vinegar ; for Injuftice maketh it bitter, and 
Delays make it four. The principal Duty of a "Judge, 
is to fupprefs Force and Fraud ; whereof Force is the 
more pernicious, when it is open ; and Fraud, when 
it is clofe and difguifed. Add thereto contentious 
Suits, which ought to be fpued out, as the Surfeit of 
Courts. A Judge ought to prepare his Way to a 
juft Sentence, as God ufeth to prepare his Way, by 
raifing Valleys, and taking down Hills : So when 
there appeareth on either lide a high Hand ; violent 
Profecution, cunning Advantages taken, Combination, 
Power, great Counfel, then is the Virtue of a Judge 
feen, to make Inequality equal ; that he may plant 
his Judgment, as upon an even Ground. Quifor- 
titer emungit, elicit Sanguinem j and where the 
Wine-prefs is hard wrought, it yields a harfh Wine, 
that tafles of the Grape-Hone. Judges mull beware 
of hard Con {tractions, and {trained Inferences ; for 
there is no worfe Torture, than the Torture of 
Laws. Specially in cafe of Laws penal, they ought 
to have Care, that that which was meant for Terror, 
be not turned into Rigour ; and that they bring not 
upon the People, that Shower, whereof the Scrip- 
ture fpeaketh ; Pluet fuper eos Laqueos : For penal 
Laws preffed, are a Shower of Snares upon the 
People, Therefore, let penal Laws, if they have 
been Sleepers of long, or if they be grown unfit for 

Of Judicature. 197 

the prefent Time, be by wife Judges confined in the 
Execution ; Judicis Officium eft, ut Res, it a Tem- 
pora Rerum, &c. In Caufes of Life and Death, 
Judges ought (as far as the Law permitteth) in Juftice 
to remember Mercy ; and to caft a fevere Eye upon 
the Example, but a merciful Eye upon the Perfon. 

Secondly,for the Advocates and Counfel that plead: 
Patience and Gravity of hearing, is an efTential Part 
of Juftice ; and an over-fpeaking Judge is no well- 
tuned Cymbal. It is no Grace to a Judge, firft to 
find that which he might have heard, in due time, 
from the Bar ; or to fhew Quicknefs of Conceit in 
cutting off Evidence or Counfel too fhort ; or to 
prevent Information, by Queftions though pertinent. 
The Parts of a Judge in hearing are Four : To di- 
rect the Evidence ; to moderate Length, Repetition, 
or Impertinency of Speech ; to recapitulate, feledt, 
and collate, the material Points of that which hath 
been faid ; and to give the Rule or Sentence. What- 
foever is above thefe, is too much ; and proceedeth, 
either of Glory and willingnefs to fpeak ; or of Im- 
patience to hear ; or of Shortnefs of Memory ; or of 
Want of a ftaid and equal Attention. It is a ftrange 
Thing to fee, that the Boldnefs of Advocates ihould 
prevail with Judges 5 whereas they mould imitate 
God, in whofe Seat they fit; who reprejfeth the 
Prefumptuous, and giveth Grace to the Modeft. But 
it is more ftrange, that Judges Ihould have noted 
Favourites ; which cannot but caufe Multiplication of 
Fees, and Sufpicion of By-ways. There is due from 


the Judge, to the Advocate, fome Commendation 
and Gracing, where Caufes are well handled, and 
fair pleaded ; efpecially towards the Side which ob- 
taineth not; for that upholds, in the Client, the 
Reputation of his Counfel, and beats down, in him, 
the Conceit of his Caufe. There is likewife due to 
the Publick, a Civil Reprehenfion of Advocates, 
where there appeareth cunning Counfel, grofs Neglect, 
flight Information, indifcreet Preffing, or an over- 
bold Defence. And let not the Counfel 'at the Bar 
chop with the Judge, nor wind himfelf into the 
handling of the Caufe anew, after the Judge hath 
declared his Sentence : But on the other lide, let 
not the Judge meet the Caufe halfway; nor give 
occafion to the Party to fay ; His Counfel or Proofs 
were not heard. 

Thirdly, for that that concerns Clerks, and Min- 
ifters. The Place of Juftice is a hallowed Place ; 
and therefore, not only the Bench, but the Foot- 
pace, and Precinds, and Purprife thereof, ought to 
be preferved without Scandal and Corruption. For 
certainly, Grapes (as the Scripture faith), will not be 
gathered of Thorns or Thiftles : Neither can Juftice 
yield her Fruit with fweetnefs, amongft the Briars 
and Brambles, of catching and poling Clerks and 
Minifiers. The Attendance of Courts is fubjeft to 
Four bad Inftruments. Firft, certain Perfons, that 
are Sowers of Suits ; which make the Court £wd\, 
and the Country pine. The Second Sort is of thofe 
that engage Courts in Quarrels of Jurifdi6tion, and 


Of Judicature. 199 

are not truly Amici Curia, but Para.fiti Curia ; in 
puffing a Court up beyond her bounds, for their 
own Scraps and Advantage. The Third Sort is of 
thofe that may be accounted the Left Hands of 
Courts ; Perfons that are full of nimble and iinifler 
Tricks and Shifts, whereby they pervert the plain 
and direcl: Courfes of Courts, and bring Juftice into 
oblique Lines and Labyrinths. And the Fourth is, 
the Poler and Exafter of Fees ; which jullifies the 
Common Refemblance of the Courts of Juftice to 
the Bujh, whereunto while the Sheep flies for de- 
fence in Weather, he is fure to lofe Part of his 
Fleece. On the other fide, an ant lent Clerk, fkilful 
in Precedents, wary in Proceeding, and underftanding 
in the Bufinefs of the Court, is an excellent Finger 
of a Court ; and doth many times point the way to 
the Judge himfelf. 

Fourthly, for that which may concern the Sove- 
reign and Eft ate. Judges ought above all to remember 
the Conclufion of the Roman Twelve Tables ; Salus 
Populi fuprema Lex ; and to know, that Laws, ex- 
cept they be in order to that end, are but Things 
captious, and Oracles not well infpired. Therefore 
it is a happy Thing in a State, when Kings and 
States do often confult with Judges j and again, 
when Judges do often confult with the King and 
State : The one, when there is Matter of Law, 
intervenient in Bufinefs of State ; the other, when 
there is fome Confideration of State, intervenient in 
Matter of Law. For many times, the Things de- 

200 Essays. 

duced to Judgment may be Me urn and Tuum, 
when the Reafon and Confequence thereof may 
trench to Point of Eftate : I call Matter of Eftate, 
not only the parts of Sovereignty, but whatfoever 
introduceth any great Alteration, or dangerous Pre- 
cedent; or concerneth manifeftly any great Portion 
of People. And let no Man weakly conceive, that 
juft Laws, and true Policy, have any Antipathy : 
For they are like the Spirits, and Sinews, that one 
moves with the other. Let Judges alfo remember, 
that, Solomon's Throne was fupported by Lions on 
both Sides ; let them be Lions, but yet Lions under 
the Throne; being circumfpecl, that they do not 
check, or oppofe any Points of Sovereignty. Let 
not Judges alfo be fo ignorant of their own Right, as 
to think, there is not left to them, as a principal Part 
of their Office, a wife Ufe and application of Laws. 
For they may remember, what the Apofile faith, of 
a Greater Law than theirs ; Nos fcimus quia Lex 
bona eft, mo do quis ea utatur legitime. 

lvii. Of Anger. 

O feek to extinguish Anger utterly, is 

but a Bravery of the Stoicks. We have 

better Oracles : Be angry, but fin not. 

Let not the Sun go down upon your 

Anger. Anger muft be limited, and confined, both 

Of Anger. 201 

in Race, and in Time. We will firfl fpeak, how 
the natural Inclination, and Habit, to be angry, may 
be attempered, and calmed. Secondly, how the par- 
ticular Motions of Anger may be repreffed, or at leafl 
refrained from doing Mifchief. Thirdly, how to 
raife Anger, or appeafe Anger, in another. 

For the firfl: ; there is no other Way, but to medi- 
tate and ruminate well, upon the Effects of Anger, 
how it troubles Man's Life. And the belt. Time to 
do this, is, to look back upon Anger, when the Fit 
is thoroughly over. Seneca faith well ; That Anger 
is like Ruin, which breaks itfelf, upon that it falls. 
The Scripture exhorteth us ; To pofjefs our Souls in 
Patience. Whofoever is out of Patience, is out of 
PofTelhon of his Soul. Men mull not turn Bees ; 

Animafque in vulnere ponunt. 

Anger is certainly a kind of Bafenefs : As it ap- 
pears well, in the Weaknefs of thofe Subjects, in 
whom it reigns : Children, Women, Old Folks, Sick 
Folks. Only Men mull beware, that they carry 
their Anger rather with Scorn, than with Fear : So 
that they may feem rather to be above the Injury, 
than below it : which is a Thing eafily done, if a 
Man will give Law to himfelf in it. 

For the fecond Point ; the Caufes and Motives of 
Anger, are chiefly three. Firfl, to be too Senjible of 
Hurt : For no Man is angry, that feels not himfelf 
hurt : And therefore tender and delicate Perfons 
mull needs be oft angry : They have fo many Things 

202 Essays. 

to trouble them ; which more robuft Natures have 
little Senfe of. The next is, the Apprehenfion and 
Conftrudtion, of the Injury offered, to be, in the 
Circumftances thereof, full of Contempt. For Con- 
tempt is that which putteth an edge upon Anger, as 
much, or more, than the Hurt itfelf. And therefore, 
when Men are ingenious in picking out Circum- 
ftances of Contempt, they do kindle their Anger 
much. Laftly, Opinion of the Touch of a Man's 
Reputation, doth multiply and fharpen Anger. 
Wherein the Remedy is, that a Man mould have, as 
Confaho was wont to fay, Telam Honoris crajfiorem. 
But in all refrainings of Anger, it is the beft Remedy 
to win Time ; and to make a Man's felf believe, that 
the Opportunity of his Revenge is not yet come : 
But that he forefees a Time for it ; and fo to ftill 
himfelf in the mean Time, and referve it. 

To contain Anger from Mifcbief, though it take 
hold of a Man, there be two Things, whereof you 
mull have fpecial Caution. The one, of extreme 
Bittemefs of Words ; efpecially if they be aculeate, 
and proper : For communia Maledifta are nothing fo 
much : And again, that in Anger, a Man reveal no 
Secrets : For that makes him not fit for Society. 
The other, that you do not peremptorily break off, in 
any Bufmefs in a Fit of Anger : But howfoever you 
Jbew Bitternefs, do not att anything that is not re- 

For raifing and appeafing Anger in another; It 
is done chiefly, by cbooftng of Times, when Men 

Of Anger. 203 

are frowardeft and worft difpofed, to incenfe them. 
Again, by gathering (as was touched before) all that 
you can find out, to aggravate the Contempt. And. 
the two Remedies are by the Contraries. The Former, 
to take good Times, when firft to relate to a Man, 
an angry Bufinefs : For the firft Impreffion is much ; 
and the other is, to fever, as much as may be, the 
Conftrudtion of the Injury, from the Point of Con- 
tempt : Imputing it to Mifunderftanding, Fear, 
Pamon, or what you will. 

lviii. Of Viciffitude of 



OLOMON faith; There is no new 
Thing upon the Earth. So that as 
Plato had an Imagination ; that all 
Knowledge was but Remembrance : So 
Solomon giveth his Sentence ; that all Novelty is but 
Oblivion. Whereby you may fee, that the River of 
Lethe runneth as well above Ground, as below. 
There is an abftrufe Aftrologer that faith ; If it were 
not for two things, that are Conftant ; (the one is, 
that the Fixed Stars ever ft and at like diftance, one 
froin another, and never come nearer together, nor 
go further afunder j the other, that the Diurnal 
Motion perpetually keepeth Time:) no Individual 
would laft one Moment. Certain it is, that the 

204 Essays. 

Matter, is in a perpetual Flux, and never at a Stay. 
The great Winding-meets, that bury all Things in 
Oblivion, are two ; Deluges, and Earthquakes. 
As for Conflagrations, and great Droughts, they do 
not merely difpeople, and deftroy. Phaeton's Car 
went but a day. And the Three Tears' Drought, in 
the time of Elias, was but particular, and left People 
alive. As for the great Burnings by Lightnings, 
which are often in the Weft Indies, they are but 
narrow. But in the other two Deftructions, by 
Deluge, and Earthquake, it is further to be noted, 
that the Remnant of People, which hap to be referved, 
are commonly ignorant and mountainous People, that 
can give no Account of the Time pail : So that the 
Oblivion is all one, as if none had been left. If you 
confider well, of the People of the Weft Indies, it is 
very probable that they are a newer, or a younger 
People, than the People of the Old World. And it 
is much more likely, that the Deftruclion, that hath 
heretofore been there, was not by Earthquakes, (as 
the Egyptian Prieft told Solon, concerning the Ifland 
of Atlantis ; That it was fiv allowed by an Earth- 
quake ;) but rather, that it was defolated by a par- 
ticular Deluge. For Earthquakes are feldom in 
thofe Parts. But on the other fide, they have fuch 
pouring Rivers, as the Rivers of Ajia, and Africa, 
and Europe, are but brooks to them. Their Andes 
likewife, or Mountains, are far higher than thofe 
with us ; whereby it feems, that the Remnants of 
Generation of Men, were, in fuch a particular Deluge, 

Of Vicissitude of Things. 205 

faved. As for the Obfervation, that Machiavel hath, 
that the Jealoufy of Setts, doth much extinguifh the 
Memory of Things ; traducing Gregory the Great, 
that he did, what in him. lay, to extinguifh all 
Heathen Antiquities ; I do not find, that thofe 
Zeals do any great Effects, nor laft long : As it ap- 
peared in the Succeffion of Sabinian, who did re- 
vive the former Antiquities. 

The ViciJJitude or Mutations, in the Superior 
Globe, are no fit Matter, for this prefent Argument. 
It may be, Plato's great Tear, if the World mould 
laft fo long, would have fome Effect; not in renewing 
the State of like Individuals (for that is the Fume of 
thofe, that conceive the Celeilial Bodies have more 
accurate Influences, upon thefe Things below, than 
indeed they have) but in grofs. Comets, out of 
queftion, have likewife Power and Effect, over the 
Grofs and Mafs of Things : But they are rather 
gazed upon, and waited upon in their Journey, than 
wifely obferved in their Effects ; fpecially in their 
refpe&ive Effects ; that is, what Kind of Comet, for 
Magnitude, Colour, Verfion of the Beams, placing 
in the Region of Heaven, or Lafting, produceth 
what Kind of Effects . 

There is a Toy, which I have heard, and I would 
not have it given over, but waited upon a little. They 
fay, it is obferved, in the Low Countries (I know not 
in what Part) that every Five and Thirty Years, the 
fame kind and fuit of Years and Weathers, comes 
about again : As great Frofts, great Wet, great 

206 Essays. 

Droughts, warm Winters, Summers with little Heat, 
and the like : And they call it the Prime. It is a 
Thing, I do the rather mention, becaufe computing 
backwards, I have found fome Concurrence. 

But to leave thefe Points of Nature, and to come 
to Men. The greateft ViciJJitude of Things amongft 
Men, is the ViciJJitude of Seels, and Religions. For 
thofe Orbs rule in Men's Minds mod. The true 
Religion is built upon the Rock; the Reft are toft 
upon the Waves of Time. To fpeak therefore, of 
the Caujes of new Seels ; and to give fome Counjel 
concerning them ; as far, as the Weaknefs of human 
Judgment can give ftay to fo great Revolutions. 

When the Religion formerly received, is rent by 
Difcords ; and when the Holinefs of the ProfefTors 
of Religion is decayed, and full of Scandal ; and 
withal the Times be ftupid, ignorant, and barbarous; 
you may doubt the fpringing up of a New Seel ; if 
then alfo there mould arife any extravagant and 
ftrange Spirit, to make himfelf Author thereof. All 
which Points held, when Mahomet publifhed his 
Law. If a new Seel have not two Properties, fear 
it not : For it will not fpread. The one is, the 
fupplanting, or the oppofmg, of Authority eftablifhed : 
For nothing is more Popular than that. The other 
is, the giving Licenfe to Pleafures, and a voluptuous 
Life. For as for Jpeculative Herejies (fuch as were 
in ancient Times the Arians, and now the Armin- 
ians) though they work mightily upon Men's Wits, 
yet they do not produce any great Alterations in 

Of Vicissitude of Things. 207 

States ; except it be by the Help of civil Occafions. 
There be three Manner of Plantations of new Seels. 
By the Power of Signs and Miracles : By the Elo- 
quence and Wifdom of Speech and Perfuajion : And 
by the Sword. For Martyrdoms, I reckon them 
amongft Miracles ; becaufe they feem to exceed the 
Strength of human Nature : and I may do the like 
otfuperlative and admirable Holinefs of Life. Surely, 
there is no better Way, to Hop the rifmg of new Seels, 
and Schifms ; than to reform Abufes ; to compound 
the fmaller Differences ; to proceed mildly, and not 
with fanguinary Perfecutions ; and rather to take off 
the principal Authors, by winning and advancing 
them, than to enrage them by Violence and Bitter- 

The Changes and Vicijftude in Wars are many : 
But chiefly in three Things ; in the Seats or Stages 
of the War ; in the Weapons ; and in the Manner 
of the Conducl. Wars in ancient Time feemed more 
to move from Eaft to Weft: For the Perfians, 
AJJyrians, Arabians, Tartars (which were the In- 
vaders), were all Eaftern People. It is true, the 
Gauls were Weftern ; but we read but of two In- 
curfions of theirs ; the one to Gallo-Grecia, the 
other to Rome. But Eaft and Weft have no certain 
Points of Heaven : And no more have the Wars, 
either from the Eaft, or Weft, any certainty of ob- 
fervation. But North and South are fixed : And it 
hath feldom or never been feen, that the far Southern 
People have invaded the Northern, but contrariwife. 


2o8 Essays. 

Whereby it is manifeft, that the Northern TraB of 
the World is in Nature the more martial Region : 
Be it, in refpeft of the Stars of that Hemifphere ; or 
of the great Continents that are upon the North, 
whereas the South Part, for ought that is known, is 
almoft all Sea ; or (which is moft apparent) of the 
Cold of the Northern Parts, which is that, which 
without Aid of Difcipline, doth make the Bodies 
hardeft, and the Courages warmeft. 

Upon the breaking and foivering of a great State 
and Empire, you may be fure to have Wars. For 
great Empires, while they Hand, do enervate and 
defiroy the Forces of the Natives, which they have 
fubdued, reiling upon their own protecting Forces : 
And then when they fail alfo, all goes to ruin, and 
they become a Prey. So was it, in the Decay of 
the R oman Empire ; and like wife, in the Empire of 
Almaigne, after Charles the Great, every Bird taking 
a Feather ; and were not unlike to befall to Spain, 
if it mould break. The great Accejjions and Unions 
of Kingdoms, do like wife ftir up Wars. For when 
a State grows to an Over-power, it is like a great 
Flood, that will be fure to overflow. As it hath 
been feen, in the States of Rome, Turkey, Spain, and 
others. Look when the World hath feweft barbarous 
Peoples, but fuch as commonly will not marry or 
generate, except they know means to live ; (as it is 
almoft every where at this day, except Tartary) 
there is no Danger of Inundations of People : But 
when there be great Shoals of People, which go on 

Of Vicissitude of Things. 209 

to populate, without forefeeing Means of Life and 
Suftentation, it is of Neceffity, that once in an Age 
or two, they difcharge a Portion of their People upon 
other Nations : Which the ancient Northern People 
were wont to do by Lot : calling Lots, what Part 
fhould flay at home, and what mould feek their For- 
tunes. When a Warlike State grows foft and 
effeminate, they may be fure of a War. For com- 
monly fuch States are grown rich, in the time of 
their degenerating ; and fo the Prey inviteth, and 
their Decay in Valour encourageth a War. 

As for the Weapons, it hardly falleth under Rule 
and Obfervation : yet we fee, even they have Returns 
and Vicijjitudes. For certain it is, that Ordnance 
was known in the City of the Oxidrakes in India y 
and was that which the Macedonians called Thun- 
der and Lightning, and Magic. And it is well 
known, that the ufe of Ordnance hath been in China, 
above two thoufand Years. The Conditions of 
Weapons, and their Improvement are; Firft,. the 
Fetching afar off: For that outruns the Danger : As 
it is feen in Ordnance and Mujkets. Secondly, the 
Strength of the Percuffion, wherein likewife Ord- 
nance do exceed all Arietations, and ancient Inven- 
tions. The third is, the commodious ufe of them : 
As that they may ferve in all Weathers ; that the 
Carriage may be light and manageable ; and the like. 

For the Conducl of the War : At the firft, Men 
refted extremely upon Number : They did put the 
Wars likewife upon main Force, and Valour j point- 

2io Essays. 

ing Days for pitched Fields, and fo trying it out, 
upon an even Match : and they were more ignorant 
in ranging and arraying their Battles. After they 
grew to reft upon Number, rather Competent, than 
Vaft : They grew to Advantages of Place, cunning 
Diverjions, and the like : And they grew more fkil- 
ful in the ordering of their Battles. 

In the Youth of a State, Arms do flourifh : In 
the Middle Age of a State, Learning; and then 
both of them together for a time : In the Declining 
Age of a State, mechanical Arts and Merchandize. 
Learning hath his Infancy, when it is but beginning, 
and almoft childifh : Then his Youth, when it is 
luxuriant and juvenile : Then his Strength of Years, 
when it is folid and reduced : And laftly, his old 
Age, when it waxeth dry and exhauft. But it is not 
good, to look too long, upon thefe turning Wheels of 
ViciJJitude, left we become giddy. As for the Phi- 
lology of them, that is but a Circle of Tales, and 
therefore not fit for this writing. 



A Fragment of an Effay of 

HE Poets make Fa?ne a Monfter : they 
defcribe her in part finely and elegantly, 
and in part gravely and fententioufly : 
They fay, Look how many Feathers 
me hath, fo many Eyes fhe hath underneath, fo 
many Tongues, fo many Voices, fhe pricks up fo 
many Ears. 

This is a flourifh ; there follow excellent Parables ; 
as that me gathereth Strength in going; that fhe 
goeth upon the Ground, and yet hideth her Head in 
the Clouds; that in the day-time Ihe fitteth in a 
Watch-tower, and flyeth moft by night; that fhe 
mingleth Things done with Things not done ; and 
that fhe is a Terror to great Cities ; but that which 
pafTeth all the reft is, they do recount that the Earth, 
mother of the Giants that made war againft Jupiter, 
and were by him deftroyed, thereupon in anger 

* Publifhed by Dr. Ratvley in his Refufcitatio. 

212 Essays. 

brought forth Fame s for certain it is, that Rebels, 
figured by the Giants and feditious Fames and Libels, 
are but Brothers and Sifters, mafculine and feminine : 
But now if a Man can tame this Monfter, and bring 
her to feed at the hand, and govern her, and with her 
fly other ravening Fowl, and kill them, it is fomewhat 
worth : But we are infedled with the Style of the 
Poets. To fpeak now in a fad and ferious Manner, 
there is not in all the Politics a Place lefs handled, 
and more worthy to be handled, than this of Fame : 
we will therefore fpeak of thefe points : What are 
falfe Fames ; and what are true Fames ; and how 
they may be beft difcerned ; how Fames may be 
fown and raifed ; how they may be fpread and mul- 
tiplied ; and how they may be checked and laid 
dead ; and other things concerning the nature of 
Fame. Fame is of that Force, as there is fcarcely 
any great Aftion wherein it hath not a great Part, 
efpecially in the War. Mucianus undid Vitellius by 
a Fame that he fcattered, that Vitellius had in Pur- 
pofe to remove the Legions of Syria into Germany, 
and the Legions of Germany into Syria ; whereupon 
the Legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed. Julius 
Ctefar took Pompey unprovided ; and laid afleep his 
Induftry and Preparations by a Fame that he cun- 
ningly gave out, how C&far's own Soldiers loved 
him not; and being wearied with the Wars, and 
laden with the Spoils of Gaul, would forfake him as 
foon as he came into Italy. Lima fettled all things 
for the fucceffton of her Son Tiberius, by continual 


Of Fame. 


giving out that her Hufband Auguftus was upon Re- 
covery and Amendment ; and it is a ufual thing with 
the Bafhaws, to conceal the Death of the Great 
Turk from the Janizaries and Men of War, to fave 
the Sacking of Conftantinople, and other Towns, as 
their manner is. Themiftocles made Xerxes, King of 
■P erfia , poft apace out of Gr<zcia, by giving out that 
the Grecians had a Purpofe to break his Bridge of 
Ships which he had made athwart Hellefpont. There 
be a thoufand fuch like Examples, and the more they 
are, the lefs they need to be repeated, becaufe a man 
meeteth with them every where : therefore let all 
wife Governors have as great a Watch and Care over 
Fames, as they have of the Actions and Defigns 

[The Reft was not finijbedj\ 

11. Of a King. 

KING is a Mortal God on Earth, 
unto whom the living God hath lent 
his own Name as a great Honour ; 
but withal told him, he mould die 
like a Man, left he mould be proud and flatter him- 
felf, that God hath with his Name imparted unto 
him his Nature alfo. 

2. Of all kind of Men, God is the leaft beholden 

214 Essays. 

unto them ; for he doth moll for them, and they do 
ordinarily leaft for him. 

3. A King that would not feel his Crown too 
heavy for him, mull wear it every day ; but if he 
think it too light, he knoweth not of what Metal it 
is made. 

4. He mull make Religion the Rule of Govern- 
ment, and not to balance the Scale ; for he that 
cafieth in Religion only to make the Scales even, his 
own weight is contained in thofe Characters, " Mene, 
mene, tekel, upharlin, He is found too light, his 
Kingdom fliall be taken from him." 

5. And that King that holds not Religion the 
bell Reafon of State, is void of all Piety and Juftice, 
the Supporters of a King. 

6. He mull be able to give Counfel himfelf, but 
not rely thereupon ; for though happy Events juftify 
their Counfels, yet it is better that the evil Event of 
good Advice be rather imputed to a Subject than a 

7. He is the Fountain of Honour, which mould 
not run with a wafte Pipe, left the Courtiers fell the 
Water, and then, as Papills fay of their holy Wells, 
it lofes the Virtue. 

8. He is the Life of the Law, not only as he is 
lex loquens himfelf, but becaufe he animateth the 
dead Letter, making it adtive towards all his Subjects 
pramio et pczna. 

9. A wife King mull do lefs in altering his Laws 
than he may ; for new Government is ever dangerous. 

Of a King. 215 

It being true in the Body Politic, as in the Corporal, 
that omnisfubita immutatio eft periculofa y and though 
it be for the better, yet it is not without a fearful 
Apprehenfion ; for he that changeth the Fundamental 
Laws of a Kingdom, thinketh there is no good Title 
to a Crown, but by Conqueft. 

10. A King that fetteth to Sale Seats of Juflice, 
oppreffeth the People; for he teacheth his Judges 
to fell Juftice ; and pretio parata pretio venditur 

1 1 . Bounty and Magnificence are Virtues very 
regal, but a prodigal King is nearer a Tyrant than a 
Parfimonious ; for Store at home draweth not his 
Contemplations abroad : but Want fupplieth itfelf 
of what is next, and many times the next way : a 
King herein muft be wife, and know what he may 
juftly do. 

1 2 . That King which is not feared, is not loved ; 
and he that is well feen in his craft, mull as well 
ftudy to be feared as loved ; yet not loved for Fear, 
but feared for Love. 

13. Therefore, as he muft always refemble Him 
whofe great Name he beareth, and that as in mani- 
fefting the fweet Influence of his Mercy on the fevere 
Stroke of his Juftice fometimes, fo in this not to fuffer 
a Man of Death to live ; for befides that the Land 
doth mourn, the Reftraint of Juftice towards Sin 
doth more retard the affection of Love, than the ex- 
tent of Mercy doth inflame it : and fure where Love 
is [ill] bellowed, Fear is quite loft. 

216 Essays. 

i 4. His greateft Enemies are his Flatterers ; for 
though they ever fpeak on his fide, yet their Words 
frill make againft him. 

15. The Love which a King oweth to a Weal 
Public, fhould not be overftrained to any one par- 
ticular ; yet that his more fpecial Favour do refleft 
upon fome worthy Ones is fomewhat neceflary, be- 
caufe there are few of that capacity. 

1 6. He muft have a fpecial Care of five Things, 
if he would not have his Crown to be but to him 
infelix Felicitas. 

Firft, Hasitjimulata Sanclitas be not in the Church ; 
for that is duplex iniqliitas. 

Secondly, that inuiilis ^Equitas fit not in the 
Chancery ; for that is inept a Mifericordia. 

Thirdly, that utilis Iniquitas keep not the Ex- 
chequer : for that is crudele latrocinium. 

Fourthly, that fidelis Temeritas be not his Gene- 
ral; for that will bring but fer am Pcenitentiam. 

Fifthly, that infidelis Prudentia be not his Secre- 
tary; for that is anguis fub viridi herba. 

To conclude : as he is of the greateft Power, fo 
he is fubjecl to the greateft Cares, made the Ser- 
vant of his People, or elfe he were without a Calling 
at all. 

He then that honoureth him not is next an Atheift, 
wanting the Fear of God in his Heart. 

2I 7 

in. An Effay on Death. 

HAVE often thought upon Death, and 
I the leaf* of all Evils. All 
that which is pail is as a Dream ; and 
he that hopes or depends upon Time 
coming, dreams waking. So much of our Life as 
we have difcovered is already dead ; and all thofe 
Hours which we mare, even from the breafts of 
our Mother, until we return to our Grandmother, 
the Earth, are part of our dying Days ; whereof even 
this is one, and thofe that fucceed are of the fame 
nature, for we die daily ; and as Others have given 
place to us, fo we muft in the end give way to Others. 
Pbyficians, in the name of Death include all Sorrow, 
Anguifh, Difeafe, Calamity, or whatfoever can fall 
in the Life of Man, either grievous or unwelcome : 
But thefe Things are familiar unto us, and we fuffer 
them every hour ; therefore we die daily, and I am 
older nnce I affirmed it. I know many wife Men 
that fear to die, for the Change is bitter, and Flefh 
would refufe to prove it : belides the Expectation 
brings Terror, and that exceeds the Evil. But I do 
not believe, that any Man fears to be dead, but only 
the Stroke of Death : and fuch are my Hopes, that 
if Heaven be pleafed, and Nature renew but my 
Leafe for twenty-one Years more, without aiking 

218 Essays. 

longer Days, I (hall be ftrong enough to acknowledge 
without mourning that I was begotten mortal. Vir- 
tue walks not in the Highway, though fhe go per 
alta ; this is Strength and the Blood to Virtue, to 
contemn Things that be defired, and to neglect that 
which is feared. 

4. Why ihould Man be in love with his Fetters, 
though of Gold ? Art thou drowned in Security ? 
Then I fay thou art perfectly dead. For though 
thou moveft, yet thy Soul is buried within thee, and 
thy good Angel either forfakes his guard or deeps. 
There is Nothing under Heaven, faving a true Friend, 
who cannot be counted within the number of Move- 
ables, unto which my Heart doth lean. And this 
dear Freedom hath begotten me this Peace, that I 
mourn not for that End which mull be, nor fpend 
one Wifh to have one Minute added to the incertain 
Date of my Years. It was no mean Apprehenfion 
of Lucian, who fays of Menippus, that in his Travels 
through Hell he knew not the Kings of the Earth 
from other Men, but only by their louder Cryings 
and Tears : Which was foftered in them through the 
remorfeful Memory of the good Days they had feen, 
and the fruitful Havings which they fo unwillingly 
left behind them : He that was well feated, looked 
back at his Portion, and was loth to forfake his Farm ; 
and Others, either minding Marriages, Pleafures, 
Profit, or Preferment, defired to be excufed from 
Death's Banquet : they had made an Appointment 
with Earthy looking at the Bleffings, not the Hand 

On Death. 219 

that enlarged them, forgetting how unclothedly they 
came hither, or with what naked Ornaments they 
were arrayed. 

5. But were we Servants of the Precept given, 
and Obfervers of the Heathens' rule, memento mori, 
and not become benighted with this feeming Felicity, 
we mould enjoy it as Men prepared to lofe, and not 
wind up our Thoughts upon fo periming a Fortune : 
he that is not flackly ftrong, as the Servants of Plea- 
fure, how can he be found unready to quit the Veil 
and falfe Vifage of his Perfection ? The Soul, having 
fhaken ofT her Flefh, doth then fet up for herfelf, 
and contemning Things that are under, mews what 
Finger hath enforced her ; for the Souls of Idiots 
are of the fame piece with thofe of Statefmen, but 
now and then Nature is at a fault, and this good 
Gueft of ours takes Soil in an imperfect body, and fo 
is ilackened from (hewing her Wonders ; like an ex- 
cellent Muiician, which cannot utter himfelf upon a 
defective Inftrument. 

6. But fee how I am fwerved, and lofe my Courfe, 
touching at the Soul, that doth leaft hold Action 
with Death, who hath the fureft Property in this 
frail Act ; his Stile is the End of all Flefh, and the 
Beginning of Incorrupt] on. 

This Ruler of Monuments leads Men for the molt, 
part out of this World with their Heels forward ; in 
token that he is contrary to Life ; which being ob- 
tained, fends Men headlong into this wretched 
Theatre, where being arrived, their firffc language is 

220 Essays. 

that of Mourning. Nor in my own Thoughts, can 
I compare Men more fitly to any thing, than to the 
Indian Fig-tree, which being ripened to his full 
height, is faid to decline his Branches down to the 
Earth ; whereof lhe conceives again, and they become 
Roots in their own flock. 

So Man having derived his Being from the Earth, 
nrft lives the Life of a Tree, drawing his Nourifh- 
ment as a Plant, and made ripe for Death, he tends 
downwards, and is lowed again in his Mother the 
Earth ; where he perifheth not, but expedls a quick- 

7. So we fee Death exempts not a Man from 
Being, but only prefents an Alteration ; yet there 
are fome Men, I think, that Hand otherwife per- 
fuaded. Death finds not a worfe Friend than an 
Alderman, to whofe Door I never knew him wel- 
come ; but he is an importunate Guefl, and will not 
be faid Nay. 

And though they themfelves mail affirm, that they 
are not within, yet the Anfwer will not be taken ; 
and that which heightens their Fear is, that they 
know they are in danger to forfeit their Flefh, but 
are not wife of the Payment-day : which fickly Un- 
certainty is the Occafion that, for the moll part, they 
flep out of this World unfurnifhed for their general 
Account, and being all unprovided, defire yet to hold 
their Gravity, preparing their Souls to anfwer in 

Thus I gather, that Death is unagreeable to moll: 

On Death. 221 

Citizens, becaufe they commonly die inteftate : this 
being a Rule, that when their Will is made, they 
think themfelves nearer a Grave than before : now 
they out of the Wifdom of thoufands, think to fcare 
Deftiny from which there is no Appeal, by not 
making a Will, or to live longer by Proteftation of 
their unwillingnefs to die. They are for the molt 
part well made in this World, accounting their Trea- 
fure by Legions, as Men do Devils, their Fortune 
looks toward them, and they are willing to anchor 
at it, and defire, if it be poffible, to put the evil Day 
far off from them, and to adjourn their ungrateful 
and killing Period. 

No, thefe are not the Men which have befpoken 
Death, or whofe looks are arm red to entertain a 
thought of him. 

8. Death arrives gracious only to fuch as fit in 
Darknefs, or lie heavy burned with Grief and Irons ; 
to the poor Chriftian, that fits bound in the Galley ; 
to defpairful Widows, penfive Prifoners, and depofed 
Kings : To them whofe Fortune runs back, and 
whofe Spirits mutiny ; unto fuch Death is a Re- 
deemer and the Grave a place for Retirednefs and 

Thefe wait upon the Shore of Death, and waft 
unto him to draw near, wifhing above all others to 
fee his Star, that they might be led to his Place, 
wooing the remorfelefs Sifters to wind down the 
Watch of their Life, and to break them off before 
the Hour. 

222 Essays. 

9. But Death is a doleful Meffenger to a Ufurer, 
and Fate ultimately cuts their Thread : for it is never 
mentioned by him, but when Rumours of War and 
civil Tumults put him in mind thereof. 

And when many Hands are armed, and the Peace 
of a City in diforder, and the Foot of the common 
Soldiers founds an Alarm on his Stairs, then perhaps 
fuch a One, broken in thoughts of his Monies abroad, 
and curling the Monuments of Coin which are in his 
houfe, can be content to think of Death, and, being 
hafty of Perdition, will perhaps hang himfelf left his 
throat mould be cut ; provided that he may do it in 
his Study, furrounded with Wealth, to which his eye 
fends a faint and languifhing Salute, even upon the 
turning off; remembering always, that he have Time 
and Liberty by writing, to depute himfelf as his own 

For that is a great Peace to his End, and recon- 
ciles him wonderfully upon the point. 

1 o. Herein we all dally with ourfelves, and are 
without Proof of Neceffity. I am not of thofe that 
dare promife to pine away myfelf in vain Glory, and 
I hold fuch to be but Feat-boldnefs, and them that 
dare commit it to be vain. Yet for my part, I think 
Nature mould do me great Wrong, if I mould be fo 
long in dying, as I was in being born. 

To fpeak truth, no Man knows the Lifts of his 
own Patience ; nor can divine how able he fhall be 
in his Sufferings, till the Storm come ; the perfefteft 
Virtue being tried in Action : but I would out of a 

On Death. 223 

Care to do the bell Bufinefs well, ever keep a Guard, 
and fland upon keeping Faith and a good Confcience. 

1 1 . And if Wifhes might find place, I would die 
together, and not my Mind often, and my Body 
once; that is, I would prepare for the Meffengers 
of Death, Sicknefs, and Affliction, and not wait long, 
or be attempted by the Violence of Pain. 

Herein I do not profefs myfelf a Stoic, to hold 
Grief no Evil, but Opinion, and a Thing indifferent. 

But I confent with Cafar, that the fuddeneit 
Paffage is eaneft, and there is nothing more awakens 
our Refolve and Readinefs to die, than the quieted 
Confcience, ftrengthened with Opinion that we mall 
be well fpoken of upon Earth by thofe that are juft, 
and of the Family of Virtue ; the oppofite whereof 
is a Fury to Man, and makes even Life unfweet. 

Therefore, what is more heavy than evil Fame 
deferved? Or, likewife, who can fee worfe Days, 
than he that yet living doth follow at the Funerals of 
his own Reputation ? 

I have laid up many Hopes, that I am privileged 
from that kind of Mourning, and could wifti the like 
Peace to all thofe, with whom I wage love. 

12. I might fay much of the Commodities that 
Death can fell a Man ; but briefly, Death is a Friend 
of ours, and he that is not ready to entertain him, is 
not at Home. Whilft I am, my Ambition is not to 
foreflow the Tide ; I have but fo to make my Intereil 
of it, as I may account for it ; I would wifti Nothing 
but what might better my Days, nor defire any greater 

224 Essays. 

Place than the Front of good Opinion. I make not 
Love to the Continuance of Days, but to the Good- 
nefs of them ; nor wifh to die, but refer myfelf to 
my Hour, which the great Difpenfer of all Things 
hath appointed me ; yet as I am frail, and fuffered 
for the firft Fault, were it given me to choofe, I lhould 
not be earneft to fee the Evening of my Age ; that 
Extremity of itfelf being a Difeafe, and a mere Return 
into Infancy ; fo that if Perpetuity of Life might be 
given me, I mould think what the Greek Poet faid, 
" Such an age is a mortal Evil." And fince I muft 
needs be dead, I require it may net be done before 
mine Enemies, that I be not ftript before I be cold ; 
but before my Friends. The Night was even now ; 
but that Name is loft ; it is not now late, but early. 
Mine Eyes begin to difcharge their Watch, and com- 
pound with this flefhly Weaknefs for a Time of per- 
petual Reft ; and I mall prefently be as happy for a 
few Hours, as I had died the firft Hour I was born. 



Written in Latin by the Right Hon- 
ourable Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, 
Baron of Verulam^ and Lord 
Chancellor of England. 

Done into Englijh by Sir Arthur Gorges, 


HE Antiquities of the fir ft Age (ex- 
cept tbofe we find in Sacred Writ) 
were buried in Oblivion and Silence : 
Silence was fucceeded by Poetical Fa- 
bles ; and Fables again were followed by the Records 
we now enjoy. So that the Myfteries and Secrets of 
Antiquity were diftinguijhed and feparated from the 
Records and Evidences of fucceeding Times by the 
Veil of Ficlion, which interpofed itfelf and came be- 
tween thofe Things which Perijhed, and thofe which 
are Extant. I fuppofe fome are of Opinion, that 
my Purpofe is to write Toys and Trifles, and to 
ufurp the fame Liberty in applying, that the Poets 
ajfumed in feigning, which I might do (I confefs) if 
I lifted, and with more ferious Contemplation inter- 
mix thefe Things, to delight either my fe If in Medita- 
tion, or others in Reading. Neither am I ignorant 
how Fickle and Inconftant a Thing Ficlion is, as 
being fubjecl to be drazvn and wrefted a?iy way, and 
how great the commodity of Wit and Difcourfe is, 
that is able to apply Things well, yet fo as never 
meant by the firft Authors. But I remember that 

228 The Preface. 

this Liberty hath been lately much abufed, in that 
many, to pur chafe the Reverence of Antiquity to 
their own Inventions and Fancies, have for the fame 
Intent laboured to wreft many Poetical Fables : 
Neither hath this old and common Vanity been ufed 
only of late, or now and then : For even Chryfippus 
long ago did (as an Interpreter of Dreams) afcribe 
the Opinions of the Stoicks to the Ancient Poets ; and 
more fottifhly do the Chemifts appropriate the Fan- 
cies and Delights of Poets in the Transformation of 
Bodies, to the Experiments of their Furnace. All 
thefe Things, I fay, Ihavefufficiently confidered and 
weighed, and in them have feen and noted the gene- 
ral Levity and Indulgence of Mens Wits above 
Allegories i and yet for all this I relinquifh not my 

For fir ft it may not be, that the Folly and Loofe- 
nefs of a few fhould altogether detracl from the re- 
fpecl due to the Parables : For that were a Conceit 
which might favour ofProfanenefs and Prefumption : 
For Religion itfelf doth fometimes delight in fuch 
Veils and Shadows : So that who fo Exempts them, 
feems in a manner to inter dicl all Commerce between 
Things Divine and Human. But concerning Human 
Wifdom, I do indeed ingenuoufly and freely confefs, 
that I am inclined to imagine, that under fome of the 
Ancient Ficlions lay couched certain Myfteries and 
Allegories, even from their firft Invention. And 
I am perfuaded (whether ravifhed with the Rever- 
ence of Antiquity, or becaufe in fome Fables I find 

The Preface. 229 

fuch Jlngular Proportion between the Similitude and 
the Thing fignified ; and fuch apt and clear coher- 
ence in the very Structure of them , and propriety of 
Names wherewith the Perfons or Aclors in them are 
infer ibed and entitled) that no Man can con ft ant ly 
deny, but this Senfe was in the Authors' Intent and 
Meaning, when they firft invented them, and that 
they purpofely Jhadowed it in this fort : For who can 
be fo Stupid and Blind in the open Light, as (when 
he hears how Fame, after the Giants were deftroyed, 
fprang up as their youngeft Sifter) not to refer it to 
the Murmurs and Seditious Reports of both fides, 
which are wont to fly abroad for a time after the 
fupprefjing of Infurreclions ? Or when he hears 
how the Giant Typhon, having cut out and brought 
away Jupiter's Nerves, which Mercury ftole from 
him, and reftored again to Jupiter ; doth not prefently 
perceive how fitly it may be applied to powerful Re- 
bellions, which take from Princes their Sinews of 
Money and Authority ; but fo that by affability of 
Speech, and wife Edicls (the Minds of their Subjecls 
being i?i time, privily, and as it were by ftealth re- 
conciled) they recover their Strength again? Or 
when he hears how (in that memorable Expedition of 
the Gods againft the Giants J the braying ^ Silenus's 
Afs, conduced much to the profligation of the Giants, 
doth not confidently imagine that it was invented to 
fhew how the greateft Enterprizes of Rebels are 
oftentimes difperfed with vain Rumours and Fears. 
Moreover, to what Judgment can the Conformity 

230 The Preface. 

and Signification of Names feem obfcure ? Seeing 
Metis, the Wife of Jupiter, doth plainly fignify Coun- 
fel : Typhon, Infurreclion : Pan, Vniverfality : Ne- 
mefis, Revenge, and the like : Neither let it trouble 
any Man, iffo?netimes he meet with Hiflorical Nar- 
rations, or Additions for Ornament 's fake, or confu- 
fion of Times, or fomething transferred from one Fable 
to another, to bring in a new Allegory : For it could 
be no otherwife, feeing they were the Inventions of 
Men, which lived in diverfe Ages, and had alfo di- 
verfe Ends : Some being ancient, others neoterical ; 
fome have an Eye to Things Natural, others to 

There is another Argument, and that no fmall one 
neither, to prove that thefe Fables contain certain 
hidden, and involved Meanings, feeing fome of them 
are obferved to be fo abfurd, and foolijh in the very 
relation that they fhew, and as it were proclaim 
a Parable afar off : For fuch Tales as are probable, 
they may feem to be invented for delight, and in imi- 
tation of Hiftory. And as for fuch as no Man would 
fo much as imagine or relate, they feem to be fought 
out for other Ends : For what kind of Fitlion is that, 
wherein Jupiter is f aid to have iaken Metis to Wife ; 
and, perceiving that fhe was with Child, to have de- 
voured her ; whence himfelf conceivmg, brought forth 
Pallas armed, out of his Head? Truly, I think 
there was never Dream (fo different to the courfe of 
Cogitation, and fo full of Monftrofity,) ever hatched 
in the Brain of Man. Above all Things, this pre- 

The Preface. 231 

vails mo ft with me and is of jingular Moment; 
many of tbefe Fables feem not to be invented of thofe 
by whom they are related, and celebrated, as by Ho- 
mer, Heliod and others. For if it were fo, that 
they took beginning in that Age, and from thofe Au- 
thors by whom they are delivered, and brought to our 
Hands ; My Mind gives me, there could be no great 
or high Matter expected, or fuppofed to proceed from 
them in refpecl of thefe Originals. But if with at- 
tention we conjlder the Matter, it will appear, that 
they were delivered, and related as Things formerly 
believed, and received, and not as newly invented, 
and offered unto us. Befides, feeing they are diverfy 
related by Writers that lived near about one and the 
f elf-fame time, we may eafily perceive that they were 
common Things, derived from precedent Memorials ; 
and that they became various, by reafon of the divers 
Ornaments beftowed on them by particular Relations : 
And the confideration of this mufl needs increafe in 
us a great Opinion' of them, as not to be accounted 
either the effecls of the Time, or inventions of the 
Poets, but as facred Re licks, or abfl railed Airs of 
better Times, which by Tradition from more Ancient 
Nations, fell into the Trumpets and Flutes of the 
Grecians. But if any do obftinately contend, That 
Allegories are always adventitially, and as it were by 
Cojiftraint, never naturally, and properly included in 
Fables, we will not be much troublefome, but fuffer 
them to enjoy that gravity of f udgment , which I am 
fure they off eel, although indeed it be but Lumpifh, 

232 The Preface. 

and almoft . Leaden. And (if they be worthy to be 
taken notice of,) we will begin afrejh with them in 
fome other Fajhion. 

There is found among Men, (and it goes for cur- 
rent,) a twofold ufe of Parables, and thofe, (which is 
more to be admired) referred to contrary Ends ; con- . 
ducing as well to the folding up, and keeping of 
Things under a Veil, as to the enlightening and lay- 
ing open of Obfcurities. But omitting the former, 
(rather than to undergo wrangling, and ajjuming 
ancient Fables as Things vagrant, and compofed only 
for Delight,) the latter muft quefiionlefs flill remain 
as not to be wrejled from us by any violence of Wit, 
neither can any (that is but meanly Learned) hinder; 
but it muft abfolutely be received, as a Thing grave, 
and fober, free from all vanity, and exceeding profit- 
able, and neceffary to all Sciences. This is it, I fay, 
that leads the Underjlanding of Man by an eafy and 
gentle Paffage through all novel and abjlrufe Inven- 
tions, which any way differ from ' common received 
Opinions. Therefore in the firft Ages (when many 
human Inventions and Conclufions which are now 
common, and vulgar, were new, and not generally 
known,) all Things were full of Fables, Enigmas, 
Parables, and Similes of all forts : By which they 
fought to teach, and lay open, not to hide and conceal 
Knowledge ; efpecially feeing the Under/landings of 
Men were in thofe Times rude and impatient, and 
almojl incapable of any Subtilties ; fuch Things only 
excepted, as were the Objecl of Senfe,for as Hiero- 

The Preface. 233 

glyphicks preceded Letters, fo Parables were more 
ancient than Arguments. And in tbofe Days alfo, 
he that would illuminate Men's Minds anew in any 
old Matter, and that not with difprofit, and harfhnefs, 
mufl abfolutely take the fame Courfe, and ufe the 
help of Similes. Wherefore after all that hath been 
faid, we mufl thus conclude : The Wifdom of the An- 
cients, it was either much, or happy : Much, ifthefe 
Figures and Tropes were invented by Study and Pre- 
meditation j- Happy, if they (intending nothing lefsj 
gave Matter, and Occafion to fo many worthy Medi- 
tations. As concerning my Labours, (if there be any 
Thing in them which may do good,) I will on neither 
part count them ill beftowed, mypurpofe being to illuf- 
trate either Antiquity, or Things themfelves. Nei- 
ther am I ignorant that this very Subjecl hath been 
attempted by others : But to fpeak as I think, and 
that freely without Oftentation, the Dignity and 
Efficacy of the Thing, is almofl loft by thefe Men's 
Writings, though voluminous, and full of Pains, 
whilft not diving into the depth of Matters, but 
Jkilful only in certain common Places, have applied 
the Senfe of thefe Parables to certain vulgar, and 
general Thi?igs, not fo much as glancing at their true 
Virtue, genuine Propriety, and full Depth. I (if I 
be not deceived,) fhall be new in common Things. 
Wherefore leaving fuch as are plain and open, I will 
aim at farther and richer Matters, 



Caffandra, or Divination. 

He Poets Fable, that Apollo being en- 
amoured of Caffandra, was by her 
many Shifts and cunning Sleights ftill 
deluded in his Defire ; but yet fed on 
with hope, until fuch time as me had drawn from 
him the Gift of Prophefying ; and having by fuch 
her Diffimulation, in the end, attained to that which 
from the beginning fhe fought after; at laft, flatly 
rejected his Suit. Who finding himfelf fo far engaged 
in his Promife, as that he could not by any means 
revoke again his rafh Gift, and yet inflamed with an 
earneft defire of Revenge, highly difdaining to be 
made the fcorn of a crafty Wench, annexed a Penalty 
to his Promife, viz. that fhe fhould ever foretell the 
Truth, but never be believed : So were her Divi- 
nations always faithful, but at no time regarded ; 

236 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

whereof me ftill found the Experience, yea, even in 
the ruin of her own Country, which fhe had often 
forewarned them of; but they neither gave Credit 
nor Ear to her Words. This Fable feems to inti- 
mate the unprofitable Liberty of untimely Admoni- 
tions and Counfels : For they that are fo over-weened 
with the fharpnefs and dexterity of their own Wit 
and Capacity, as that they difdain to fubmit them- 
felves to the Documents of Apollo., the God of Har- 
mony, whereby to learn, and obferve the Method 
and Meafure of Affairs, the Grace and Gravity of 
Difcourfe, the differences between the more judici- 
ous and more vulgar Ears, and the due times when 
to fpeak, and when to be filent ; be they never fo 
fenfible and pregnant, and their Judgments never fo 
profound, and profitable ; yet in all their Endeavours 
either of perfuafion, or perforce, they avail nothing, 
neither are they of any moment to advantage or ma- 
nage Matters ; but do rather haften on the Ruin of 
all thofe that they adhere, or devote themfelves unto. 
And then at laft, when Calamity doth make Men 
feel the event of Neglect, then fhall they too late be 
reverenced as deep, forefeeing, and faithful Prophets. 
Whereof a notable Inftance is eminently fet forth in 
Marcus Cato Uticenfis, who, as from a Watch- 
tower, difcovered afar off, and, as an ^Oracle, long 
foretold the approaching Ruin of his Country, and 
the plotted Tyranny hovering over the State, both in 
the firft Confpiracy, and as it was profecuted in the 
Civil Contention between Ctefar and Pompey, and 

Cassandra, or Divination. 


did no good the while, but rather harmed the Com- 
monwealth, and haftened on his Country's Bane ; 
which M. Cicero wifely obferved, and writing to a 
familiar Friend, doth in thefe Terms excellently de- 
fcribe, Cato op time /entity fed nocet inter dum Reipub- 
licce : Loquitur enim tanquam in Republic a Platonis, 
non tanquam in face Romuli. Cato (faith he) 
judgeth profoundly, but in the mean time damnifies 
the State ; for he fpeaks in the Commonwealth of 
Plato y and not as in the Dregs of Romulus. 

11. Typhon, or a Rebel. 


UNO being vexed (fay the Poets) that 
Jupiter had begotten Pallas by him- 
felf without her, earneftly preifed all 
the other Gods and GoddefTes that me 
might alfo bring forth of herfelf alone without him ; 
and having by violence, and importunity obtained a 
Grant thereof, fhe fmote the Earth, and forthwith 
fprang up Typhon, a huge, and horrid Monfter :. This 
ftrange Birth lhe commits to a Serpent, (as a Fofter- 
Father,) to nourifh it ; who no fooner came to ripe- 
nefs of Years, but he provokes Jupiter to Battle : In 
the Conflict the Giant getting the upper hand, takes 
Jupiter upon his Shoulders, carries him into a re- 
mote, and obfcure Country, and (cutting out the 
Sinews of his Hands and Feet) brought them away, 

238 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

and fo left him miferably mangled and maimed. But 
Mercury recovering thefe Nerves from Typhon by 
Health, reftored them again to Jupiter. Jupiter 
being again by this means corroborated, afTaults the 
Monfter afrelh, and at the firft ftrikes him with a 
Thunderbolt, from whofe Blood Serpents were en- 
gendered. This Monfter at length fainting, and fly- 
ing, Jupiter calls on him the Mount JEtna, and 
with the Weight thereof crufhed him. 

This Fable feems to point at the variable Fortune 
of Princes, and the rebellious infurre&ion of Traitors 
in a State : For Princes may well be faid to be mar- 
ried to their Dominions, as Jupiter was to Juno ; 
but it happens now and then, that being debofhed 
by the long cuftom of Empiring, and bending to- 
wards Tyranny, they endeavour to draw all to them- 
felves, and (contemning the Counfel of their Nobles 
and Senators) hatch Laws in their own Brain ; that 
is, difpofe of Things by their own Fancy, and abfo- 
lute Power. The People (repining at this) ftudy 
how to create, and fet up a Chief of their own 
Choice. This Project by the fecret inftigation of the 
Peers, and Nobles, doth for the moll: part take his 
beginning ; by whofe Connivance the Commons be- 
ing fet on Edge, there follows a kind of Murmuring, 
or Difcontent in the State, fhadowed by the Infancy 
of Typho?iy which being nurfed by the natural Pra- 
vity, and clownifh Malignity of the vulgar fort, (unto 
Princes, as infeftuous as Serpents,) is again repaired 
by a renewed Strength, and at laft breaks out into 

Typhon, or a Rebel. 239 

open Rebellion, which (becaufe it brings infinite Mif- 
chiefs upon Prince and People) is reprefented by the 
monftrous Deformity of Typhon : His hundred Heads 
fignify their divided Powers ; his fiery Mouths, their 
inflamed Intents ; his Terpentine Circles, their pefti- 
lent Malice in befieging ; his Iron Hands their mer- 
cilefs Slaughters ; his Eagle's Talons, their greedy 
Rapines ; his plumed Body, their continual Rumours, 
and Scouts, and Fears, and fuch like ; and fometimes 
thefe Rebellions grow fo Potent, that Princes are en- 
forced (trani'ported as it were, by the Rebels, and 
forfaking the chief Seats and Cities of the Kingdom) 
to contract their Power, and (being deprived of the 
Sinews of Money and Majefly,) betake themfelves to 
fome remote and obfcure Corner within their Domi- 
nions : But in procefs of Time, (if they bear their 
Misfortunes with Moderation,) they may recover 
their Strength, by the virtue and induftry of Mercury; 
that is, they may (by becoming Affable, and by re- 
conciling the Minds and Wills of their Subjects with 
grave Edicts, and gracious Speech,) excite an Ala- 
crity to grant Aids, and Subfidies, whereby to 
ftrengthen their Authority anew. Neverthelefs, 
having learned to be wife and wary, they will refrain 
to try the chance of Fortune by War, and yet ftudy 
how to fupprefs the Reputation of the Rebels by 
fome famous Action, which if it fall out anfwerable 
to their Expectation, the Rebels finding themfelves 
weakened, and fearing the Succefs of their broken 
Projects ; betake themfelves to fome flight, and vain 

240 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Bravadoes, like the hilling of Serpents, and at length 
in defpair betake themfelves to Flight; and then 
when they begin to break, it is fafe and timely for 
Kings to purfue, and opprefs them with the Forces 
and Weight of the Kingdom, as it were with the 
Mountain JEtna. 

in. The Cyclops, or the Mi- 
nifters of Terror. 

Hey fay that the Cyclops, for their 
fiercenefs, and Cruelty, were by Ju- 
piter call into Hell, and there doomed 
to perpetual Imprifonment ; but Tel- 
lus perfuaded Jupiter that it would do well, if being 
fet at liberty, they were put to forge Thunderbolts, 
which being done accordingly, they became fo Pain- 
ful and Induftrious, as that Day and Night they 
continued Hammering out in laborious Diligence, 
Thunderbolts, and other Inftruments of Terror. In 
procefs of time Jupiter having conceived a Difplea- 
fure againft JEfculapius, the Son of Apollo, for re- 
ftoring a dead Man to life by Phyfick ; and concealing 
his Diflike, (becaufe there was no juft Caufe of Anger, 
the Deed being pious and famous,) fecretly incenfed 
the Cyclops againft him, who without delay flew him 
with a Thunderbolt. In revenge of which Aft, 

The Cyclops. 241 

Apollo, {Jupiter not prohibiting it) Shot them to 
Death with his Arrows. 

This Fable may be applied to the Projects of 
Kings, who having cruel, bloody, and exacting Officers, 
do firft punim and difplace them ; afterwards by the 
Counfel of Tellus, that is, of fome bafe, and ignoble 
Perfon, and by the prevailing refpect of Profit, they 
admit them into their Places again, that they may 
have Inftruments in a readinefs, if at any time there 
mould need either Severity of Execution, or Acerbity 
of Exaction. Thefe fervile Creatures being by Na- 
ture Cruel, and by their former Fortune exafperated, 
and perceiving well what is expected at their Hands, 
do fhew themfelves wonderful Officious in fuch kind 
of Employments ; but being too Ram, and precipi- 
tate in feeking Countenance, and creeping into Fa- 
vour, do fometimes take occafion from the fecret 
Beckonings, and ambiguous Commands of their 
Prince, to perform fome hateful Execution. But 
Princes (abhorring the Fact, and knowing well, that 
they mall never want fuch kind of Inftruments,) do 
utterly forfake them, turning them over to the Friends 
and Allies of the wronged, to their Accufations and 
Revenge, and to the general Hatred of the People ; 
fo that with great Applaufe, and profperous Wifhes and 
Acclamations towards the Prince, they are brought, 
rather too late, than undefervedly, to a miferable 

242 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

iv. NarcifTus ; Or, Self-Love. 

HEY fay, That Narcijfus was exceed- 
ing Fair and Beautiful, but wonderful 
Proud and Difdainful ; wherefore de- 
fpifing all others in refpecl; of himfelf, 
he leads a folitary Life in the Woods and Chafes, 
with a few Followers, to whom he alone was all in 
all ; amongft the reft, there follows him the Nymph 
Echo . During his Courfe of Life, it fatally fo chanced, 
that he came to a clear Fountain, upon the Bank 
whereof he lay down to repofe himfelf in the Heat of 
the Day. And having efpied the fhadow of his own 
Face in the Water, was fo befotted, and ravifhed with 
the Contemplation and Admiration thereof, that he 
by no means poffible could be drawn from beholding 
his Image in this Glafs ; infomuch, that by continual 
gazing thereupon, he pined away to nothing, and 
was at laft turned into a Flower of his own Name, 
which appears in the beginning of the Spring and 
is facred to the infernal Powers, Pluto, Proferpina, 
and the Furies. 

This Fable feems to fhew the Difpofitions, and 
Fortunes of thofe, who in refpecl: either of their 
Beauty, or other Gift wherewith they are adorned, 
and graced by Nature, without the help of Induftry, 
are fo far befotted in themfelves, as that they prove 

Narcissus ; or, Self-Love. 243 

the Caufe of their own Deftruftion. For it is the 
property of Men infected with this Humour, not to 
come much abroad, or to be Converfant in Civil 
Affairs, efpecially feeing thofe that are in publick 
Place, mull of neceifity encounter with many Con- 
tempts, and Scorns, which may much dejecl:, and 
trouble their Minds ; and therefore they lead for the 
moft part a folitary, private, and obfcure Life, attended 
on with a few Followers, and thofe, fuch as will 
adore, and admire them, like an Echo flatter them in 
all their Sayings, and applaud them in all their 
Words. So that being by this Cuilom feduced and 
puffed up, and as it were, ftupified with the Admi- 
ration of themfelves, they are polfefled with fo flrange 
a Sloth and Idlenefs, that they grow in a manner be- 
numbed, and defective of all Vigour and Alacrity. 
Elegantly doth this Flower, appearing in the begin- 
ning of the Spring, reprefent the likenefs of thefe 
Men's Difpofitions, who, in their Youth do flourifh, 
and wax famous ; but being come to ripenefs of 
Years, they deceive and fruftrate the good Hope that 
is conceived of them. Neither is it impertinent that 
this Flower is faid to be confecrated to the infernal 
Deities, becaufe Men of this Difpolition become un- 
profitable to all Human Things : For whatfoever 
produceth no Fruit of itfelf, but pafTeth, and vanilh- 
eth as if it had never been, (like the way of a Ship 
in the Sea,) that the Ancients were wont to dedicate 
to the Ghofts, and Powers beiow. 

244 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

v. Styx, or Leagues. 

HE Oath by which the Gods were 
wont to oblige themfelves, (when they 
meant to ratify any Thing fo firmly as 
never to revoke it,) is a Thing well 
known to the Vulgar, as being mentioned almoft in 
every Fable, which was when they did not invoke 
or call to witnefs any Celeftial Majefty, or Divine 
Power, but only the River Styx, that with crooked 
and Meandry Turnings encircleth the Palace of the 
infernal Dis. This was held as the only manner of 
their Sacrament ; and befides it, not any other Vow 
to be accounted firm, and inviolable ; and therefore 
the Punifhment to be inflicted, (if any did Perjure 
themfelves,) was, that for certain Years they fhould 
be put out of Commons, and not to be admitted to 
the Table of the Gods. 

This Fable feems to point at the Leagues and 
Pacts of Princes, of which, more truly, than oppor- 
tunely, may be faid, That be they never fo ftrongly 
confirmed with the Solemnity and Religion of an 
Oath, yet are for the moft part, of no validity ; info- 
much that they are made rather with an Eye to Re- 
putation, and Report, and Ceremony ; than to Faith, 
Security, and Effect. Moreover, add to thefe the 
Bond of Affinity, as the Sacraments of Nature, and 

Styx, or Leagues. 245 

mutual Deferts of each Part, and you mall obferve, 
that with a great many, all thefe Things are placed a 
degree under Ambition and Profit, and the licentious 
defire of Domination; and fo much the rather, be- 
caufe it is an eafy Thing for Princes to defend and 
cover their unlawful Defires and unfaithful Vows, 
with many outwardly feeming fair Pretexts, efpe- 
cially feeing there is no Umpire or Moderator of 
Matters concluded upon to whom a Reafon mould 
be tendered. Therefore there is no true and proper 
Thing made choice of, for the confirmation of Faith, 
and that no celeftial Power neither, but is indeed 
NeceJJity, (a great God to great Potentates,) the Peril 
alfo of State, and the Communication of Profit. As 
for NeceJJity, it is elegantly reprefented by Styx, that 
fatal and irremeable River ; and this Godhead did 
Ipbicrates, the Athenian, call to the Confirmation 
of a League ; who becaufe he alone is found to fpeak 
plainly that which many hide covertly in their Breafls, 
it would not be amifs to relate his Words. He ob- 
ferving how the Lacedaemonians had thought upon, 
and propounded .divers Cautions, Sanctions, Con- 
firmations and Bonds, pertaining to Leagues, inter- 
pofed thus : Unum Lacedcemonii, nobis vobifcum vin- 
culum et fecuritatis ratio ejfe pojjit ; Ji plane demon- 
jlretis, vos ea nobis concejjijje, et inter manus pofuijje, 
ut vobis facultas ladendi nos,fi maxime velletis, mi- 
nime fuppetere pojjit. There is one Thing (O Lace- 
demonians) that would link us unto you in the Bond 
of Amity, and be the occafion of Peace and Security ; 

246 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

which is, if you would plainly demonftrate, that you 
have yielded up, and put into our Hands, fuch 
Things as that, would you Hurt us never fo fain, you 
mould yet be disfurnifhed of Means to do it. If 
therefore the Power of Hurting be taken away, or if 
by breach of League there follow the danger of the 
Ruin or Diminution of the State or Tribute ; then 
indeed the Leagues may feem to be ratified and efta- 
blifhed, and as it were confirmed by the Sacrament 
of the Stygian Lake ; feeing that it includes the fear 
of Prohibition and Sufpenfion from the Table of the 
Gods, under which Name the Laws and Prerogatives, 
the Plenty and Felicity of a Kingdom were lignified 
by the Ancients. 

vi. Pan, or Nature. 

HE Ancients have exquifitely defcribed 
Nature under the Perfon of Pan, 
whofe original they leave doubtful ; for 
fome fay that he was the Son of Mer- 
cury, others attribute unto him a far different begin- 
ning, affirming him to be the common Offspring of 
Penelope'' s Suitors, upon a Sufpicion, that every one 
of them had to do with her ; which latter Relation 
doubtlefs gave occafion to fome after Writers to En- 
title this ancient Fable with the Name of Penelope, 
a Thing very frequent amongft them, when they 

Pan, or Nature. 247 

apply old Fi&ions to young Perfons and Names, and 
that many times abmrdly and indifcreetly, as may be 
feen here : For Pan being one of the Ancient Gods, 
was long before the time of Ulyjfes and Penelope. 
Befides (for her Matronal Chaftity) me was held vene- 
rable by Antiquity. Neither may we pretermit the 
third Conceit of his Birth : For fome fay, That he 
was the Son of Jupiter and Hybris, which fignifies 
contumely or difdain. But howfoever begotten, the 
Pare a (they fay) were his Sifters. He is portrayed 
by the Ancients in this Guife ; on his Head a pair 
of Horns to reach to Heaven, his Body Rough and 
Hairy, his Beard long and fhaggy, his Shape biformed, 
above like a Man, below like a Beaft, his Feet like 
Goat's hoofs, bearing thefe Enligns of his Jurifdiction, 
to wit, in his Left-hand a Pipe of feven Reeds, and 
in his Right a Sheep-hook, or a Staff crooked at the 
upper end, and his Mantle made of a Leopard's Skin. 
His Dignities and Offices were thefe : He was the 
God of Hunters, of Shepherds, and of all Rural In- 
habitants : Chief Prefident alfo of Hills and Moun- 
tains, and next to Mercury, the AmbafTador of the 
Gods. Moreover, He was accounted the Leader 
and Commander of the Nymphs, which were always 
wont to Dance the Rounds, and Frifk about him ; 
he was accofted by the Satyrs and the old Sileni. 
He had Power alfo to ftrike Men with Terrors, and 
thofe efpecially Vain and Superftitious, which are 
termed Panick Fears. His Acts were not many, 
for aught that can be found in Records, the chiefefl 

248 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

was, that he challenged Cupid at Wreftling, in which 
Conflict he had the Foil. The Tale goes too, how 
that he caught the Giant Typbon in a Net, and held 
him faft. Moreover, where Ceres (grumbling and 
charing that Proferpina was ravifhed) had hid herfelf 
away, and that all the Gods took Pains (by difperiing 
themfelves into every Corner) to find her out, it was 
only his good Hap (as he was Hunting) to light on 
her, and acquaint the reft where fhe was. He pre- 
sumed alfo to put it to the Trial who was the beft 
Muiician, he or Apollo, and by the Judgment of 
Midas was indeed preferred : But the wife Judge 
had a pair of Afs's Ears privately chopped to his 
Noddle for his Sentence. Of his Love-tricks, there 
is nothing reported, or at leaft not much, a Thing 
to be wondered at, efpecially being among a Troop 
of Gods fo profufely amorous. This only is faid of 
him, that he loved the Nymph Echo (whom he took 
to Wife) and one pretty Wench more called Sirynx, 
towards whom Cupid (in an angry and revengeful 
Humour, becaufe fo audacioufly he had challenged 
him at a Wreftling) inflamed his Defire. Moreover, 
he had no Iffue (which is a Marvel alfo, feeing the 
Gods, efpecially thofe of the Male kind, were very 
Generative) only he was the reputed Father of a 
little Girl called Jambe, that with many pretty Tales 
was wont to make Strangers Merry ; but fome think 
that he did indeed beget her by his Wife Jambe. 
This (if any be) is a noble Tale, as being laid out 
and big-bellied with the Secrets and Myfteries of 

Pan, or Nature. 249 

Pan (as his Name imports) reprefents and lays 
open the All of Things or Nature. Concerning his 
Original there are two only Opinions that go for 
Current ; for either he came of Mercury, that is, the 
Word of God, which the Holy Scriptures without 
all Controverfy affirm, and fuch of the Philofophers 
as had any fmack of Divinity aflented unto ; or elfe 
from the confufed Seeds of Things. For they that 
would have one fimple Beginning, refer it unto God ; 
or if a materiate Beginning, they would have it vari- 
ous in Power. So that we may end the Controverfy 
with this Diftribution, That the World took Begin- 
ning, either from Mercury, or from the Seeds of all 

Virg. Eclog. 6. 

Namque canebat uti magnum per inane coacla. 
Semina terrarumque, animteque, mar if que fuiffent, 
Et liquidi Ji?nul ignis : Et bis exordia primis 
0?nnia i et ipfe tener mundi concreverit Or bis. 

For rich-vein'd Orpheus fweetly did rehearfe 
How that the Seeds of Fire, Air, Water, Earth, 
Were all pack'd in the vail void Univerfe : 
And how from thefe as Firftlings, all had Birth, 
And how the Body of this Orbick frame, 
From tender Infancy fo big became. 

But, as touching the third Conceit of Pan s Ori- 
ginal, it feems that the Grecians (either by inter- 

250 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

courfe with the ^Egyptians, or one way or other) had 
heard fomething of the Hebrew Myfteries ; for it 
points to the State of the World, not confidered in 
immediate Creation, but after the Fall of Adam, ex- 
pofed and made fubjeft to Death and Corruption : 
For in that State it was (and remains to this Day) the 
Offspring of God and Sin. And therefore all thefe 
Three Narrations concerning the manner of Pan's 
Birth may feem to be true, if it be rightly diftinguifhed 
between Things and Times. For this Pan or Nature 
(which we fufpecl:, Contemplate, and Reverence more 
than is fit) took beginning from the Word of God 
by the means of confufed Matter, and the entrance 
of Prevarication and Corruption. The Deflinies may 
well be thought the Sifters of Pan or Nature, be- 
caufe the Beginnings and Continuances and Corrup- 
tions and Depreflions, and DifTolutions, and Emi- 
nencies, and Labours, and Felicities of Things, and 
all the Chances which can happen unto anything, 
are linked with the Chain of Caufes natural. 

Horns are attributed unto him, becaufe Horns are 
broad at the Root, and fharp at the Ends, the Nature 
of all Things being like a Pyramis, fharp at the Top. 
For individual or lingular Things being infinite, are 
firft collected into Species, which are many alfo ; 
then from Species into Generals, and from Generals 
(by afcending) are contracted into Things or Notions 
more general ; fo that at length Nature may feem to 
be contracted into an Unity. Neither is it to be 
wondered at, that Pan toucheth Heaven with his 

Pan, or Nature. 25 1 

Horns, feeing the height of Nature or Univerfal 
Ideas do, in fome fort, pertain to Things Divine, 
and there is a ready and fhort Paflage from Meta- 
pbyjtcks to natural Theology. 

The Body of Nature is elegantly and with deep 
Judgment depainted Hairy, reprefenting the Beams 
or Operations of Creatures ; for Beams are as it were 
the Hairs and Briftles of Nature, and every Crea- 
ture is either more or lefs Beamy, which is moft ap- 
parent in the faculty of Seeing, and no lefs in every 
Virtue and Operation that effectuates upon a diftant 
Object, for whatfoever works upon any Thing afar 
off, that may rightly be faid to dart forth Rays or 

Moreover, Pan's Beard is faid to be exceeding 
long, becaufe the Beams or Influences of Celeftial 
Bodies do operate and pierce farthefl of all ; and the 
Sun, when his higher half is fhadowed with a Cloud, 
his Beams break out in the lower, and looks as if he 
were Bearded. 

Nature is alfo excellently fet forth with a biformed 
Body, with refpecl; to the differences between fupe- 
rior and inferior Creatures. For one part by reafon 
of their Pulcritude, and Equability of Motion, and 
Conftancy and Dominion over the Earth and Earthly 
Things, is worthily fet out by the fhape of Man : 
And the other part in refpecl of their Perturbations 
and unconftant Motions, (and therefore needing to be 
moderated by the Celeftial) may be well fitted with 
the Figure of a Brute Beaft. This Defcription of his 

252 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Body pertains alfo to the Participation of Species, for 
no natural Being feems to be iimple, but as it were 
participated and compounded of two. As for Exam- 
ple, Man hath fomething of a Beaft, a Beaft fome- 
thing of a Plant, a Plant fomething of inanimate 
Body, of that all natural Things are in very Deed 
biformed, that is to fay, compounded of a fuperior 
and inferior Species. 

It is a very witty Allegory, that fame of the Feet 
of the Goat, by reafon of the upward tending Motion 
of Terreftrial Bodies towards the Air and Heaven, 
for the Goat is a climbing Creature, that loves to be 
hanging about the Rocks and fteep Mountains ; and 
this is done alfo in a wonderful manner, even by 
thofe Things which are deftinated to this inferior 
Globe, as may manifeftly appear in Clouds and Me- 

The two Enfigns which Pan bears in his Hands, 
do point, the one at Harmony, the other at Empire : 
For the Pipe confifting of feven Reeds, doth evi- 
dently demonftrate the Confent, and Harmony, and 
difcordant Concord of all inferior Creatures, which 
is caufed by the Motion of the Seven Planets : And 
that of the Sheep-hook may be excellently applied to 
the Order of Nature, which is partly right, partly 
crooked : This Staff therefore or Rod is fpecially 
crooked in the upper end, becaufe all the Works of 
Divine Providence in the World are done in a far- 
fetched and circular manner, fo that one Thing may 
feem to be affefted, and yet indeed a clean contrary 

Pan, or Nature. 253 

brought to pafs ; as the felling of Jofeph into Egypt, 
and the like. Befides in all wife Human Govern- 
ment, they that fit at the Helm do more happily 
bring their Purpofes about, and infinuate more eafily 
into the Minds of the People, by pretexts and ob- 
lique Courfes, than by direct Methods : So that all 
Sceptres and Maries of Authority ought in very Deed 
to be crooked in the upper end. 

Pan's Cloak or Mantle is ingenioufly feigned to 
be a Skin of a Leopard, becaufe it is full of Spots : 
So the Heavens are fpotted with Stars, the Sea with 
Rocks and Illands, the Land with Flowers, and 
every particular Creature alfo is for the moft part 
garnifhed with divers Colours about the Superficies, 
which is as it were a Mantle unto it. 

The Office of Pan can be by nothing fo lively 
conceived and exprefled, as by feigning him to be 
the God of Hunters, for every natural Action, and 
fo by confequence, Motion, and Progreffion, is no- 
thing elfe but a Hunting. Arts and Sciences have 
their Works, and Human Counfels their Ends which 
they earneftly hunt after. All natural Things have 
either their food as a Prey, or their Pleafure as a 
Recreation which they feek for, and that in moll ex- 
pert and fagacious manner. 

Torva Leana Lup am fequitur. Lupus ipfe Capellam, 
Florentem Cityfum fequitur lafciva Capella. 

The hungry Lionefs, (with fharp defire) 
Purfues the Wolf, the Wolf the wanton Goat : 

254 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

The Goat again doth greedily afpire 

To have the Trifoil Juice pafs down her Throat. 

Pan is alfo faid to be the God of the Country- 
Clowns, becaufe Men of this Condition lead lives 
more agreeable unto Nature, than thofe that live in 
the Cities and Courts of Princes, where Nature by 
too much Art is corrupted : So as the faying of the 
Poet (though in the fenfe of Love) might be here 

Pars minima eft ipfa puella fui. 

The Maid fo tricked herfelf with Art, 
That of herfelf fhe is leaft part. 

He was held to be Lord Prefident of the Mount- 
ains, becaufe in the high Mountains and Hills, Na- 
ture lays herfelf moll open, and Men moft apt to 
View and Contemplation. , 

Whereas Pan is faid to be (next unto Mercury) 
the Meffenger of the Gods, there is in that a Divine 
Myftery contained, for next to the Word of God, 
the Image of the World proclaims the Power and 
Wifdom Divine, as fings the Sacred Poet, Pfal. xix. 
i . Call enarrant Gloriam Dei, atque opera manuum 
ejus indicat Firmamentum. The Heavens declare 
the Glory of God, and the Firmament lheweth the 
Works of his Hands. 

The Nymphs, that is, the Souls of Living Things 
take great delight in Pan. For thefe Souls are the 
Delights or Minions of Nature, and the Direction 

Pan, or Nature. 255 

or Conduct of thefe Nymphs is with great Reafon 
attributed unto Pan, becaufe the Souls of all Things 
Living, do follow their natural Difpoiitions as their 
Guides, and with infinite variety every one of them 
after his own Fafhion doth leap, and frifk and dance 
with inceffant Motions about her. The Satyrs and 
Sileni alfo, to wit, Youth and Old Age, are fome of 
Pan's Followers : For of all natural Things, there is 
a lively, jocund, and (as I may fay) a dancing Age, 
and an Age again that is dull, bibling, and reeling. 
The Carriages and Difpofitions of both which Ages, 
to fome fuch as Democritus was, (that would obferve 
them duly,) might peradventure feem as ridiculous 
and deformed, as the gambols of the Satyrs, or the 
geftures of the Sileni. 

Of thofe Fears and Terrors which Pan is faid to 
be the Author, there may be this wife Conftru£tion 
made : Namely, that Nature hath bred in every 
Living Thing a kind of Care and Fear, tending to 
the Prefervation of its own Life and Being, and to 
the repelling and fhunning of all Things hurtful. 
And yet Nature knows not how to keep a Mean, 
but always intermixes vain and empty Fears with 
fuch as are difcreet and profitable : So that all Things 
(if their infides might be feen) would appear full of 
Panick Frights : But Men efpecially in hard, fearful, 
and diverfe Times, are wonderfully infatuated with 
Superflition, which indeed is nothing elfe but a 
Panick Terror. 

Concerning the Audacity of Pan in challenging 

256 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Cupid at Wreftling: The meaning of it is, that 
Matter wants not Inclination and Delire to the 
lapfing and difTolution of the World into the old 
Chaos, if her Malice and Violence were not reftrained 
and kept in order, by the prepotent Unity and Agree- 
ment of Things fignified by Cupid, or the God of 
Love ; and therefore it was a happy turn for Men, 
and all Things elfe, that in their Conflid Pan was 
found too weak, and overcome. 

To the fame Effedt may be interpreted his catching 
of Typbon in a Net : For howfoever there may fome- 
times happen vaft and unwonted Tumours (as the 
Name of Typbon imports) either in the Sea or in 
the Air, or in the Earth, or elfewhere ! yet Nature 
doth intangle it in an intricate Toil, and curb and 
reftrain in, as it were with a Chain of Adamant, 
the ExcefTes and Infolencies of this kind of Bodies. 

But forafmuch as it was Pan's good Fortune to 
find out Ceres as he was Hunting, and thought little 
of it, which none of the other Gods could do, though 
they did nothing elfe but feek her, and that very fe- 
rioufly ; it gives us this true and grave Admonition, 
That we expecl: not to receive Things neceiTary for 
Life and Manners from Philofophical Abftradtions, 
as from the greater Gods ; albeit they applied them- 
felves to no other Study ; but from Pan, that is, 
from the difcreet Obfervation and Experience, and 
the univerfal Knowledge of the Things of this World ; 
whereby (oftentimes even by Chance, and as it were 
going a Hunting) fuch Inventions are lighted upon. 


Pan, or Nature. 257 

The Quarrel he made with Apollo about Mufick y 
and the Event thereof contains a wholefome Inftruc- 
tion, which may ferve to reftrain Men's Reafons and 
Judgments with Reins of Sobriety, from Boafting 
and Glorying in their Gifts. For there feems to be 
a twofold Harmony, or Mufick ; the one of Divine 
Providence, and the other of Human Judgment ; the 
Adminiftration of the World and Creatures therein, 
and the more fecret Judgments of God, found very 
hard and harm ; which Folly, albeit it be well fet 
out with AfTes' Ears ; yet notwithstanding thefe Ears 
are fecret, and do not openly appear, neither is it 
perceived or noted as a Deformity by the Vulgar. 

Laftly, It is not to be wondered at, that there is 
nothing attributed unto Pan concerning Loves, but 
only of his Marriage with Echo : For the World or 
Nature doth enjoy itfelf, and in itfelf all Things elfe. 
Now he that Loves would enjoy fomething, but 
where there is enough, there is no Place left to de- 
fire. Therefore there can be no wanting Love in 
Pan, or the World, nor defire to obtain anything 
(feeing he is contented with himfelf) but only 
Speeches, which (if plain) may be intimated by the 
Nymph Echo ; or if more quaint by Syrinx. It is 
an excellent Invention that Pan, or the World is 
faid to make choice of Echo only (above all other 
Speeches or Voices) for his Wife : For that alone is 
true Philofophy, which doth faithfully render the 
very Words of the World ; and it is written no 
otherwife than the World doth Dictate, it being 

258 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

nothing elfe but the Image or reflection of it, not 
adding any thing of its own, but only iterates and re- 
founds. It belongs alfo to the Sufficiency or Perfec- 
tion of the World, that he begets no Ifliie : For the 
World doth generate in refpedt of its Parts, but in 
refpedl of the whole, how can it generate, feeing 
without it there is no Body ? Notwithftanding all 
this, the tale of that tattling Girl fathered upon Pan, 
may in very Deed, with great Reafon, be added to 
this Fable : For by her are reprefented thofe vain 
and idle Paradoxes concerning the Nature of Things 
which have been frequent in all Ages, and have filled 
the World with Novelties ; Fruitlefs, if you refpect 
the Matter ; Changelings if you refpedl: the Kind ; 
fometimes creating Pleafure, fometimes Tedioufnefs 
with their overmuch Prattling. 

vii. Perfeus, or War. 

ERSE US is faid to have been employed 
by Pallas, for the deftroying of Me- 
dufa, who was very infeftuous to the 
Weftern Parts of the World, and ef- 
pecially about the utmoft Coafts of Hiberia. A 
Monfter fo dire and horrid, that by her only AfpecT: 
me turned Men into Stones. This Medufa alone of 
all the Gorgons was Mortal, the reft not fubjecl: to 
Death. Perfeus therefore preparing himfelf for this 

Perseus, or War. 259 

noble Enterprife, had Arms and Gifts beftowed on 
him by three of the Gods : Mercury gave him 
Wings annexed to his Heels, Pluto a Helmet, Pallas 
a Shield and a Looking-Glafs. Notwithftanding 
(although he were thus furnifhed) he went not di- 
rectly to Medufa, but firft to the Gre<z, which by 
the Mother's fide were Sifters to the Gorgons. 
Thefe Grea from their Birth were Hoar-headed, 
refembling old Women. They had but one only 
Eye, and one Tooth among them all ; both which, 
fhe that had occafion to go abroad, was wont to take 
with her, and at her return to lay them down again. 
This Eye and Tooth they lent to Perfeus ; and fo 
finding himfelf thoroughly furnifhed for the effecting 
of his Defign, haftens towards Medufa. Her he 
found Sleeping, and yet durft not prefent himfelf 
with his Face towards her, left fhe mould awake ; 
but turning his Head afide, beheld her in P alias's 
Glafs, and (by this means directing his Blow) cut off 
her Head ; from whofe Blood gufhing out, inftantly 
came Pegafus, the Flying-Horfe. Her head thus 
fmote off, Perfeus beftows on Pallas her Shield, 
which yet retained this Virtue, that whofoever looked 
upon it, Ihould become as ftupid as a Stone, or like 
one Planet-ftricken. . 

This Fable feems to direct the Preparation and 
Order, that is to be ufed in making of War ; for the 
more apt and confiderate Undertaking whereof, three 
grave and wholefome Precepts (favouring of the Wif- 
dom of Pallas) are to be obferved. 

260 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Firft, That Men do not much trouble themfelves 
about the Conqueft of Neighbour Nations, feeing 
that private Poffemons and Empires are enlarged by 
different Means : For in the Augmentation of private 
Revenues, the vicinity of Men's Territories is to be 
confidered ; but in the Propagation of Public Do- 
minions, the occafion and facility of making War, 
and the Fruit to be expected ought to be inftead of 
Vicinity. Certainly the Romans, what time their 
Conquefts towards the Weft, fcarce reached beyond 
Liguria, did yet in the Eaft bring all the Provinces 
as far as the Mountain Taurus within the compafs 
of their Arms and Command ; and therefore Perfeus, 
although he were Bred and Born in the Eaft, did 
not yet refufe to undertake an Expedition even to 
the uttermoft Bounds of the Weft. 

Secondly, There muft be a care had that the Mo- 
tives of War be juft and honourable, for that begets 
an Alacrity, as well in the Soldiers that Fight, as in 
the People that Pay ; it draws on and procures Aids, 
and brings many other Commodities befides. But 
there is no Pretence to take up Arms more Pious, 
than the fupprefling of Tyranny ; under which Yoke, 
the People lofe their Courage, and are call down 
without Heart and Vigour, as in the light of 

Thirdly, it is wifely added, that feeing there were 
three Gorgons (by which Wars are reprefented) Per- 
feus undertook her only that was Mortal ; that is, he 
made choice of fuch a kind of War as was likely to 

Perseus, or War. 261 

be effected and brought to a Period, not purfuing 
vail and endlefs Hopes. 

The furnifhing of Perfeus with Neceffaries was 
that which only advanced his Attempt, and drew 
Fortune to be of his fide ; for he had fpeed from 
Mercury, concealing of his Counfels from Orcus, 
and Providence from Pallas. 

Neither is it without an Allegory, and that full of 
Matter too, that thofe Wings of Celerity were fattened 
to Perfeus' Heels, and not to his Ankles ; to his Feet, 
and not to his Shoulders ; becaufe Speed and Celerity 
is required, not fo much in the firft Preparations for 
War, as in thofe Things which fecond and yield i\id 
to the firft ; for there is no Error in War more fre- 
quent, than that Profecutions and Subfidiary forces 
do fail to anfwer the Alacrity of the firft Onfets. 

Now for that Helmet which Pluto gave him, 
powerful to make Men invifible, the Moral is plain ; 
but that twofold Gift of Providence, (to wit, the 
Shield and Looking-Glafs) is full of Morality ; for 
that kind of Providence, which like a Shield avoids 
the force of Blows, is not alone needful, but that 
alfo by which the Strength and Motions, and Coun- 
fels of the Enemy are defcried, as in the Looking- 
Glafs of Pallas. 

But Perfeus, albeit he were fufficiently furnifhed 
with Aid and Courage, yet was he to do one Thing 
of fpecial Importance before he entered the Lifts with 
this Monfter, and that was to have fome Intelligence 
with the Gre<z. Thefe Gre& are Treafons which 

262 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

may be termed the Sifters of War not defcended of 
the fame Stock, but far unlike in Nobility of Birth ; 
for Wars are generous and heroical, but Treafons are 
bafe and ignoble. Their Defcription is elegant, for 
they are faid to be Gray-headed, and like old Wo- 
men from their Birth; by reafon that Traitors are 
continually vexed with Cares and Trepidations. But 
all their Strength (before they break out into open 
Rebellions) confifts either in an Eye or in a Tooth ; 
for every Faction alienated from any State, contem- 
plates and bites. Befides, this Eye and Tooth is as 
it were common ; for whatfoever they can learn and 
know, is delivered and carried from one to another 
by the hands of Fattion. And as concerning the 
Tooth, they do all bite alike, and ling the fame 
Song ; fo that hear one, and you hear all. Perfeus 
therefore was to deal with thefe Grete for the love 
of their Eye and Tooth. Their Eye to difcover, 
their Tooth to fow Rumours and ftir up Envy, and 
to molefl and trouble the Minds of Men. Thefe 
Things therefore being thus difpofed and prepared, 
he addrefTes himfelf to the A&ion of War, and fets 
upon Medufa as fhe flept; for a wife Captain will 
ever aflault his Enemy, when he is unprepared and 
molt fecure ; and then is there good ufe of Pallas 
her Glafs : For moft Men, before it come to the 
Pufh, can acutely pry into and difcern their Enemies' 
Eftate ; but the belt ufe of this Glafs is in the very 
point of danger, that the manner of it may be fo con- 
sidered, as that the Terror may not difcourage, which 

Perseus, or War. 263 

is fignified by that looking into this Glafs with the 
Face turned from Medufa. 

The Monfter's Head being cut off, there follow 
two Effe&s. The firft was, the procreation and 
railing of Pegafus, by which may be evidently un- 
derftood Fame, that (flying through the World) pro- 
claims Victory. The fecond is the bearing of Me- 
dufd' s Head in his Shield ; to which there is no kind 
of defence for Excellency comparable ; for the one 
famous and memorable Acl profperoufly effected and 
brought to pafs, doth reftrain the Motions and In- 
folencies of Enemies, and makes Envy herfelf filent 
and amazed. 

viii. Endymion, or a Favourite. 

T is faid,That Luna was in Love with the 
Shepherd Endymion, and in a ftrange and 
unwonted manner bewrayed her Affec- 
tion : For he lying in a Cave framed by 
Nature under the Mountain Latmus, fhe oftentimes 
defcended from her Sphere to enjoy his Company as 
he flept ; and after fhe had kiffed him, afcended up 
again. Yet notwithstanding this his Idlenefs, and 
fleepy Security, did not any way impair his Eftate or 
Fortune; for Luna brought it fo to pafs, that he 
alone (of all the reft of the Shepherds) had his Flock 
in bell Plight, and moft Fruitful. 

264 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

This Fable may have reference to the Nature and 
Difpofitions of Princes ; for they being full of Doubts, 
and prone to Jealoufy, do not eafily acquaint Men of 
prying and curious Eyes, and as it were of vigilant 
and wakeful Difpofitions, with the fecret Humours 
and Manners of their Life ; but fuch rather as are 
of quiet and obfervant Natures, fufFering them to do 
what they lift without further Scanting, making as if 
they were Ignorant, and perceiving nothing but of a 
ftupid Difpofition, and pofleft with Sleep, yielding 
unto them fimple Obedience, rather than fly Com- 
plements ; For it pleafeth Princes now and then to 
defcend from their Thrones or Majefty (like Luna 
from the fuperior Orb) and laying afide their Robes 
of Dignity (which always to be cumbered with, 
would feem a kind of Burthen) familiarly to Converfe 
with Men of this Condition, which they think may 
be done without Danger ; a Quality chiefly noted in 
Tiberius Cafar, who (of all others) was a Prince 
moll fevere ; yet fuch only were gracious in his Fa- 
vour, as being well acquainted with his Difpofition, 
did yet conftantly Diflemble, as if they knew nothing. 
This was the Cuftom alfo of Lewis the Eleventh, 
King of France, a cautious and wily Prince. 

Neither is it without Elegancy, that die caufe of 
Endymion is mentioned in the Fable, becaufe that it 
is a Thing ufual with fuch as are the Favourites of 
Princes, to have certain pleafant retiring Places, 
whither to invite them for Recreation both of Body 
and Mind, and that without hurt or prejudice to 

Endymion, or the Favourite. 265 

their Fortunes alfo. And indeed thefe kind of 
Favourites are Men commonly well to pafs ; for 
Princes, although peradventure they promote them 
not ever to Places of Honour, yet do they advance 
them fufficiently by their Favour and Countenance : 
Neither do they affeft them thus, only to ferve their 
own turn; but are wont to enrich them now and 
then with great Dignities, and Bounties. 

ix. The Sifter of the Giants, 
or Fame. 

T is a Poetical Relation, that the Giants 
begotten of the Earth, made War upon 
Jupiter, and the other Gods ; and by 
the force of Lightning, they were re- 
filled and overthrown. Whereat the Earth being 
excitated to Wrath, in Revenge of her Children 
brought forth Fame, the youngefl Sifter of the 


I Ham terra parens ira irritata Deorum, 
Extremam (ut prohibent) Cao Enceladoque for or em 

Provoked by wrathful Gods, the Mother Earth 
Gives Fame, the Giants' youngefl: Sifter, Birth. 

The meaning of the Fable feems to be thus : By 

266 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

the Earth, is fignified the Nature of the Vulgar, al- 
ways fwoln and malignant, and Hill broaching new- 
Scandals againft Superiors, and having gotten fit Op- 
portunity, flirs up Rebels and Seditious Perfons, 
that with impious Outrage do moleft Princes, and 
endeavour to fubvert their Eftates ; but being fup- 
preft, the fame natural Difpofition of the People Hill 
leaning to the viler fort, (being impatient of Peace 
and Tranquillity,) fpread Rumours, raife malicious 
Slanders, repining Whifperings, infamous Libels, and 
others of that kind, to the detraction of them that are 
in Authority : So as Rebellious Actions, and Seditious 
Reports, differ nothing in Kind and Blood, but as it 
were in Sex only ; the one fort being Mafculine, and 
the other Feminine. 

x. A&aeon and Pentheus, or 
a Curious Man. 

HE Curiofity of Men, in prying into 
Secrets, and coveting with an undif- 
creet Defire to attain the knowledge 
of Things forbidden, is fet forth by 
the Ancients in two other Examples : The one of 
Attaon, the other of Pentheus. 

Attceon having unawares, and as it were by chance 
beheld Diana naked, was turned into a Stag, and de- 
voured by his own Dogs. 


And Pentheus climbing up into a Tree, with a 
defire to be a fpeclator of the hidden Sacrifices of 
Bacchus, was ftricken with fuch a kind of Frenzy, as 
that whatfoever he looked upon, he thought it always 
double, fuppofing (among other Things) he faw two 
Sun s, and two Thebes; infomuch that running 
towards Thebes, fpying another Thebes, inftantly 
turned back again, and fo kept Hill running forward 
and backward with perpetual Unreft. 

Eumenidum veluti demens vidit agmina Pentheus, 
Et So/em geminum, duplices fe ojiendere Thebas. 

Pentheus amazed, doth troops of Furies fpy ; 
And Sun, and Thebes feem double to his Eye. 

The firft of the Fables pertains to the fecrets of 
Princes, the fecond to Divine Myfleries. For thofe 
that are near about Princes, and come to the know- 
ledge of more Secrets than they would have them, 
do certainly incur great Hatred. And therefore, 
(fufpe&ing that they are Shot at, and Opportunities 
watched for their Overthrow,) do lead their Lives 
like Stags, fearful and full of fufpicion. And it hap- 
pens oftentimes that their Servants, and thofe of their 
Houfehold, (to infinuate into the Prince's Favour) 
do accufe them to their Deftru&ion ; for againft 
whomfoever the Prince's Difpleafure is known, look 
how many Servants that Man hath, and you mall 
find them for the moll part fo many Traitors unto 
him, that his End may prove to be like Action's, 

268 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

The other is the Mifery of Pentheus : For that 
by the height of Knowledge and Nature in Philo- 
fophy, having climbed, as it were into a Tree, do 
with rafh Attempts (unmindful of their Frailty) pry 
into the Secrets of Divine Myfleries, and are juftly 
plagued with perpetual Inconftancy, and with wa- 
vering and perplexed Conceits : For feeing the light 
of Nature is one thing, and of Grace another ; it 
happens fo to them as if they faw two Suns. And 
feeing the Actions of Life, and degrees of the Will 
to depend on the Underftanding, it follows that they 
doubt, are inconflant no lefs in Will than in Opinion ; 
and fo in like manner they may be faid to fee two 
Tbebes : For by Thebes (feeing there was the Habi- 
tation and refuge of Pentheus) is meant the end of 
Actions. Hence it comes to pafs that they know 
not whither they go, but as diftracled and unrefolved 
in the Scope of their Intentions, are in all Things 
carried about with fudden Paffions of the Mind. 

xi. Orpheus, or Philofophy. 

HE Tale of Orpheus, though common, 
had never the fortune to be fitly applied 
in every Point. It may feem to repre- 
fent the Image of Philofophy : For the 
Perfon of Orpheus (a Man Admirable and Divine, 
and fo excellently ikilled in all kinds of Harmony, 

Orpheus, or Philosophy. 269 

that with his fweet ravifhing Mufick he did as it 
were charm and allure all Things to follow him) 
may carry a lingular Description of Philofophy : For 
the Labours of Orpheus do fo far exceed the Labours 
of Hercules in Dignity and Efficacy, as the Works of 
Wifdom, excel the Works of Fortitude. 

Orpheus for the Love he bare to his Wife, fnatched, 
as it were, from him by untimely Death, refolved to 
go down to Hell with his Harp, to try if he might 
obtain her of the Infernal Powers. Neither were 
his hopes fruflrated : For having appeafed them with 
the melodious found of his Voice and Touch, pre- 
vailed at length fo far, as that they granted him leave 
to take her away with him ; but on this Condition, 
that fhe mould follow him, and he not to look back 
upon her, till he came to the Light of the upper 
World ; which he (impatient of, out of Love and 
Care, and thinking that he was in a manner pall all 
Danger) neverthelefs violated, infomuch that the 
Covenant is broken, and fhe forthwith tumbles back 
again headlong into Hell. Orpheus falling into a 
deep Melancholy, became a Contemner of Woman- 
kind, and bequeathed himfelf, to a folitary Life in 
the Deferts; where, by the fame Melody of his 
Voice and Harp, he firfl drew all manner of wild 
Beafts unto him, (who forgetful of their Savage 
fiercenefs, and calling off the precipitate Provocations 
of Lull and Fury, not caring to fatiate their Voracity 
by hunting after Prey) as at a Theatre in fawning 
and reconciled Amity one towards another, Handing 

270 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

all at the Gaze about him, and attentively lend their 
Ears to his Mufick. Neither is this all ; for fo great 
was the Power and alluring Force of this Harmony, 
that he drew the Woods, and moved the very Stones 
to come and place themfelves in an orderly and de- 
cent Fafhion about him. Thefe Things fucceeding 
happily, and with great Admiration for a time ; at 
length certain Thracian Women (pofleft with the 
Spirit of Bacchus?) made fuch a horrid and ftrange 
Noife with their Cornets, that the found of Orpheus' 's 
Harp could no more be heard, infomuch as that 
Harmony which was the Bond of that Order and 
Society being diflblved, all Diforder began again; 
and the Beafts (returning to their wonted Nature) 
purfued one another unto Death as before : Neither 
did the Trees or Stones remain any longer in their 
Places : And Orpheus himfelf was by thefe Female 
Furies torn in Pieces, and fcattered all over the 
Defert. For whofe cruel Death the River Helicon 
(facred to the Mufes) in horrible Indignation, hid 
his Head under Ground, and raifed it again in an- 
other Place. 

The meaning of this Fable feems to be thus : Or- 
pheus' 's Mufic is of two forts, the one appeafing the 
Infernal Powers, the other attracting Beafts and 
Trees ; the firft may be fitly applied to Natural Phi- 
lofophy, the fecond to Moral or Civil Difcipline. 

The molt noble Work of Natural Philofophy, is 
the Reftitution and Renovation of Things corruptible ; 
the other (as a letter degree of it) the Prefervation of 
Bodies in their Eftates, detaining them from DilTolu- 

Orpheus, or Philosophy. 271 

tion and Putrefaction ; and if this Gift may be in 
Mortals, certainly it can be done by no other means 
than by the due and exquifite Temper of Nature, as 
by the melody and delicate Touch of an Inftrument. 
But feeing it is of all Things moft difficult, it is fel- 
dom or never attained unto ; and in all likelihood 
for no other Reafon, more than through curious Dili- 
gence and untimely Impatience. And therefore Phi- 
lofophy hardly able to produce fo excellent an Effect 
in a penfive Humour, (and that without caufe) bufies 
herfelf about Humane Objects, and by Perfuafion 
and Eloquence, iniinuating the love of Virtue, 
Equity, and Concord in the Minds of Men ; draws 
Multitudes of People to a Society, makes them fub- 
jecl: to Laws, obedient to Government, and forgetful 
of their unbridled Affections, whilft they give Ear 
to Precepts, and fubmit themfelves to Difcipline ; 
whence follows the building of Houfes, erecting of 
Towns, planting of Fields and Orchards, with Trees 
and the like, infomuch that it would not be amifs to 
fay, That even thereby Stones and Woods were 
called together and fettled in Order. And after 
ferious Trial made and fruftrated about the reftoring 
of a Body Mortal, this care of Civil Affairs follows 
in his due Place : Becaufe by a plain Demonftration 
of the inevitable neceffity of Death, Men's Minds 
are moved to feek Eternity by the frame and glory 
of their Merits. It is alfo wifely faid in the Fable, 
that Orpheus was averfe from the love of Women 
and Marriage, becaufe the delights of Wedlock and 
the love of Children do for the moft part hinder 

272 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Men from enterprifing great and noble Defigns for 
the public Good, holding Pofterity a fufficient Hep 
to Immortality without Adlion. 

Befides, even the very Works of Wifdom (although 
amongft all Human Things they do moft excel) do 
neverthelefs meet with their Periods. For it happens 
that (after Kingdoms and Commonwealths have 
nourilhed for a time) even Tumults, and Seditions, 
and Wars arife ; in the midft of which Hurly-burlies, 
iirft Laws are filent, Men return to the pravity of 
their Natures ; Fields and Towns are wafted and de- 
populated ; and then (if their Fury continue) Learning 
and Philofophy muft needs be difmembered; fo that 
a few Fragments only, and in fome Places, will be 
found like the fcattered Boards of Shipwreck, fo as a 
barbarous Age muft follow; and the Streams of 
Helicon being hid under the Earth, (until the Vicif- 
fitude of Things paffing,) they break out again, and 
appear in fome other remote Nation, though not 
perhaps in the fame Climate. 

xii. Caelum, or Beginnings. 

E have it from the Poets by Tradition, 
that Caelum was the Ancienteft of the 
Gods, and that his Members of Gen- 
eration were cut off by his Son Saturn- 
Saturn had many Children, but devoured them as 

Ccelum, or Beginnings. 273 

as foon as they were Born ; "Jupiter only efcaped, 
who being come to Man's Eftate, thruft Saturn his 
Father into Hell, and fo ufurp'd the Kingdom. 
Moreover he pared off his Father's Genitals with 
the fame Falchion that Saturn difmembered Ccelum, 
and caft them into the Sea ; from whence came Fe- 
nus. Not long after this, (Jupiter being fcarce 
fettled and confirmed in this Kingdom) was invaded 
by two memorable Wars. The firft of the Titans, 
in the fuppreffing of which Sol (who alone of all the 
Titans, favouring Jupiter's fide) took exceeding 
great Pains. The fecond was of the Giants, whom 
Jupiter himfelf deftroyed with Thunder-bolts : And 
fo all Wars being ended, he Reigned fecure. 

This Fable feems enigmatically to fhew from 
whence all Things took their Beginning, not much 
differing from that Opinion of Philofophers, which 
Democritus afterwards laboured to maintain, attribu- 
ting Eternity to the firft Matter, and not to the 
World. In which he comes fomewhat near the 
truth of Divine Writ, telling us of a huge deformed 
Mafs, before the beginning of the fix days' Work. 

The meaning of the Fable is this : by Caelum 
may be underftood that vaft Concavity or vaulted 
Compafs that comprehends all Matter : And by Sa- 
turn may be meant the Matter itfelf, which takes 
from his Parent all power of Generating ; for the 
univerfality or whole Bulk of Matter always remains 
the fame, neither increafmg or diminifhing in refpe£l 
of the quality of its Nature : But by the divers 

274 The Wisdom of the Ancients, 

Agitations and Motions of it, were firft produced im- 
perfect, and ill agreeing Compofitions of Things, 
making as it were certain Worlds for Proofs or Effays, 
and fo in procefs of Time a perfect Fabrick or Struc- 
ture was framed, which mould ftill retain and keep 
his Form. And therefore the Government of the 
firft Age was fhadowed by the Kingdom of Saturn, 
who for the frequent DifTolutions and fhort Conti- 
nuances of Things was aptly feigned to devour his 
Children. The fucceeding Government was deci- 
phered by the Reign of Jupiter, who confirmed 
thofe continual Mutations unto Tartarus, a Place 
fignifying Perturbation. This Place feems to be all 
that middle Place between the lower Superficies of 
Heaven, and the Centre of the Earth : In which all 
Perturbations, and Fragility, and Mortality or Cor- 
ruption are frequent. During the former Generation 
of things in the time of Saturn's Reign, Venus was 
not Born : For fo long as in the univerfality of Matter, 
Difcord was better and more prevalent than Con- 
cord, it was necefTary that there mould be total Dif- 
folution or Mutation, and that in the whole Fabrick. 
And by this kind of Generation were creatures pro- 
duced before Saturn was deprived of his Genitals. 
When this ceafed, that other which wrought by 
Venus, immediately came in, confifting in fettled and 
prevalent Concord of Things, fo that Mutation 
mould be only in refpedt of the Parts, the univerfal 
Fabrick remaining whole and inviolate. 

Saturn, they fay, was depofed and call down into 

Ccelum, or Beginnings. 275 

Hell, but not deftroyed and utterly extinguifhed, 
becaufe there was an Opinion that the World fhould 
relapfe into the old Chaos and interregnum again, 
which Lucretius prayed might not happen in his 

Quod procul a nobis fie 8 'at for tun a gubernans : 
Et ratio potius quam res perfuadeat ipfa. 

Of guiding Providence be gracious, 
That this Doomfday be far removed from us ; 
And grant, that by us it may be expected, 
Rather than on us, in our Times effected. 

For afterwards, the World mould fubfift by its 
own quantity and power. Yet from the beginning 
there was no reft : For in the Celeftial Regions there 
firrl followed notable Mutations, which by the Power 
of the Sun (predominating over fuperior Bodies) were 
fo quieted, that the ftate of the World fhould be 
conferved : And afterwards (in inferior Bodies) by 
the fuppremng and difhpating of Inundations, Tem- 
pefts, Winds, and general Earthquakes, a more peace- 
able durable Agreement and Tranquillity of Things 
followed. Bat of this Fable it may convertibly be 
faid, That the Fable contains Philofophy, and Philo- 
fophy again the Fable : For we know by Faith, that 
all thefe Things are nothing elfe but the long fince 
ceafmg and failing Oracles of Senfe, feeing that both 
the Matter and Fabrick of the World are moft truly 
referred to a Creator. 

276 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

xiii. Proteus, or Matter. 

HE Poets fay that Proteus was Nep- 
tune's Herdfman, a grave Sire, and fo 
excellent a Prophet, that he might well 
be termed thrice excellent; For he 
knew not only Things to come, but even Things 
paft as well as prefent ; fo that belides his Skill in 
Divination, he was the Meffenger and Interpreter of 
all Antiquities and hidden Myfteries. The Place of 
his Abode was a huge vaft Cave, where his Cuftom 
was every Day at Noon to count his Flock of Sea- 
calves, and then to go to fleep. Moreover he that 
defired his Advice in anything, could by no other 
means obtain it, but by catching him in Manacles, 
and holding him fall therewith ; who neverthelefs to 
be at liberty, would turn himfelf into all manner of 
Forms and Wonders of Nature; fometimes into 
Fire, fometimes into Water, fometimes into the fhape 
of Beafts, and the like ; till at length he were reftored 
to his own Form again. 

This Fable may feem to unfold the fecrets of Na- 
ture, and the properties of Matter. For under the 
Perfon of Proteus, the firft Matter (which next to 
God) is the ancienteft Thing may be reprefented : 
For Matter dwells in the concavity of Heaven, as in 
a Cave. 

Proteus, or Matter. 277 

He is Neptune* s Bondman, becaufe the Operations 
and Difpenfations of Matter are chiefly exercifed in 
liquid Bodies, 

His Flock or Herd feems to be nothing but the 
ordinary Species of fenfible Creatures, Plants, and 
Metals, in which Matter feems to diffufe and as it 
were fpend itfelf ; fo that after the forming and per- 
fecting of thefe Kinds, (having ended as it were her 
Tafk,) fhe feems to Sleep, and take her Reft, not at- 
tempting the Compofition of any more Species. And 
this may be the Moral of Proteus' *s counting of his 
Flock, and of his fleeping. 

Now this is faid to be done, not in the Morning, 
nor in the Evening, but at Noon ; to wit, at fuch 
time as is moll fit and convenient for the perfecting 
and bringing forth of Species out of Matter, duly pre- 
pared and predifpofed, and in the middle, as it were 
between their Beginning and Declinations, which we 
know fufEciently (out of the Holy Hiftory) to be 
done about the time of the Creation : For then by 
the power of that Divine Word (Producat,) Matter 
at the Creator's Command did congregate itfelf (not 
by Ambages or Turnings, but inftantly) to the Pro- 
duction of its Work into an Act and Conftitution of 
Species. And thus far have we the Narration of 
Proteus (free and unreftrained, together with his 
Flock complete) : For the univerfality of Things, 
with their ordinary Structures and Compofitions of 
Species, bears the Face of Matter, not limited and 
conftrained, and of the Flock alfo of Material Beings. 

278 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Neverthelefs if any expert Minifler of Nature, fhall 
encounter Matter by main force, vexing and urging 
her with Intent and Purpofe to reduce her to no- 
thing ; fhe contrariwife (feeing Annihilation and 
abfolute Deftrudion cannot be effected by the Omni- 
potency of God) being thus caught in the ftraits of 
Neceffity, doth change and turn herfelf into divers 
ftrange Forms and Shapes of Things, fo that at length 
(by fetching a Circuit as it were) fhe comes to a 
Period, and (if the Force continue) betakes herfelf 
to her former Being. The reafon of which Conflraint 
or Binding will be more facile and expedite, if 
Matter be laid hold on by Manacles, that is, Extre- 

Now whereas it is feigned that Proteus was a 
Prophet, well fkilled in three differences of Times, 
it hath an excellent Agreement with the Nature of 
Matter : for it is neceffary that he that will know 
the Properties and Proceedings of Matter, fhould 
comprehend in his Underftanding the fum of all 
things, which have been, which are, or which fhall 
be, although no Knowledge can extend fo far as to 
fingular, and individual Beings. 


xiv. Memnon, or a Youth too 

HE Poets fay, that Memnon was the 
Son of Aurora, who (adorned with 
beautiful Armour, and animated with 
popular Applaufe,) came to the Troja?i 
War s where (in ralh Boldnefs) hailing unto, and 
thiriling after Glory, he enters into fingle Combat 
with Achilles , the valiantefl of all the Grecians, by 
whofe powerful Hand he was there flain. But Ju- 
piter pitying his Deftruction, fent Birds to modulate 
certain lamentable and doleful Notes at the Solemni- 
zation of his Funeral Obfequies. Whofe Statue alfo 
(the Sun reflecting on it with his Morning Beams) 
did ufually, as is reported, fend forth a mournful 

This Fable may be applied to the unfortunate 
Deftinies of hopeful young Men, who, like the Sons 
of Aurora, (puffed up with the glittering fhew of 
Vanity, and Orientation,) attempt Actions above 
their Strength, and provoke, and prefs the moll 
valiant Heroes to combat with them ; fo that (meet- 
ing with their overmatch) they are vanquifhed, and 
dellroyed : whofe untimely Death is oft accompanied 
with much Pity and Commiferation. For among 
all the Difaflers that can happen to Mortals, there is 

280 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

none (o lamentable, and fo powerful to move Com- 
panion, as the flower of Virtue cropped with too 
fudden a Mifchance. Neither hath it been often 
known that Men in their green Years become fo 
loathfome, and odious, as that at their Deaths either 
Sorrow is ftinted, or Commiferation moderated ; but 
that Lamentation and Mourning do not only flutter 
about their Obfequies, like thofe Funeral Birds ; but 
this pitiful Commiferation doth continue for a long 
fpace, and efpecially by Occafions, and new Motions, 
and beginning of great Matters, as it were by the 
Morning Rays of the Sun, their Paflions and Defires 
are renewed. 

xv. Tithonus, or Satiety, 

T is elegantly feigned, that Tithonus 
was the Paramour of Aurora, who 
(defirous to enjoy his Company) peti- 
tioned Jupiter that he might never 
die ; but (through Womanifh overfight) forgetting to 
infert this Claufe in her Petition, that he might not 
withal grow old, and feeble ; it followed that he was 
only freed from the condition of Mortality ; but for 
old Age, that came upon him in a marvellous, and 
miferable fafhion, agreeable to the ftate of thofe who 
cannot die, yet every Day grow weaker and weaker 
with Age : Infomuch that Jupiter (in commiferation 

Tithonus, or Satiety. 281 

of that his Mifery,) did at length metamorphofe him 
into a Grafshopper. 

This Fable feems to be an ingenious Character, or 
Defcription of Pleafure, which in the Beginning, and 
as it were, in the Morning, feems to be pleafant and 
delightful, that Men defire they might enjoy, and 
monopolize it for ever unto themfelves, unmindful 
of that Satiety, and Loathing, which (like old Age,) 
will come upon them before they be aware. And 
fo at laft, (when the ufe of Pleafure leaves Men, the 
Defire and Affection not yet yielding unto Death,) 
it comes to pafs that Men pleafe themfelves only by 
talking, and commemorating thofe things which 
brought Pleafure unto them in the flower of their 
Age, which may be obferved in libidinous Perfons, 
and alfo in Men of Military ProfefTions ; the one de- 
lighting in beaftly Talk, the other boafting of their 
valorous Deeds, like Grafshoppers, whofe Vigour 
confifts only in their Voice. 

xvi. Juno's Suitor, or Bafenefs, 

k.OS> * <T> 


HE Poets fay, that "Jupiter, to enjoy 
his luftful Delights, took upon him the 
fhape of fun dry Creatures, as of a Bull, 
of an Eagle, of a Swan, and of a Golden 
Shower ; but being a Suitor to Juno, he came in a 
Form molt ignoble and bafe, an Object full of Con- 

282 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

tempt and Scorn, refembling indeed a miferable 
Cuckoo weather-beaten with Rain and Tempeft, 
numbed, quaking, and half dead with Cold. 

This Fable is wife, and feems to be taken out of 
the Bowels of Morality ; the Senfe of it being this, 
That Men boaft not too much of themfelves, think- 
ing by Oftentation of their own Worth, to insinuate 
themfelves into Eftimation and Favour with Men. 
The Succefs of fuch Intentions being for the moft 
part meafured by the Nature and Difpofition of thofe 
to whom Men fue for Grace; who, if of themfelves 
they be endowed with no Gifts and Ornaments of 
Nature, but are only of haughty and malignant Spi- 
rits, (intimated by the Perfon of Juno,) then are 
Suitors to know that it is good Policy to omit all 
kind of Appearance that may any way fhew their 
own leaft Praife or Worth, and that they much de- 
ceive themfelves in taking any other Courfe. Neither 
is it enough to fhew Deformity in Obfequioufnefs, 
unlefs they alfo appear even abjecl: and bafe in their 
very Perfons. 

xvii. Cupid, or an Atom. 

HAT which the Poets fay of Cupid, or 
hove, cannot properly be attributed to 
one and the felf fame Perfon ; and yet 
the Difference is fuch, that (by reject- 
ing the Confufion of Perfons,) the Similitude may be 

Cupid, or an Atom. 283 

They fay, that Love is the ancienteft of all the 
Gods, and of all things elfe, except Chaos, which 
they hold to be a Contemporary with it. Now as 
touching Chaos, that by the Ancients was never dig- 
nified with Divine Honour, or with the Title of the 
God. And as for Love, they abfolutely bring him 
in without a Father ; only fome are of opinion, that 
he came of an Egg that was laid by Nox, and that 
on Chaos he begat the God, and all things elfe. 
There are four things attributed to him, perpetual 
Infancy, Blindnefs, Nakednefs, and Archery. There 
was alfo another Love, which was the youngefl of 
the Gods, and he, they fay, was the Son of Venus, 
On this alfo they bellow the Attributes of the elder 
Love, as in fome fort will apply unto him. 

This Fable tends, and looks to the Cradle of Na- 
ture, Love feeming to be the Appetite or Defire of 
the firft Matter, or (to fpeak more plain) the natural 
motion of the Atom, which is that Ancient and only 
Power that Forms and Fafhions all things out of 
Matter, of which there is no Parent, that is to fay, 
no Caufe, feeing every Caufe is as a Parent to its 
EfFedt. Of this Power or Virtue there can be no 
Caufe in Nature (as for God, we always except him,) 
for nothing was before it, and therefore no efficient 
Caufe of it. Neither was there any thing better 
known to Nature, and therefore neither Genus nor 
Form. Wherefore whatfoever it is, pofitive it is, 
and but inexpreffible. Moreover, if the manner and 
proceeding of it were to be conceived, yet could it 

284 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

not be by any Caufe, feeing that (next unto God,) 
it is the Caufe of Caufes, it felf only without any 
Caufe. And perchance there is no likelihood that 
the manner of it may be contained or comprehended 
within the narrow compafs of human Search. Not 
without reafon therefore it is feigned to come of an 
Egg which was laid by Nox. Certainly the Divine 
Philofopher grants fo much. 

Eccl. 3. 11. C unci a fecit tempeftatibus fuis pul- 
chra, et mundum tradidit difputationibus eorum, ita 
tamen ut non inveniat homo opus, quod operatus eft 
Deus a principio ad finem. That is, he hath made 
every thing beautiful in their Seafons, alfo he hath fet 
the World in their Meditations ; yet Man cannot 
find the Work that God hath wrought, from the Be- 
ginning even to the End : For the principal Law of 
Nature, or Power of this Delire, created (by God,) 
in thefe parcels of things, for concurring and meet- 
ing together, (from whofe Repetitions and Multipli- 
cations all Variety of Creatures proceeded, and were 
compofed,) may dazzle the Eyes of Men's Under- 
ftandings, and comprehended it can hardly be. The 
Greek Philofophers are obferved to be very acute and 
diligent in fearching out the material Principles of 
things ; but in the beginnings of Motion (wherein 
confifts all the efficacy of Operation,) they are negli- 
gent and weak, and in this that we handle, they feem 
to be altogether blind, and Hammering ; for the Opi- 
nion of the Peripateticks concerning the appetite of 
Matter, caufed by Privation, is in a manner nothing 

Cupid, or an Atom. 285 

elfe but Words, which rather found, than fignify any 
Reality. And thofe that refer it unto God, do very 
well ; but then they leap up, they afcend not by de- 
grees ; for doubtlefs there is one chief Law fubordi- 
nate to God, in which all natural things concur and 
meet, the fame that in the fore-cited Scripture is de- 
monftrated in thefe Words, Opus quod operatus eft 
Deus aprincipio ufque ad finem ; the Work that God 
hath wrought from the Beginning even to the End. 
But Democritus, which entered more deeply into 
the Confi deration, of this Point, after he had con- 
ceived an Atom, with fome fmall Dimeniion and 
Form, he attributed unto it one only Defire, or firft 
Motion, limply, or abfolutely, and another compara- 
tively, or in refpect ; for he thought that all things 
did properly tend to the Centre of the World, 
whereof thofe Bodies which were more material, de- 
fcend with fwifter Motion, and thofe that had lefs 
Matter, did, on the contrary, tend upward. But 
this Meditation was very mallow, containing lefs than 
was expedient ; for neither the turning of the Ce- 
leflial Bodies in a round, nor fhutting and opening 
of things, may feem to be reduced or applied to this 
Beginning. And as for that opinion of Epicurus, 
concerning the cafual Declination and Agitation of 
the Atom, it is but a mere Toy, and a plain Evidence, 
that he was ignorant of that Point. It is therefore 
more apparent (than we could wifh,) that this Cupid, 
or Love, remains as yet clouded under the fhades of 
Night. Now as concerning his Attributes, He is 

286 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

elegantly defcribed with perpetual Infancy, or Child- 
hood ; becaufe compound Bodies they feem greater, 
and more ftricken in Years : Whereas the firft Seeds 
of things, or Atoms , they are little and diminute, and 
alfo in their Infancy. 

He is alfo well feigned to be naked, becaufe all com- 
pound Bodies, to a Man rightly judging, feem to be 
apparelled and clothed, and nothing to be properly 
naked but the firft Particles of things. 

■ Concerning his Blindnefs, the Allegory is full of 
Wifdom ; for this Love, or Defire (whatfoever it be) 
feems to have but little Providence, as directing his 
Pace and Motion by that which it perceives neareft; 
not unlike blind Men that go by feeling : More admi- 
rable then, muft that chief divine Providence be, 
which (from things empty and deftitute of Providence, 
and as it were blind), by a conftant and fatal Law, 
produceth fo excellent an Order and Beauty of 

The laft thing which is attributed to Love, is Ar- 
chery j by which is meant, that his Virtue is fuch, as 
that it works upon a diftant Objecl; becaufe that 
whatfoever operates afar off, feems to moot, as it were, 
an Arrow. Wherefore whofoever holds . the Being 
both of Atoms and Faculty, muft needs infer, that 
the Virtue of the Atom reacheth to a diftant Object : 
for if it were not fo, there could be no Motion at all, 
by reafon of the interpofition of Vacuity s but all 
things would ftand ftone ftill, and remain immove- 

Cupid, or an Atom. 287 

Now as touching that other Cupid or Love, he 
may well be termed the youngefl of the Gods, be- 
caufe he could have no Being before the Conftitution 
of Species. And in his Defcription the Allegory may 
be applied and traduced to Manners : Never thelefs 
he holds fome kind of Conformity with the Elder ; 
for Venus doth generally ftir up a defire of Conjunc- 
tion and Procreation, and Cupid her Son doth apply 
this Defire to fome individual Nature; fo that the 
general Difpofition comes from Venus, the more exacl: 
Sympathy from Cupid : the one derived from Caufes 
more near, the other from Beginnings more remote 
and fatal, and as it were from the elder Cupid, of 
whom every exquifite Sympathy doth depend. 

xviii. Diomedes, or Zeal. 

IOMEDES flouriming with great 
Fame and Glory in the Trojan Wars, 
and in high favour with Pallas, was 
by her mitigated (being indeed for- 
warder than he mould have been) not to forbear 
Venus a jot, if he encountered with her in Fight ; 
which very boldly he performed, wounding her in 
the right Arm. This prefumptuous Fact he carried 
clear for a while ; and being honoured and renowned 
for his many heroick Deeds, at laft returned into his 
own Country, where finding himfelf hard beflead 

288 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

with domeftic Troubles, fled into Italy, betaking 
himfelf to the Protection of Foreigners, where in the 
beginning he was fortunate and royally entertained 
by King D annus with fumptuous Gifts, raifing many 
Statues in honour of him throughout his Dominions. 
But upon the very firft Calamity that happened unto 
this Nation, whereunto he was fled for Succour, 
King Daunus enters into a conceit with himfelf that 
he had entertained a wicked Gueft in his Family, and 
a Man odious to the Goddefs, and an Impugner of 
their Divinity, that had dared, with his Sword, to 
affault and wound that Goddefs, who in their Reli- 
gion, they held it Sacrilege fo much as to touch. 
Therefore, that he might expiate his Country's Guilt, 
(nothing reflecting the Duties of Hofpitality, when 
the Bonds of Religion tied him with a more reverend 
regard) fuddenly flew Diomedes, commanding withal 
that his Trophies and Statues fhould be abolifhed 
and deftroyed. Neither was it fafe to lament this 
miferable Defliny; but even his Companions in 
Arms, whilft they mourned at the Funeral of their 
Captain, and filled all the Places with Plaints and 
Lamentations, were fuddenly metamorphofed into 
Birds like unto Swans, who, when their Death ap- 
proacheth, fing melodious and mournful Hymns. 

This Fable hath a moft rare and lingular Subject : 
For in any of the Poetical Records, wherein the 
Heroes are mentioned, we find not that any one of 
them, befides Diomedes, did ever with his Sword 
offer Violence to any of the Deities. And indeed, 

Diomedes, or Zeal. 289 

the Fable Teems in him to reprefent the Nature and 
Fortune of Man, who of himfelf doth propound, and 
make this as the end of all his Actions, to worfhip 
fome Divine Power, or to follow fome Se£t of Reli* 
gion, though never fo vain and fuperftitious, and 
■with Force and Arms to defend the fame : For al- 
though thofe bloody Quarrels for Religion were un- 
known to the Ancients, (the Heathen Gods not 
having fo much as a touch of that Jealoufy, which is 
an Attribute of the true God,) yet the Wifdom of 
the Ancient Times feems to be fo copious and full, 
as that, what was not known by Experience, was 
yet comprehended by Meditations and Fictions. 
They then that endeavour to reform and convince 
any Seel; of Religion, (though vain, corrupt, and in- 
famous, fhadowed by the perfon of Venus?) not by 
the force of Argument and Doctrine, and Holinefs of 
■Life, and by the weight of Examples and Authority, 
but labour to extirpate and root it out by Fire and 
Sword, and Tortures, are encouraged, it may be, 
thereunto by Pallas; that is, by the Acrity of Pru- 
dence, and Severity of Judgment, by whofe Vigour 
and Efficacy, they fee into the Falfity and Vanity of 
thefe Errors : And by this their hatred to Pravity, 
and good zeal to Religion, they purchafe of themfelves 
great Glory, and by the Vulgar (to whom nothing 
moderate can be grateful) are efteemed and honoured 
as the only Supporters of Truth and Religion, when 
others feem to be luke-warm and full of Fear. Yet 
this Glory and Happinefs doth feldom endure to the 

290 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

end, feeing every violent Profperity, if it prevent not 
alteration by an untimely Death grows to be unprof- 
perous at laft : For if it happen that by a change of 
Government, this banifhed and depreffed Sect get 
Strength, and fo bear up again, then thefe zealous 
Men, fo fierce in oppofition before, are condemned, 
their very Names are hateful, and all their Glory ends 
in Obloquy. 

In that Diomedes is said to be murdered by his 
Hoft, it gives us to underftand that the difference of 
Religion breeds Deceit and Treachery, even among 
neareft Acquaintance. 

Now in that Lamentation and Mourning was not 
tolerable but punifhed ; it puts us in mind, that let 
there be never fo nefarious an Act done, yet there is 
fome place left for Commiferation and Pity, that 
even thofe that hate Offences, mould yet in Hu- 
manity commiferate Offenders, and pity their Diftrefs, 
it being the Extremity of Evil when Mercy is not 
fufrered to have Commerce with Mifery. Yea, even 
in the Caufe as well of Religion as Impiety, many 
Men may be noted and obferved to have been com- 
paffionate. But on the contrary the Complaints and 
Moans of Diomedes 's Followers, that is, of Men of the 
fame Seel and Opinion, are wont to be fhrill and 
loud, like Swans or the Birds of Diomedes. In 
whom alfo that part of the Allegory is excellent to 
fignify that the laft Words of thofe that fuffer Death 
for Religion, like the Songs of dying Swans, do won- 
derfully work upon the Minds of Men, and ftrike 
and remain a long time in their Senfes and Memories. 


xix. Daedalus, or Mechanick. 

ECHANICAL Wifdom and Induftry, 
and in it unlawful Science perverted to 
wrong ends is fhadowed by the An- . 
cients under the perfon of Dadalus, a 
Man ingenious, but execrable. This Dcedalus (for 
murdering his Fellow-fervant that emulated him) 
being baniihed, was kindly entertained (during his 
Exile) in many Cities and Princes' Courts : For in- 
deed he was the Raifer and Builder of many goodly 
Structures, as well in Honour of the Gods, as the 
Beauty and Magnificence of Cities, and other public 
Places, but for his Works of Mifchief he is moft 
notorious. It is he that framed the Engine which 
Paftphae ufed to fatisfy her Lull in company with a 
Bull ; fo that by his wretched Induftry, and perni- 
cious Device, that Monfter Minotaur (the Deftruc- 
tion of fo many hopeful Youths) took his accurfed and 
infamous Beginning, and ftudying to cover and in- 
creafe one Mifchief with another ; for the Security 
and Prefervation of this Monfter he invented and 
built a Labyrinth, a Work for intent and ufe moft 
nefarious and wicked, for Skill and Workmanfhip 
famous and excellent. Afterwards, that he might 
not be noted only for Works of Mifchief, but be 
fought after as well for Remedies as for Inftruments 
of Deftruction, he was the Author of that ingenious 

2Q2 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Device concerning the Clew of Thread, by which 
the Labyrinth was made paflable without any let. 
This Dcedalus was perfecuted by Minos with great 
Severity, Diligence, and Inquiry, but he always 
found the means to avoid and efcape his Tyranny. 
Laftly, he taught his Son Icarus to fly, but the 
Novice, in Oflentation of this Art, foaring too high, 
fell into the Sea and was drowned. 

The Parable feems to be thus : In the beginning 
of it may be noted that kind of Envy or Emulation 
that lodgeth, and wonderfully fways and domineers 
amongft excellent Artificers, there being no kind of 
People more reciprocally tormented with bitter and 
deadly hatred than they. 

- The Banifhment alfo of Daedalus (a Punifhment 
inflidted on him againfl the Rules of Policy and Pro- 
vidence) is worth the noting : For Artificers have 
this Prerogative to find entertainment and welcome 
in all Countries, fo that Exile to an excellent Work- 
man can hardly be termed a Punifhment, whereas 
other Conditions and States of Life can fcarce live 
out of their own Country. The Admiration of 
Artificers is propagated and increafed in foreign 
and flrange Nations, feeing it is a natural and un- 
bred Difpofition of Men to value their own Coun- 
try-men (in refpedt. of Mechanical Works) lefs than 

Concerning the ufe of Mechanical Arts, that which 
follows is plain. The Life of Man is much beholden 
to them, feeing many things (conducing to the Or- 


nament of Religion, to the Grace of Civil Difcipline, 
and to the beautifying of all Human Kind) are ex- 
tracted out of their Treafuries : And yet notwith- 
ilanding from the fame Magazine or Store-houfe are 
produced Inftruments both of Lull and Death ; for 
to omit the Wiles of Bands, we well know how far 
exquilite Poifons, Warlike Engines, and fuch like Mif- 
chiefs (the eiFedls of Mechanical Inventions) do ex- 
ceed the Minotaur himfelf in Malignity and favage 

Moreover that of the Labyrinth is an excellent 
Allegory, whereby is fhadowed the Nature of Me- 
chanical Sciences ; for all fuch handycraft Works as 
are more ingenious and accurate, may be compared 
to a Labyrinth in refpec~l of Subtilty and divers in- 
tricate Paffages, and in other plain Refemblances, 
which by the Eye of Judgment can hardly be 
guided and difcerned, but only by the Line of Expe- 

Neither is it impertinently added, that he which 
invented the intricate Nooks of the Labyrinth, did 
alfo mew the Commodity of the Clew : For Mechan- 
ical Arts are of ambiguous ufe, ferving as well for 
hurt as for Remedy, and they have in a manner 
Power both to loofe and bind themfelves. 

Unlawful Trades, and fo by confequence, Arts 
themfelves are often perfecuted by Minos, that is, by 
Laws, which do condemn them and prohibit Men to 
ufe them. Neverthelefs they are hid and retained 
every where, rinding lurking Holes and places of 

294 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Receipt, which was well obferved by Tacitus of the 
Mathematicians and Figure-flingers of his time, in a 
thing not fo much unlike : Genus Hominum quod in 
Civitate noftra femper et retinebitur et vetabitur. 
There is a kind of Men that will always abide in our 
City, though always forbidden. And yet notwith- 
ftanding unlawful and curious Arts of what kind 
foever, in tract of time, when they cannot perform 
what they promife, do fall from the good Opinion 
that was held of them, (no otherwife than Icarus 
fell down from the Ikies,) they grow to be contemned 
and fcorned, and fo perifh by too much Orientation. 
And to fay the Truth, they are not fo happily re- 
trained by the Reins of Law, as bewrayed by their 
own Vanity. 

xx. Eridthonius, or Impof- 

HE Poets fable that Vulcan folicited 
Minerva for her Virginity, and impa- 
tient of denial, with an inflamed De- 
fire offered her Violence, but in flrug- 
gling his Seed fell upon the Ground, whereof came 
Ericlbonius, whofe Body from the middle upward, 
was of a comely and apt Proportion, but his Thighs 
and Legs like the Tail of an Eel, fmall and deformed. 

Ericthonius, or Imposture. 295 

To which Monftrolity he being confcious, became 
the firft Inventor of the ufe of Chariots, whereby 
that part of his Body which was well proportioned 
might be feen, and the other which was ugly and un- 
comely might be hid. 

This ftrange and prodigious Fiction may feem to 
fhew that Art which (for the great ufe it hath of 
Fire) is fhadowed by Vulcan, although it labour by 
much flriving with corporeal Subftances to force 
Nature, and to make her fubjecl to it, (ihe being for 
her induftrious Works rightly reprefented by Mi- 
nerva ,*) yet feldom or never attains the end it aims 
at, but with much ado and great Pains (wreftling as 
it were with her) comes fhort of its Purpofe, and 
produceth certain imperfect Births and lame Works, 
fair to the Eye, but weak and defective in ufe, which 
many Importers, (with much Subtilty and Deceit) 
fet to View, and carry about, as it were in Triumph, 
as may for the molt part be noted in Chemical 
Productions, and other Mechanical Subtilties and 
Novelties, efpecially when (rather perfecuting their 
Intent, than reclining their Errors) they rather ftrive 
to overcome Nature by force, than fue for her Em- 
bracements by due Obfequioufnefs and Obfervance. 

296 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

xxi. Deucalion, or Restitution. 

HE Poets fay, that (the People of the 
Old World being deftroyed by a ge- 
neral Deluge) Deucalion and Pyrrba 
were only left alive ; who praying with 
fervent and zealous Devotion, that they might know 
by what means to repair Mankind, had anfwer from 
an Oracle that they mould obtain what they defired, 
if taking the Bones of their Mother, they caft them 
behind their Backs ; which at firft ftruck them with 
great Amazement and Defpair, feeing (all things be- 
ing defaced by the Flood) it would be an endlefs 
work to find their Mother's Sepulchre, but at length 
they underftood that by Bones the Stones of the 
Earth (feeing the Earth was the Mother of all things) 
were fignified by the Oracle. 

This Fable feems to reveal a fecret of Nature, 
and to correct an Error familiar to Men's Conceits : 
For through want of Knowledge Men think that 
things may take Renovation and Reftoration from 
their Putrefaction and Dregs, no otherwife than the 
Phcenix from the Afhes, which in no cafe can be 
admitted, feeing fuch kind of Materials, when they 
have fulfilled their Periods, are unapt for the begin- 
nings of fuch things : We muft therefore look back 
to more common Principles. 


xxn. Nemefis, or the Viciffi- 
tude of Things. 

EMESIS is faid to be a Goddefs Ve- 
nerable unto all, but to be feared of 
none but Potentates and Fortune's 
Favourites. She is thought to be the 
Daughter of Ocean us and Nox. She is portrayed 
with wings on her Shoulders, and on her Head a 
Coronet; bearing in her Right Hand a Javelin of 
AJb, and in her Left a Pitcher with the Similitudes 
of Ethiopians engraven on it ; and laftly, fhe is de- 
fcribed fitting on a Hart. 

The Parable may be thus unfolded. Her Name 
Nemejts doth plainly fignify Revenge or Retribution, 
her Office and Adminiftration being (like a Tribune 
of the People) to hinder the conftant and perpetual 
Felicity of happy Men, and to interpofe her Word, 
veto, I forbid the Continuance of it ; that is, not 
only to chaftife Infolency, but to intermix Profperity 
(though harmlefs and in a mean) with the Viciffi- 
tudes of Adverfity, as if it were a Cuftom, that no 
mortal Man ihould be admitted to the Table of the 
Gods but for Sport. Truly when I read that- 
Chapter, wherein Caius Plinius hath collected his 
Misfortunes and Miferies of Augufkus Ctefar, whom 

298 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

of all Men I thought the moll Happy, who had alfo 
a kind of Art to ufe and enjoy his Fortune, and in 
whofe Mind might be noted neither Pride, nor Light- 
nefs, nor Nicenefs, nor Diforder, nor Melancholy, 
(as that he had appointed a time to die of his own ac- 
cord,) I then deemed this Goddefs to be great and 
powerful, to whofe Altar fo worthy a Sacrifice as 
this was drawn. 

The Parents of this Goddefs were O cean us and Nox, 
that is, the Viciffitude of things and Divine Judgment 
obfcure and fecret: For the Alterations of things are 
aptly reprefented by the Sea, in refpecl; of the conti- 
nual Ebbing and Flowing of it, and hidden Provi- 
dence is well fet forth by the Night : For even the 
Nocturnal Nemejis (feeing Human Judgment differs 
much from Divine) was ferioufly obferved by the 

Cadit et Ripbeus juftijjimus unus, 

Quifuit ex Teucris, et fervantijjimus a qui. 
Diis aliter vifum Virgil iEneid. lib. 2. 

That Day, by Greekijb Force, was Ripbeus {lain 
So juft and Uriel: Obferver of the Law, 
As Troy within her Walls, did not contain 
A better Man : Yet God then good it faw. 

She is defcribed with Wings, becaufe the Changes 
of things are fo fudden, as that they are feen before 
forefeen : For in the Records of all Ages, we find 
it for the moft part true, that great Potentates, and 

Nemesis. 299 

wife Men, have perifhed by thofe Misfortunes which 
they molt contemned ; as may be obferved in Marcus 
Cicero, who being admonifhed by Decius Brutus of 
Oclavius Cafar^s hypocritical Friendfhip and Hol- 
low-heartednefs towards him, returns him this An- 
fwer, Te autem, mi Brute, ft cut debeo, amo, quod 
iftud quicquid eft nugarum me fcire voluifti : I muft 
ever acknowledge myfelf (Dear Brutus) beholden to 
thee, in Love, for that thou hall been fo careful to 
acquaint me with that which I efteem but as a need- 
lefs Trifle to be doubted. 

Nemefis is alfo adorned with a Coronet, to fhew 
the envious and malignant Difpofition of the Vulgar, 
for when Fortune's Favourites and great Potentates 
come to ruin, then do the common People rejoice, 
fetting, as it were, a Crown upon the Head of Re- 

The Javelin in her right Hand points at thofe 
whom fhe aftually ftrikes and pierceth through. 

And before thofe, whom fhe deflroys not in their 
Calamity and Misfortune, fhe ever prefents that black 
and difmal Spectacle in her left Hand : For quef- 
tionlefs to Men fitting as it were upon the Pinnacle 
of Profperity, the thoughts of Death and painfulnefs 
of Sicknefs and Misfortunes, perfidioufnefs of Friends, 
treachery of Foes, change of Eftate, and fuch like, 
feem as ugly to the Eye of their Meditations, as thofe 
Ethiopians pictured in Nemejis her Pitcher. Vir- 
gil, in defcribing the Battle of Aclium, fpeaks thus 
elegantly of Cleopatra, 

300 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Re gin a in mediis pa trio vocat agmina fiftro, 
Nee dum etiam geminos a tergo refpicit angues. 

The Queen amidft this hurly-burly Hands, 
And with her Country-Timbrel calls her Bands ; 
Not fpying yet, where crawl' d behind her Back, 
Two deadly Snakes with Venom fpeckled black. 

But not long after, which way foever £he turned, 
Troops of Ethiopians were ftill before her Eyes. 

Laftly, It is wifely added, That Nemejis rides 
upon a Hart, becaufe a Hart is a moft lively Crea- 
ture. And albeit, it may be, that fuch as are cut off 
by Death in their Youth, prevent and fliun the 
Power of Nemefis ,* yet doubtlefs fuch, whofe Prof- 
perity and Power continue long, are made fubjecT: 
unto her, and lie as it were trodden under her Feet. 

xxiii. Achelous, or Battle, 

T is a Fable of Antiquity, that when 
Hercules and Achelous as Rivals con- 
tended for the Marriage of Deianira, 
the matter drew them to Combat, 
wherein Achelous took upon him many divers fhapes, 
for fo was it in his Power to do, and amongft others, 
transforming himfelf into the likenefs of a furious 
wild Bull, afTaults Hercules and provokes him to 

Achelous, or Battle. 301 

fight. But Hercules, for all this, flicking to his old 
Human Form, courageoufly encounters him, and fo 
the Combat goes roundly on. But this was the event, 
That Hercules tore away one of the Bull's Horns, 
wherewith he being mightily daunted and grieved, 
to ranfom his Horn again, was contented to give 
Hercules, in exchange thereof, the Amaltbean-lAom, 
or Comu-Copia. 

This Fable hath relation unto the Expeditions of 
War, for the Preparations thereof on the defenfive 
part (exprefled in the Perfon of Achelous) are very 
diverfe and uncertain. But the invading Party is 
moft commonly of one fort, and that very fingle, 
confifting of an Army by Land, or perhaps of a Navy 
by Sea. But for a King that in his own Territory 
expects an Enemy, his occaiions are infinite. He 
fortifies Towns, he afTembles Men out of the Coun- 
tries and Villages, he raifeth Citadels, he builds and 
breaks down Bridges, he difpofeth Garrifons, and 
placeth Troops of Soldiers on PafTages of Rivers, on 
Ports, on Mountains, and Ambufhes in Woods, and 
is bulled with a multitude of other Directions, in- 
fomuch, that every day he prefcribeth new Forms 
and Orders ; and then at laft having accommodated 
all things complete for Defence, he then rightly re- 
prefents the form and manner of a fierce fighting 
Bull. On the other fide, the Invader's greateft care 
is, the fear to be diflreffed for Victuals in an Enemy- 
Country ; and therefore affects chiefly to haften on 
Battle : For if it fhould happen, that after a Field- 

302 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

fight, he prove the Victor, and as it were, break the 
Horn of the Enemy, then certainly this follows, that 
his Enemy being ftricken with Terror, and abafed 
in his Reputation, prefently bewrays his weaknefs, 
and feeking to repair his lofs, retires himfelf to fome 
ftronghold, abandoning to the Conqueror the fpoil 
and fack of his Country and Cities : which may well 
be termed a Type of the Amalthean Horn. 

xxiv. Dionyfus, or Paffions. 

HEY fay that Seme/e, Jupiter's Sweet- 
heart, (having bound her Paramour, 
by an irrevocable Oath, to grant her 
one Requeft which lhe would require) 
delired that he would accompany her in the fame 
form wherein he accompanied Juno: Which he 
granting (as not able to deny) it came to pafs, that 
the miferable Wench was burnt with Lightning. But 
the Infant which fhe bare in her Womb, Jupiter, 
the Father, took out, and kept it in a Gafh which he 
cut in his Thigh, till the Months were complete 
that it mould be born. This burden made Jupiter 
fomewhat to limp, whereupon the Child (becaufe it 
was heavy and troublefome to its Father while it lay 
in his Thigh) was called Dionyfus. Being born it 
was committed to Proferpina for fome Years to be 
Nurft, and being grown up, it had fuch a maiden 

Dionysus, or Passions. 303 

Face, as that a Man could hardly judge whether it 
were a Boy or Girl. He was dead alfo, and buried 
for a time, but afterward revived : Being but a 
Youth, he invented and taught the planting and 
dreffing of Vines, the making alfo, and ufe of Wine; 
for which, becoming famous and renowned, he fub- 
jugated the World, even to the uttermoft bounds of 
India. He rode in a Chariot drawn with Tigers. 
There danced about him certain deformed Hobgob- 
lins called C oh ali, Acratus and others, yea, even the 
Mufes alfo were fome of his Followers. He took to 
Wife Ariadne, forfaken and left by Thefeus. The 
Tree facred unto him was the Ivy. He was held 
the Inventor and Inftitutor of Sacrifices and Cere- 
monies, and full of Corruption and Cruelty. He 
had power to ftrike Men with Fury and Madnefs ; 
for it is reported, That at the celebration of his Or- 
gies, two famous Worthies, Pentheus and Orpheus, 
were torn in Pieces by certain frantic Women, the 
one becaufe he got upon a Tree to behold their Ce- 
remonies in thefe Sacrifices ; the other for making 
melody with his Harp : And for his Gods, they are 
in a manner the fame with Jupiter's. 

There is fuch excellent morality couched in this 
Fable, as that moral Philofophy affords not better ; 
for under the Perfon of Bacchus is defcribed the na- 
ture of Affection, Paffion or Perturbation, the Mother 
of which (though never fo hurtful) is nothing elfe 
but the Object of apparent good in the Eyes of Ap- 
petite. And it is always conceived in an unlawful 

304 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

defire, rafhly propounded and obtained, before well 
underftood and confidered ; and when it begins to 
grow, the Mother of it, which is the defire of appa- 
rent good by too much fervency, is deflroyed and 
perifheth. Neverthelefs (whilft yet it is an imper- 
fect Embryo) it is nourifhed and preferved in the 
Human Soul (which is as it were a Father unto it, 
and reprefented by Jupiter) but efpecially in the 
inferior part thereof, as in a Thigh, where alfo it 
caufeth fo much trouble and vexation, as that good 
determinations and actions- are much hindered and 
lamed thereby ; and when it comes to be con- 
firmed by confent and habit, and breaks out as it 
were into act, it remains yet a while with Proferplva y 
as with a Nurfe, that is, it feeks corners and fecret 
places, and as it were, Caves under Ground, until 
(the Reins of Shame and Fear being laid afide in a 
pampered audacioufnefs) it either takes the pretext of 
fome Virtue, or becomes altogether impudent and 
fhamelefs. And it is moll true, that every vehement 
Paffion is of a doubtful Sex, as being Mafculine in 
the firft Motion, but Feminine in Profecution. 

It is an excellent Fiction that of Bacchus' V reviving; 
for Pafhons do fometimes feem to be in a dead Sleep, 
and as it were utterly extinct, but we ihould not 
think them to be fo indeed, no, though they lie, as it 
were, in their Grave ; for let there be but matter and 
opportunity offered, and you mall fee them quickly 
to revive again. 

The invention of Wine is wittily afcribed unto 

Dionysus, or Passions. 305 

him ; every affection being ingenious and fkilful in 
finding out that which brings Nourifhment unto it ; 
and indeed, of all things known to Men, Wine is 
moll powerful and efficacious to excite and kindle Paf- 
fions of what kind foever, as being in a manner com- 
mon Nurfe to them all. 

Again, his conquering of Nations, and undertaking 
infinite Expeditions is an elegant device ; for Defire 
never refts content with what it hath, but with an 
infinite and unfatiable Appetite Hill covets and gapes 
after more. 

His Chariot alfo is well faid to be drawn by Ti- 
gers ; for as foon as any affection fhall from going 
a-foot, be advanced to ride in a Chariot, and mail 
captivate Reafon, and lead her in a Triumph, it grows 
cruel, untamed, and fierce againfl whatfoever with- 
flands or oppofeth it. 

It is worth the noting alfo, that thofe ridiculous 
Hobgoblins are brought in dancing about his Chariot; 
for every Paffion doth caufe in the Eyes, Face and 
Gefture, certain indecent, and ill-feeming, apifh, and 
deformed Motions ; fo that they who in any kind of 
Paffion, as in anger, arrogance, or love, feem glorious 
and brave in their own Eyes, do yet appear to others 
mifshapen and ridiculous. 

In that the Mufes are faid to be of his company, it 
fhews that there is no affection almoft which is not 
foothed by fome Art, wherein the indulgence of 
Wits doth derogate from the glory of the Mufes, who 

306 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

(when they ought to be the Miflrefs of Life) are 
made the Waiting-maids of Affections. 

Again, where Bacchus is faid to have loved 
Ariadne, that was rejected by Thefeus ; it is an 
Allegory of fpecial obfervation ; for it is moll certain, 
that Paffions always covet and defire that which 
Experience forfakes ; and they all know (who have 
paid dear for ferving and obeying their Lull) that 
whether it be Honour, or Riches, or Delight, or 
Glory, or knowledge, or any thing elfe which they 
feek after, yet are they but things call off, and by 
divers Men, in all ages after experience had utterly 
rejected and loathed. 

Neither is it without a Myflery, that the Ivy was 
facred to Bacchus ,* for the Application holds, Firfl, 
In that the Ivy remains green in Winter : Secondly, 
In that it Hicks to, embraceth and overtoppeth 
fo many divers Bodies, as Trees, Walls and Edifices. 
Touching the firfl, every pafTion doth by refiflance 
and relu&ation, and as it were by Antiperifiafis (like 
the Ivy of the cold Winter) grow frefh and lufly. 
And as for the other, every predominate Affection 
doth again (like the Ivy) embrace and limit all Hu- 
man Actions and Determinations, adhering and cleav- 
ing fall unto them. 

Neither is it a wonder, that fuperflitious Rites and 
Ceremonies were attributed unto Bacchus, feeing every 
giddy-headed humour keeps in a manner Revel-rout 
in falfe Religions ; or that the caufe of Madnefs 
mould be afcribed unto him, feeing every affection is 

Dionysus, or Passions. 307 

by Nature a fhort fury, which (if it grows vehement, 
and become habitual) concludes in Madnefs. 

Concerning the rending and difmembering of Pen- 
tbeus and Orpheus, the Parable is plain, for every 
prevalent affection is outrageous and fevere, and 
againft curious inquiry, and wholefome and free ad- 

Laftly, That by confulion of Jupiter and Bacchus, 
their Perfons may be well transferred to a Parable, 
feeing noble and famous Acts, and remarkable and 
glorious Merits, do fometimes proceed from Virtue, 
and well ordered Reafon and Magnanimity, and 
fometimes from a fecret Affection, and hidden Paf- 
fion, which are fo dignified with the celebrity of 
Fame and Glory, that a Man can hardly diftinguifh 
between the Acts of Bacchus, and the Jefts of Ju- 

xxv. Atalanta, or Gain. 

TALANTA, who was reputed to ex- 
cel in fwiftnefs, would needs challenge 
Hippome?ies at a match in Running. 
The conditions of the Prize were 
thefe : That if Hippomenes won the Race, he fhould 
efpoufe Atalanta >• if he were out-run, that then he 
ihould forfeit his Life. And in the Opinion of all, 
the victory was thought afTured of Atalanta' 's fide, 

308 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

being famous, as ftie was, for her matchlefs and in- 
conquerable fpeed, whereby me had been the bane of 
many. Hippome?ies therefore bethinks him how to 
deceive her by a Trick, and in that regard provides 
three Golden Apples or Balls, which he purpofely 
carried about him. The Race is begun, and Ata- 
lanta gets a good ftart before him. He feeing him- 
felf thus caft behind, being mindful of his device, 
throws one of his Golden Balls before her, and yet 
not outright, but fomewhat of the one fide, both to 
make her linger and alfo to draw her out of the right 
courfe : She, out of a Womanifh defire, (being thus 
enticed by the Beauty of the Golden Apple) leaving 
her direct Race runs afide, and Hoops to catch the 
Ball, Hippomenes the while holds on his courfe, get- 
ting thereby a great Hart, and leaves her behind him : 
But fhe by her own natural fwiftnefs, recovers her 
loft time, and gets before him again. But Hippomenes 
{till continues his flight, and both the fecond and 
third times cafts out his Balls, thofe enticing delays ; 
and fo by craft, and not by his activity, he wins the 
Race and Victory. 

This Fable feems Allegorically to demonftrate a 
notable conflict between Art and Nature ; for Art 
(fignified by Atalantd) in its work (if it be not letted 
and hindered) is far more fwift than Nature, more 
fpeedy in pace, and fooner attains the end it aims at, 
which is manifeft almoft in every effect : As you may 
fee it in Fruit-trees, whereof thofe that grow of a 
Kernel are long ere they bear, but fuch as are grafted 

Atalanta, or Gain. 309 

on a Stock a great deal fooner. You may fee it in 
Clay, which in the generation of Stones, is long ere 
it becomes hard ; but in the burning of Bricks, is 
very quickly erTe&ed. Alfo in Moral Paffages you 
may obferve, that it is a long time ere (by the benefit 
of Nature) forrow can be affuaged, and comfort at- 
tained ; whereas, Philofophy (which is, as it were, 
Art of Living) tarries not the leifure of time, but doth 
it inftantly, and out of hand ; and yet this Preroga- 
tive and lingular agility of Art is hindered by certain 
Golden Apples to the infinite prejudice of Human 
proceedings : For there is not any one Art or Science 
which conftantly perfeveres in a true and lawful 
courfe, till it comes to the propofed End or Mark ; 
but ever and anon makes Hops after good beginnings, 
leaves the Race, and turns aiide to Profit and Com- 
modity, like Atalanta. 

Declinat curfus, aurumque volubile to Hit. 

Who doth her courfe forfake, 
The Rolling Gold to take. 

And therefore it is no wonder that Art hath not 
the Power to conquer Nature, and by Pact or Law 
of Conqueft, to kill and deilroy her ; but on the con- 
trary it falls out, that Art becomes fubjeft to Nature, 
and yields the Obedience, as a Wife the Hufband, 

310 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

xxvi. Prometheus, or the 
Statue of Man. 

HE Ancients deliver, that Prometheus 
made a Man of Clay, mixed with cer- 
tain parcels taken from divers Animals, 
who ftudying to maintain this his 
Work by Art, (that he might not be accounted a 
founder only, but Propagator of Human kind) ftole 
up to Heaven with a bundle of Twigs, which he 
kindled at the Chariot of the Sun, came down again, 
and communicated it with Men : And yet they fay, 
(That notwithstanding this excellent work of his,) 
he was requited with Ingratitude, in a treacherous 
Confpiracy : For they accufed both him and his In- 
vention to Jupiter, which was not fo taken as was 
meet it mould, for the Information was pleafmg to 
Jupiter, and all the Gods. And therefore in a 
merry Mood, granted unto Men, not only the ufe of 
Fire, but perpetual youth alfo, a Boon moll accepta- 
ble and defirable. They being, as it were, over-joyed, 
did foolifhly lay this Gift of the Gods, upon the back 
of an Afs, who being wonderfully opprefled with 
Thirfl, and near a Fountain, was told by a Serpent 
(which had the cuftody thereof) that he mould not 
drink, unlefs he would promife to give him the 
Burthen that was on his Back. The filly Afs ac- 

Prometheus. 311 

cepted the condition, and fo the reftoration of Youth 
(fold for a draught of Water) paft from Men to Ser- 
pents. But Prometheus full of Malice, being recon- 
ciled unto Men, after they were fruftrated of their 
Gift, but in a Chafe yet with Jupiter, feared not to 
ufe deceit in Sacrifice : For having killed two Bulls, 
and in one of their Hides wrapped up the Flefh and 
Fat of them both, and in the other only the Bones, 
with a great fhew of Religious Devotion, gave Ju- 
piter his choice, who (detefting his Fraud and Hy- 
pocrify, but taking an occafion of Revenge) chofe 
that which was Hopped with Bones, and fo turning to 
Revenge (when he faw that the Infolency of Prome- 
theus would not be reprefented, but by laying fome 
grievous Affliction upon Mankind, in the forming of 
which he fo much bragged and boafted) commanded 
Vulcan to frame a goodly beautiful Woman, which 
being done, every one of the Gods beflowed a Gift 
on her ; whereupon fhe was called Pandora. To 
this Woman they gave, in her hand, a goodly Box 
full of all Miferies and Calamities, only in the bot- 
tom of it they put Hope ; with this Box fhe comes 
firft to Prometheus, thinking to catch him, if perad- 
venture he mould accept it at her hands, and fo open 
it; which he neverthelefs, with good Providence 
and Forefight refufed. Whereupon fhe goes to Epi- 
metheus (who though Brother to Prometheus, yet 
was of a much differing difpofition) and offers this 
Box unto him, who without delay took it, and rafhly 
opened it ; but when he faw that all kind of Miferies 

312 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

came fluttering about his Ears, being wife too late, 
with great fpeed and earner! endeavour clapped on the 
Cover, and fo with much ado retained Hope fitting 
alone in the bottom ; at lafl Jupiter laying many and 
grievous Crimes to Prometbeus's charge (as that he 
had ftolen Fire from Heaven, that in contempt of 
his Majefly, he facrificed a Bull's Hide Huffed with 
Bones, that he fcornfully rejecled his Gift, and be- 
fides all this that he offered violence to Pallas) call 
him into Chains, and doomed him to perpetual 
Torment : And by Jupiter's Command, was brought 
to the Mountain Caucafus, and there bound fart to a 
Pillar that he could not flir; there came an Eagle 
alfo, that every day fat tyring upon his Liver and 
walled it, but as much as was eaten in the day, grew 
again in the Night, that Matter for Torment to work 
upon might never decay. But yet they fay there 
was an end of this Punifhment. For Hercules craft- 
ing the Ocean in a Cup, which the Sun gave him, 
came to Caucafus, and fet Prometheus at liberty, by 
mooting the Eagle with an Arrow. Moreover in 
fome Nations there were inflituted in the honours 
of Prometheus, certain Games of Lamp-bearers, in 
which they that flrive for the Prize, were wont to 
carry Torches lighted ; which whofo fuffered to go 
out, yielded the Place and Viclory to thofe that fol- 
lowed, and fo call back themfelves ; fo that whofo- 
ever came firft to the Mark with his Torch burning, 
got the Prize. 

This Fable demonilrates and preifeth many true 

Prometheus. 313 

and grave Speculations, wherein fome things have 
been heretofore well noted, others not fo much as 

Prometheus doth clearly and elegantly fignify Pro- 
vidence : For in the Univerfality of Nature, the 
Fabrick and Conftitution of Man only was by the 
Ancients picked out and chofen, and attributed unto 
Providence, as a peculiar Work. The reafon of it 
feems to be, not only in that the Nature of Man is 
capable of a mind and underftanding, which is the 
-Seat of Providence s and therefore it would feem 
ftrange and incredible, that the reafon and mind 
fhould fo proceed and flow from dumb and deaf 
Principles, as that it fhould neceflarily be concluded, 
the Soul of Man to be endued with Providence, not 
without the example, intention, and llamp of a 
greater Providence. But this alfo is chiefly pro- 
pounded, that Man is as it were the Centre of the 
World, in refpedt of final Caufes, fo that if Man were 
not in Nature, all things would feem to ftray and 
wander without purpofe, and like fcattered Branches 
(as they fay) without inclinations to their end : For 
all things attend on Man, and he makes ufe of, and 
gathers Fruit from all Creatures : For the revolutions 
and periods of Stars make both for the diftincldons 
of Times, and the diftribution of the World's light. 
Meteors alfo are referred to prefages of Tempefls ; 
and Winds are ordained as well for Navigation, as 
for turning of Mills, and other Engines : And Plants, 
and Animals of what kind foever, are ufeful either 

314 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

for Men's Houfes, and Places of inciter, or for Rai- 
ment, or for Food, or Medicine, or for eafe of Labour, 
or in a word, for delight and folace ; fo that all things 
feem to work, not for themfelves, but for Man. 

Neither is it added without confideration that cer- 
tain Particles were taken from divers living Creatures, 
and mixed and tempered with that clayey Mafs, be- 
caufe it is moll true that of all things comprehended 
within the compafs of the Univerfe, Man is a thing 
moll mixed and compounded, infomuch that he was 
well termed by the Ancients, a little World ; for al- 
though the Cbymicks do, with too much Curioiity, 
take and wreft the elegance of this Word {Microcofni) 
to the Letter, contending to find in Man all Min- 
erals, all Vegetables and the reft, or any thing that 
holds proportion with them; yet this proportion 
remains found and whole, that the Body of Man, 
of all material beings is found to be moft com- 
pounded, and moft organical, whereby it is endued 
and furnifhed with moft admirable Virtues and Fa- 
culties. And as for fimple Bodies, their Powers 
are not many, though certain and violent, as exifting 
without being weakened, diminifhed or Hinted by 
mixture ; for the multiplicity and excellency of Ope- 
ration have their refidence in mixture and compo- 
fition, and yet neverthelefs, Man in his Originals 
feems to be a thing unarmed and naked, and unable 
to help itfelf, as needing the aid of many things ; 
therefore Prometheus made hafte to find out Fire, 
which fuppeditates and yields comfort and help in a 

Prometheus. 315 

manner, to all human Wants and Neceffities : fo 
that if the Soul be the Form of forms, and if the 
Hand be the Inftrument of Inftruments ; Fire de- 
fences well to be called the Succour of Succours, or 
the Help of Helps, which infinite ways affords aid 
and affiftance to all Labours and Mechanical Arts, 
and to the Sciences themfelves. 

The manner of Healing this fire is aptly defcribed, 
even from the nature of things : It was, they fay, by 
a bundle of Twigs held to touch the Chariot of the 
Sun : For Twigs are ufed in giving Blows or Stripes, 
to lignify clearly, that fire is engendered by the vio- 
lent percuflion and mutual collifion of Bodies, by 
which their material Subftances are attenuated and 
fet in Motion, and prepared to receive the heat or 
influence of the Heavenly Bodies ; and fo in a clan- 
deftine manner, and as it were by Health, may be 
faid to take and fnatch Fire from the Chariot of the 

There follows next a remarkable part of the Par- 
able, that Men inftead of Gratulation and Thankf- 
giving, were angry, and expoftulated the Matter with 
Prometheus, Infomuch that they accufed both him 
and his Invention unto Jupiter, which was fo ac- 
ceptable to him, that he augmented their former 
Commodities with a new Bounty. Seems it not 
ftrange, that Ingratitude towards the Author of a 
Benefit (a Vice that in a manner contains all other 
Vices) fhould find fuch Approbation and Reward ? 
No, it feems to be otherwife : For the meaning of 

316 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

the Allegory is this, that Men's out-cries upon the 
defects of Nature and Art, proceed from an excellent 
difpofition of the Mind, and turn to their good, 
whereas the filencing of them is hateful to the 
Gods, and redounds not fo much to their Profit : 
For they that infinitely extol Human Nature, or the 
knowledge they poiTefs, breaking out into a prodigal 
admiration of that they have and enjoy, adoring alfo 
thofe Sciences they profefs, would have them be ac- 
counted perfect ; they do firft of all mew little Rever- 
ence to the divine Nature, by equalizing, in a man- 
ner, their own Defects with God's Perfection : 
Again, they are wonderfully injurious to Men, by 
imagining they have attained the highefl Hep of know- 
ledge, (refting themfelves contented) feek no further. 
On the contrary, fuch as bring Nature and Art to 
the Bar with Accufations, and Bills of Complaint 
againft them, are indeed of more true and moderate 
Judgments ; For they are ever in Action, feeking 
always to find out new Inventions. Which makes 
me much to wonder at the foolifh and inconfiderate 
Difpofitions of fome Men, who (making themfelves 
Bond-Haves to the Arrogancy of a few) have the Phi- 
lofophy of the Peripateticks (containing only a Por- 
tion of Gracian Wifdom, and that but a fmall one 
neither) in fo great efteem, that they hold it, not 
only an unprofitable, but a fufpicious, and almoft 
heinous thing, to lay any imputation of Imperfection 
upon it. I approve rather of Empedocles > Opinion 
(who like a Mad-man,, and of Democritus* Judgment, 

Prometheus. 317 

who with great moderation complained how that all 
things were involved in a Mill) that we knew nothing, 
that we difcerned nothing, that Truth was drowned 
in the depths of Obfcurity, and that falfe things were 
wonderfully joined and intermixed with true (as for 
the new Academy that exceeded all meafure) than of 
the confident and pronunciative School of Ariftotle. 
Let Men therefore be admonifhed, that by acknow- 
ledging the Imperfection of Nature and Art, they 
are grateful to the Gods, and fhall thereby obtain 
new Benefits and greater Favours at their bountiful 
Hands ; and the Accufation of Prometheus their Au- 
thor and Mailer (though bitter and vehement) will 
conduce more to their profit, than to the efFufe in the 
Congratulation of his Invention : For, in a Word, the 
opinion of having enough, is to be accounted one of 
the greateil Caufes of having too little. 

Now as touching the kind of Gift which Men are 
faid to have received in reward of their Accufation 
(to wit, an ever-fading Flower of Youth) it is to 
mew that the Ancients feemed not to defpair of at- 
taining the Skill by Means and Medicines, to put off 
Old Age, and to prolong Life, but this to be num- 
bered rather among fuch things (having been once 
happily attained unto) are now through Men's Negli- 
gence and CarelefTnefs, utterly perifhed and loft; than 
among fuch as have been always denied and never 
granted : For they fignify and fhew, that by afford- 
ing the true ufe of Fire, and by a good and ftern Ac- 
cufation and Conviction of the Errors of Art, the 

318 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Divine Bounty is not wanting unto Men in the ob- 
taining of fuch Gifts, but Men are wanting to them- 
felves in laying this Gift of the Gods upon the back 
of a filly flow-paced Afs, which may feem to be Ex- 
perience, a ftupid thing, and full of Delay : From 
whofe leifurely and Snail-like pace, proceeds that 
Complaint of Life's Brevity, and Art's Length. And 
to fay the Truth, I am of this opinion, that thofe 
two Faculties, Dogmatical and Empirical, are not 
as yet well joined and coupled together, but as new 
Gifts of the Gods impofed either upon Philofophical 
Abftraclions, as upon a flying Bird, or upon flow and 
dull Experience, as upon an Afs. And yet methinks, 
I would not entertain an ill Conceit of this Afs, if it 
meet not for the accidents of Travel and Thirfl: For 
I am perfuaded that who fo conftantly goes on, by 
the Conduct of Experience as by a certain Rule and 
Method, and not covets to meet with fuch Experi- 
ments by the way, as conduce either to Gain or 
Orientation, (to obtain which, he muft be fain to lay 
down, and fell this Burthen) may prove no unfit 
Porter to bear his new addition of divine Munifi- 

Now, in that this Gift is faid to pafs from Men to 
Serpents, it may feem to be added to the Fable for 
Ornament's fake in a manner, unlefs it were inferted 
to fhame Men, that having the ufe of that Cceleftial 
Fire, and of fo many Arts, are not able to get unto 
themfelves fuch things as Nature itfelf beftows upon 
many other Creatures. 

Prometheus. 319 

But that fudden Reconciliation of Men to Prome- 
theus, after they were fruftrated of their Hopes, con- 
tains a profitable, and wife Note, fhewing the Levity 
and Temerity of Men in new Experiments ; for if 
they have not prefent Succefs, anfwerable to their 
Expectation, with too fudden hafte defilt from that 
they began, and with Precipitancy returning to their 
former Experiments, are reconciled to them again. 

The State of Man, in refpedt of Arts, and fuch 
things as concern the Intellect, being now defcribed, 
the Parable paffeth to Religion : For after the planting 
of Arts, follows the fetting of Divine Principles, which 
Hypocrify hath over-fpread and polluted. By that 
two-fold Sacrifice therefore is elegantly fhadowed out 
the Perfons of a true Religious Man, and a Hypo- 
crite. In the one is contained Fatnefs, (which by 
reafon of the Inflammation and Fumes thereof,) is 
called, The Portion of God s by which his Affection 
and Zeal, (tending to God's Glory, and afcending 
towards Heaven) is fignified. In him alfo are con- 
tained the Bowels of Charity, and in him is found 
that good and wholefome Flefh. Whereas in the 
other, there is nothing but dry and naked Bones; 
which neverthelefs, do fluff up the Hide, and make 
it appear like a fair and goodly Sacrifice : By this 
may be well meant thofe external and vain Rites and 
empty Ceremonies by which Men do opprefs and 
fill up the fincere Worfhip of God, things compofed 
rather for Orientation, than any way conducing to 
true Piety. Neither do they hold it fufficient to offer 

320 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

fuch mock Sacrifices unto God, except they alfo lay 
them before him, as if he had chofen and befpoke 
them. Certainly the Prophet in the Perfon of God, 
doth thus expoftulate concerning this Choice, Ifa. 
58, 5. Num tandem hoc eft Mud Jejunium quod 
ELIGIy ut homo animam fuam in diem unum affligat, 
et caput inftar junceti demit tat ? Is it fuch a Faft, 
that I have chofen, that a Man mould afHicTt his Soul 
for a Day, and to bow down his Head like a Bul- 

Having now touched the State of Religion, the 
Parable converts itfelf to the Manners and Conditions 
of Human Life. And it is a common, but apt In- 
terpretation, by Pandora to be meant Pleafure and 
Voluptuoufnefs ; which (when the civil Life is pam- 
pered with too much Art, and Culture, and Super- 
fluity,) is engendered, as it were, by the efficacy of 
Fire, and therefore the work of Voluptuoufnefs is at- 
tributed unto Vulcan, who alfo himfelf doth repre- 
fent Fire. From this do infinite Miferies, together 
with too late Repentance, proceed, and overflow the 
Minds, and Bodies, and Fortunes of Men, and that 
not only in refpecl: of particular Eftates, but even 
over Kingdoms and Commonwealths ; for from this 
Fountain have Wars, Tumults, and Tyrannies derived 
their Original. 

But it would be worth the Labour to confider 
how elegantly and proportionably this Fable doth 
delineate two Conditions ; or (as I may fay) two 
Tables or Examples of Human Life, under the Per- 

Prometheus. 321 

fons of Prometheus or Epimetheus ; for they that 
are of Epimetheus* Seel, are improvident, not fore- 
feeing what may come to pafs hereafter ; efleeming 
that beft which feems moll fweet for the prefent ; 
whence it happens, that they are overtaken with 
many Miferies, Difficulties, and Calamities, and fo 
lead their Lives almoft in perpetual Affliction ; but 
yet notwithstanding they pleafe their Fancy, and out 
of Ignorance of the Paffages of things, do entertain 
many vain hopes in their Mind, whereby they fome- 
times (as with fweet Dreams) folace themfelves, and 
fweeten the Miferies of their Life. But they that 
are Prometheus' Scholars, are Men endued with Pru- 
dence, forefeeing things to come, warily fhunning, 
and avoiding many Evils and Misfortunes. But to 
thefe their good Properties, they have alfo annexed, 
that they deprive themfelves, and defraud their Ge- 
nius of many lawful Pleafures, and divers Recreations, 
and (which is worfe,) they vex, and torment them- 
felves with Cares and Troubles, and inteftine Fears ; 
for being chained to the Pillar of Neceffity, they are 
afflicted with innumerable Cogitations, (which, be- 
caufe they are very fwift, may be fitly compared to 
an Eagle,) and thofe griping, and as it were, gnawing 
and devouring the Liver, unlefs fome times, as it were, 
by Night, it may be they get a little Recreation, and 
eafe of Mind ; but fo, as that they are again fuddenly 
affaulted with frefh Anxieties and Fears. 

Therefore this Benefit happens to but a very few 
of either Condition, that they mould retain the Com- 

322 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

modities of Providence, and free themfelves from the 
Miferies of Care and Perturbation ; neither indeed 
can any attain unto it, but by the affiftance of Her- 
cules, that is, Fortitude, and Conftancy of Mind, 
which is prepared for every Event and armed in all 
Fortunes, forefeeing without Fear, enjoying without 
loathing, and fufFering without Impatience. It is 
worth the noting alfo, that this Virtue was not na- 
tural to Prometheus, but adventitial, and from the 
Indulgence of another ; for no in-bred and natural 
Fortitude is able to encounter with thefe Miferies. 
Moreover, this Virtue was received and brought 
unto him from the remoteft part of the Ocean, and 
from the Sun, that is, from Wifdom, as from the 
Sun ; and from the Meditation of Inconftancy, or of 
the Waters of Human Life, as from the failing upon 
the Ocean; which two Virgil hath well conjoined 
in thefe Verfes ; 

Felix qui potuit rerum cognofcere caufas : 
Quique metus omnes, et inexorabile fatum 
Subjecit pedibus, ftrepitumque Acberontis avari. 

Happy is he that knows the caufes of things : 
And that with dauntlefs courage treads upon 
All Fear and Fates, relentlefs Threatenings, 
And greedy Throat of roaring Acheron. 

Moreover, it is elegantly added for the Confolation 
and Confirmation of Men's Minds, that this noble 
Hero crofted the Ocean in a Cup or Pan, left per- 


Prometheus. 323 

adventure, they might too much fear that the flraits 
and frailty of their Nature will not be capable of 
this Fortitude and Conftancy. Of which very thing 
Seneca well conceived, when he faid, Magnum eft 
habere fimul fragilitatem hominis, et fe cur it at em 
Dei. It is a great matter for Human Frailty and 
Divine Security to be at one and the felf-fame time, 
in one and the felf-fame Subject. 

But now we are to ftep back a little again to that, 
which by Premeditation we paffed over, left a Breach 
mould be made in thofe things that were fo linked 
together. That therefore which I could touch here, 
is that laft Crime imputed to Prometheus, about feek- 
ing to bereave Minerva of her Virginity : For quef- 
tionlefs, it was this heinous Offence that brought that 
Punifhment of devouring his Liver upon him ; which 
is nothing elfe but to fhew, that when we are puffed 
up with too much Learning and Science, they go 
about oftentimes to make even Divine Oracles fubjecl: 
to Senfe and Reafon ; whence moft certainly follows 
a continual Diflraclion, and reftlefs griping of the 
Mind ; we muft therefore with a fober, and humble 
judgment, diftinguifh between Humanity and Di- 
vinity, and between the Oracles of Senfe, and the 
Myfteries of Faith, unlefs a Heretical Religion, and 
a commentitious Philofophy be pleafing unto us. 

Laftly, it remains that we fay fomething of the 
Games of Prometheus, performed with burning 
Torches, which again hath reference to Arts and 
Sciences, as that Fire, in whofe Memory, and Cele- 

324 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

bration, thefe Games were inftituted, and it contains 
in it a moft wife Admonition, that the perfection of 
Sciences to be expected from Succemon, not from 
the Nimblenefs and Promptnefs of one only Author; 
for they that are nimbleft in Courfe, and ftrongeft in 
Contention, yet haply have not the luck to keep 
Fire Hill in their Torch; feeing it may be as well 
extinguifhed by running too fall, as by going too 
flow. And this running and contending with Lamps, 
feems long fmce to be intermitted, feeing all Sciences 
feem even now to flourifh moft in their firft Authors, 
Ariflotle, Galen, Euclid and Ptolomy; Succemon 
having neither effected, nor almoft attempted any 
great Matter. It were therefore to be wifhed, that 
thefe Games, in honour of Prometheus, or Human 
Nature, were again reftored, and that Matters mould 
receive Succefs by Combat and Emulation, and not 
hang upon any one Man's fparkling and making 
Torch. Men therefore are to be admonifhed to 
roufe up their Spirits, and try their Strengths and 
Turns, and not to refer all to the Opinions and 
Brains of a few. 

And thus have I delivered that which I thought 
good to obferve out of this fo well known, and com- 
mon Fable ; and yet I will not deny, but that there 
may be fome things in it, which have an admirable 
Confent with the Myfteries of Chriitian Religion, 
and efpecially that failing of Hercules, in a Cup, (to 
fet Prometheus at liberty,) feems to reprefent an 
Image of the Divine Word, coming in Flefh, as in a 

Prometheus. 325 

frail VelTel, to redeem Man from the Slavery of Hell. 
But I have interdicted my Pen all Liberty in this 
kind, left I mould ufe ftrange Fire at the Altar of the 

xxvii. Scylla and Icarus, or the 
Middle Way. 

EDICCRITY, or the Middle-way, is 
moft commended in Moral Actions ; 
in Contemplative Sciences, not fo ce- 
lebrated, though no lefs profitable and 
commodious ; but in Political Employments, to be 
ufed with great heed and Judgment. The Ancients 
by the way, prefcribed by Icarus, noted the Medi- 
ocrity of Manners ; and by the Way between Scylla 
and Charybdis (fo famous for Difficulty and Danger,) 
the Mediocrity of intellectual Operations. 

Icarus being to crofs the Sea by flight, was com- 
manded by his Father, that he mould fly neither too 
high nor too low; for his Wings being joined with 
Wax, if he mould mount too high, it was to be 
feared left the Wax fhould melt by the heat of the 
Sun ; and if too low, left mifty Vapours of the Sea 
would make it lefs tenacious ; but he in a youthful 
Jollity foaring too high, fell down headlong, and 
perifhed in the Water. 

The Parable is eafy and vulgar; for the way of 

326 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Virtue lies in a direct Path between Excefs and De- 
feel. Neither is it a wonder that Icarus perifhed by 
Excefs, feeing that Excefs for the moft part, is the 
peculiar Fault of Youth, as Defect is of Age, and yet 
of two evil and hurtful ways, Youth commonly makes 
choice of the better, Defect being always accounted 
worft ; for whereas Excefs contains fome Sparks oi 
Magnanimity, and, like a Bird, claims kindred of the 
Heavens, Defect, only like a bafe Worm, crawls 
upon the Earth. Excellently therefore faid Heracli- 
tus, Lumen Jiccum, optima Animas a dry Light is 
the bell Soul ; for if the Soul contract moifture from 
the Earth, it becomes degenerate altogether. Again, 
on the other fide, there muft be Moderation ufed, 
that this Light be fubtilized by this laudable Siccity, 
and not deftroyed by too much Fervency. And 
thus much every Man for the moft part knows. 

Now they that would fail between Scylla and 
Cbarybdis muft be furnifhed, as well with the Skill, 
as profperous Succefs in Navigation : For if their 
Ships fall into Scylla they are fplit on the Rocks : If 
into Cbarybdis they are fwallowed up of a Gulf. 

The Moral of this Parable (which we will but 
briefly touch, although it contain Matter of infinite 
Contemplation) feems to be this : That in every Art 
and Science, and fo in their Rules and Axioms, there 
be a mean obferved between the Rocks of Diftinctions, 
and the Gulfs of Univerfalities ; which two are fa- 
mous for the Wreck both of Wits and Arts. 


xxviii. Sphynx, or Science, 

HEY fay that Sphynx was a Monfter of 
divers Forms, as having the Face and 
Voice of a Virgin, the Wings of a 
Bird, and the Talons of a Griffin. 
His abode was in a Mountain near the City of 
Thebes, he kept alfo the Highways, and ufed to lie 
in Ambufh for Travellers, and fo to furprife them : 
To whom (being in his Power) he propounded cer- 
tain dark and intricate Riddles, which were thought 
to have been given and received of the Mufes. Now 
if thefe miferable Captives were not able inftantly to 
refolve and interpret them in the midft of their Dif- 
ficulties and Doubts, fhe would rend and tear them 
in pieces. The Country groaning a long time under 
this Calamity, the Thebans at laft propounded the 
Kingdom as a Reward unto him that could interpret 
the Riddles of Sphynx, there being no other way. to 
deftroy her : Whereupon (Edipus (a Man of piercing 
and deep Judgment, but Maimed and Lame, by 
reafon of Holes bored in his Feet,) moved with the 
hope of fo great a Reward, accepted the Condition, 
and determined to put it to the hazard ; and fo with 
an undaunted and bold Spirit, prefented himfelf be- 
fore the Monfter; who aiked him what Creature 
that was, which after his Birth, went firft upon four 

328 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Feet, next, upon two, then upon three, and laftly, 
upon four Feet again, anfwered forthwith, that it 
was Man ; which in his Infancy, immediately after 
Birth, crawls upon all four, fcarce venturing to creep, 
and not long after, Hands upright upon two Feet ; 
then growing old, he leans upon a Staff wherewith 
he fupports himfelf, fo that he may feem to have 
three Feet ; and at laft, in decrepid Years, his Strength 
failing him, he falls grovelling again upon four, and 
lies bedrid. Having therefore by this true Anfwer 
gotten the Victory, he inftantly flew this Spbynx, 
(and laying her Body upon an Afs,) lead it, as it 
were, in Triumph ; and fo according to the Con- 
dition, was created King of the Tbebans. 

This Fable contains in it no lefs Wifdom than 
Elegancy, and it feems to point at Science, efpecially 
that which is joined with Practice, for Science may 
not abfurdly be termed a Monfter, as being by the 
ignorant and rude Multitude always held in Admi- 
ration. It is diverfe in Shape and Figure, by reafon 
of the infinite variety of Subjects, wherein it is con- 
verfant. A Maiden Face and Voice is attributed 
unto it for its gracious countenance and volubility of 
Tongue. Wings are added, becaufe Sciences and 
their Inventions do pafs and fly from one to another, 
as it were, in a moment, feeing that the Communi- 
cation of Science, is as the kindling of one Light at 
another. Elegantly alfo it is feigned to have fharp 
and hooked Talons, becaufe the Axioms and Argu- 
ments of Science do fo fallen upon the Mind, and fo 

Sphynx, or Science. 329 

ftrongly apprehend and hold it, as that it ftir not or 
evade, which is noted alfo by the Divine Philofopher, 
Ecclef. 12, 12. Verba fapientum (faith he) fun t 
tanquam aculei et veluti clavi in altum defixi. The 
words of the Wife are like Goads, and Nails driven 
far in. 

Moreover, all Science feems to be placed in fteep 
and high Mountains ; as being thought to be a lofty 
and high thing, looking down upon Ignorance with 
a fcornful Eye. It may be obferved and feen alfo a 
great way, and far in compafs, as things fet on the 
tops of Mountains. 

Furthermore, Science may well be feign'd to befet 
the Highway, becaufe which way foever we turn 
in this Progrefs and Pilgrimage of Human Life, we 
meet with fome matter or occafion offered for Con- 

Sphynx is faid to have received from the Mufes 
divers difficult Queftions and Riddles, and to pro- 
pound them unto Men, which remaining with the 
Mufes, are free (it may be) from favage Cruelty ; for 
fo long as there is no other end of Study and Medi- 
tation, than to know, the Underftanding is not racked 
and imprifoned, but enjoys Freedom and Liberty, 
and even Doubts and Variety find a kind of Pleafure 
and Delectation : But when once thefe Enigmas are 
delivered by the Mufes to Spbynx, that is, to Prac- 
tice, fo that if it be folicited and urged by Action and 
Election, and Determination ; then they begin to be 
troublefome and raging ; and unlefs they be refolved 

330 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

and expedited, they do wonderfully torment and 
vex the Minds of Men, diffracting, and in a manner 
rending them into fundry Parts. 

Moreover, there is always a twofold Condition 
propounded with Spbynx's Enigmas: To him that 
doth not expound them, diffraction of Mind ; and 
to him that doth, a Kingdom; for he that knows 
that which he fought to know, hath attained the 
end he aimed at, and every Artificer alfo commands 
over his Work. 

Of Spbynx's Riddles, they are generally two kinds; 
fome concerning the Nature of things, others touch- 
ing the Nature of Men. So alfo there are two 
kinds of Empires, as Rewards to thofe that refolve 
them. The one over Nature, the other over Men ; 
for the proper and chief end of true Natural Philo- 
fophy is to command and fway over Natural Beings ; 
as Bodies, Medicines, Mechanical Works, and infinite 
other things ; although the School (being content 
with fuch things as are offered, and priding itfelf with 
Speeches) doth neglect Realities and Works, treading 
them as it were under foot. But that Enigma pro- 
pounded to (Edipus (by means of which he obtained 
the The ban Empire) belonged to the Nature of Man : 
For whofoever doth thoroughly confider the Nature 
of Man, may be in a manner the Contriver of his 
own Fortune, and is born to command, which is 
well fpoken of the Romans' Arts : 

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento. 
Ha tibi erunt Artes 

Sphynx, or Science. 331 

Romany remember, that with Sceptres' awe 
Thy Realms thou rule. Thefe Arts let be thy 

It was therefore very appofite, that Auguftus Cafar 
(whether by Premeditation, or by a Chance) bare a 
Spbynx in his Signet : For he (if ever any) was fa- 
mous not only in Political Government, but in all 
the courfe of his Life ; he happily difcovered many 
new Enigmas concerning the Nature of Man, which 
if he had not done with Dexterity and Promptnefs, 
he had oftentimes fallen into imminent Danger and 

Moreover, it is added in the Fable, that the Body 
of Sphynx , when fhe was overcome, was laid upon 
an Afs ; which indeed is an elegant Fiction, feeing 
there is nothing (o acute and abftrufe, but (being well 
underftood, and divulged,) may be well apprehended 
by a flow capacity. 

Neither is it to be omitted, that Spbynx was over- 
come by a Man lame in his Feet ; for when Men 
are too fwift of Foot, and too fpeedy of Pace, in 
halting to Spbynx's Enigmas, it comes to pafs, that 
(fhe getting the upper hand) their Wits and minds 
are rather diffracted by Difputations, than that ever 
they come to command by Works and Effects. 

332 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

xxix. Proferpina, or Spirit. 

LUTO, they fay, being made King of 
the Infernal Dominions, (by that me- 
morable Divifion,) was in defpair of 
ever attaining any one of the Superior 
GoddefTes in Marriage, efpecially if he mould venture 
to court them, either with Words, or with any 
amorous Behaviour ; fo that of Neceffity he was to 
lay fome Plot to get one of them by Rapine : Taking 
therefore the Benefit of Opportunity, he caught up 
Proferpina (the Daughter of Ceres, a beautiful Vir- 
gin,) as fhe was gathering NarciJJiis-F lowers in the 
Meadows of Sicily, and carried her away with him 
in his Coach to the Subterranean Dominions ; where 
me was welcomed with fuch Refpett, as that fhe was 
{tiled the Lady of Dis. But Ceres, her Mother, 
when in no place fhe could find this her only beloved 
Daughter, in a forrowful Humour, and diftrafted 
beyond meafure, went compaffmg the whole Earth, 
with a burning Torch in her hand, to feek, and re- 
cover this her loft Child. But when fhe faw that 
all was in vain, fuppofmg peradventure, that fhe was 
carried to Hell, fhe importuned Jupiter with many 
Tears and Lamentations, that fhe might be reftored 
unto her again; and at length, prevailed thus far, 

Proserpina, or Spirit. 333 

That if ihe had tailed of nothing in Hell, fhe ihould 
have leave to bring her from thence. Which Con- 
dition was as good as a Denial to her Petition, Pro- 
ferpina having already eaten three Grains of a Pome- 
granate : And yet for all this, Ceres gave not over 
her Suit, but fell to Prayers and Moans afrefh : 
Wherefore, it was at lait granted, that (the Year 
being divided) Proferpina ihould by alternate Courfes, 
remain one fix Months with her Huiband, and the 
other fix Months with her Mother. Not long after 
this, Thefeusy and Perithous, in an over-hardy Ad- 
venture, attempted to fetch her from Pluto's Bed ; 
who, being weary with Travel, and fitting down 
upon a ftone in Hell, to reft themfelves, had not the 
power to rife again ; but fat there for ever. Profer- 
pina therefore remained Queen of Hell, in whofe 
Honour there was this great privilege granted, That 
although it were enatted, that none that went down 
to Hell, ihould have the power ever to return from 
thence ; yet was this fmgular exception annexed to 
this Law, That if any prefented Proferpina with a 
Golden Bough, it ihould be lawful for him to go and 
come at his Pleafure. Now there was but one only 
fuch a Bough in a fpacious and ihady Grove, which 
was not a Plant neither of itfelf, but budded from a 
Tree of another kind, like a Rope of Gum, which 
being plucked ofF, another would inftantly fpring 

This Fable feems to pertain to Nature, and to 
dive into that rich and plentiful efficacy and variety 

334 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

of fubalternal Creatures, from whom whatsoever we 
have is derived, and to them doth again return. 

By Proferpina y the Ancients meant that Ethereal 
Spirit, (which being feparated from the upper Globe) 
is fhut up and detained under the Earth (reprefented 
by Pluto) which the Poet well expreffed thus : 

She recens Tellus, feduttaque nuper ab alto 
^ there 3 cognati retinebat femina Cceli. 

Whether the Youngling Tellus (that of late 
Was from the high-reared JEther feparate) 
Did yet contain her Teeming Womb within 
The living Seeds of Heaven her neareft kin. 

This Spirit is feigned to be rapted by the Earth, 
becaufe nothing can withhold it, when it hath time 
and leifure to efcape. It is therefore caught and 
flaid by a fudden Contraction, no otherwife than if 
a Man mould go about to mix Air with Water, 
which can be done by no means, but by a fpeedy 
and rapid Agitation, as may be feen in Froth, 
wherein the Air is rapted by the Water. 

Neither is it inelegantly added, that Proferpina was 
rapted as (he was gathering Narciffus's Flowers in 
the Valleys, becaufe Narcijfus hath his Name from 
Slownefs or Stupidity : For then indeed is this Spirit 
mod prepared and fitted to be fnatched by Terref- 
trial Matter, when it begins to be coagulated, and 
become as it were flown. 

Rightly is Proferpina honoured more than any of 

Proserpina, or Spirit. 335 

the other Gods' Bedfellows, in being filled the Lady 
of Dis, becaufe this Spirit doth rule and fway all 
things in thofe lower Regions, Pluto abiding flupid 
and ignorant. 

This Spirit the Power Celeflial (fhadowed by 
Ceres) flrives, with infinite Sedulity, to recover and 
get again : For that Brand or burning Torch of 
Ether (which Ceres carried in her Hand) doth 
doubtlefs fignify the Sun, which enlighteneth the 
whole Circuit of the Earth, and would be of greatefl 
moment to recover Proferpina, if poffible it might 

But Proferpina abides Hill ; the Reafon of which 
is accurately, and excellently propounded in the 
Conditions between Jupiter and Ceres : For, firft, 
it is moll certain there are two ways to keep Spirit 
in folid and terreflrial Matter ; the one by Conflipa- 
tion, and Obftru&ion, which is mere Imprifonment 
and Conflraint; the other, by Adminiflration, or 
proportionable Nutriment, which it receives willingly, 
and of its own accord : For after that the included 
Spirit begins to feed and nourifh itfelf, it makes no 
halle to be gone ; but is as it were, linked to its 
Earth : And this is pointed at by Proferpina' \s eating 
of Pomegranate ; which if fhe had not done, fhe 
had long fince been recovered by Ceres with her 
Torch, compaffing the Earth. Now as concerning 
that Spirit which is in Metals and Minerals, it is 
chiefly perchance reflrained by the folidity of Mafs : 
But that which is in Plants and Animals, inhabits a 

336 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

porous Body, and hath open PaiTage to be gone, in a 
manner, as it lifts, were it not that it willingly abides 
of its own accord, by reafon of the Relifti it finds in 
its Entertainment. The fecond Condition concerning 
the fix Months' Cuftom, it is no other than an elegant 
Defcription of the Divifion of the Year ; feeing this 
Spirit mixed with Earth, appears above ground in 
Vegetable Bodies during the Summer Months, and 
in the Winter links down again. 

Now as concerning The feus and Perithous, and 
their Attempt to bring Proferpina quite away, the 
meaning of it is, that it oftentimes comes to pafs 
that fome more fubtile Spirit defcending with divers 
Bodies to the Earth, never come to fuck of any fub- 
altern Spirit, whereby to unite it unto them, and fo 
to bring it away. But on the contrary are coagulated 
themfelves, and never rife more, that Proferpina 
mould be by that means augmented with Inhabitants 
and Dominion. 

All that we can fay concerning that Sprig of Gold, 
is hardly able to defend us from the Violence of the 
Chymicks, if in this regard they fet upon us, feeing 
they promife by that their Elixir to efFecl Golden 
Mountains, and the reftoring of Natural Bodies, as it 
were, from the Portal of Hell. But concerning 
Chymiflry, and thofe perpetual Suitors for that Phi- 
lofophical Elixir, we know certainly that their Theory 
is without Grounds, and we fufpecl that their Prac- 
tice is alfo without certain Reward. And therefore 
(omitting thefe) of this laft part of the Parable, this 

Proserpina, or Spirit. 337 

is my Opinion: I am induced to believe by many Fi- 
gures of the Ancients, that the Confervation and 
Reiteration of Natural Bodies, in fome fort, was 
not efteemed by them as a thing impoffible to be at- 
tained, but as a thing abftrufe and full of Difficulties ; 
and fo they feem to intimate in this place, when 
they report that this one only Sprig was found among 
infinite other Trees in a huge and thick Wood, which 
they feigned to be of Gold, becaufe Gold is the 
Badge of Perpetuity, and to be artificially as it were 
inferted, becaufe this Effect is to be rather hoped for 
from Art, than from any Medicine, or fimple or 
natural means. 

xxx. Metis, or Counfel. 

HE Ancient Poets report, that Jupiter 
took Metis to Wife, whofe Name doth 
plainly fignify Counfel, and that fhe 
by him conceived. Which when he 
found, not tarrying the time of her Deliverance, de- 
vours both her and that which {he went withal, by 
which means Jupiter himfelf became with Child, 
and was delivered of a wondrous Birth ; for out of 
his Head or Brain came forth Pallas Armed. 

The Senfe of this Fable (which at firil Apprehen- 
fion may feem monftrous and abfurd) contains in it 
a Secret of State, to wit, with what Policy Kings arc 

338 The Wisdom of the Anxients. 

wont to carry themfelves towards their Counfellors, 
whereby they may not only preferve their Authority 
and Majefty free and entire, but alfo that it may be 
the more extolled and dignified of the People : For 
Kings being as it were tied and coupled in a Nuptial 
Bond to their Counfellors, do truly conceive that 
communicating with them about the Affairs of greateft 
Importance do yet detracT: nothing from their own 
Majefty. But when any Matter comes to be cen- 
fured or decreed (which is a Birth) there do they 
confine and reftrain the liberty of their Counfellors ; 
left that which is done mould feem to be hatched by 
their Wifdom and Judgment. So as at laft Kings 
(except it be in fuch Matters as are diftafteful and 
maligned, which they always will be fure to put off 
from themfelves) do affume the Honour and Praife 
of all Matters that are ruminated in Council, and, as 
it were, formed in the Womb, whereby the Refolu- 
tion and Execution (which becaufe it proceeds from 
Power, and implies Neceffity, is elegantly ihadowed 
under the Figure of Pallas Armed) ihall feem to 
proceed wholly from themfelves. Neither fufnceth 
it, that it is done by the Authority of the King, 
by his mere Will and free Applaufe, except withal, 
this be added and appropriated as to iffue out of his 
own Head or Brain, intimating, that out of his own 
Judgment, Wifdom, and Ordinance, it was only in- 
vented and derived. 


xxxi. The Syrens, or Pleasures, 

,** * *** 

HE Fable of the Syrens feems rightly 
to have been applied to the pernicious 
Allurements of Pleafure, but in a very 
vulgar and grofs manner. And there- 
fore to me it appears, that the Wifdom of the An- 
cients have with a farther reach or infight {trained 
deeper Matter out of them, not unlike the Grapes ill 
preifed; from which, though fome Liquor were 
drawn, yet the bell was left behind. Thefe Syrens 
are faid to be the Daughters of ' Achelous, and Terpfi- 
chore one of the Mufes; who in their flrft being, 
were winged, but after rafhly entering into Conten- 
tion with the Mufes, were by them vanquifhed, and 
deprived of their Wings. Of whofe plucked out 
Feathers the Mufes made themfelves Coronets, fo as 
ever lince that time all the Mufes have attired them- 
felves with plumed heads, except Terpfichore only, 
that was Mother to the Syrens, The Habitation of 
the Syrens was in certain pleafant Iilands, from 
whence as foon as out of their Watch-Tower they 
difcovered any Ships approaching, with their fweet 
Tunes they would firfl entice and flay them, and 
having them in their Power would dellroy them. 

340 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

Neither was their Song plain and lingle, but con- 
lifting of fuch variety of melodious Tunes fo fitting 
and delighting the Ears that heard them, as that it 
ravifhed and betrayed all PalTengers. And fo great 
were the Mifchiefs they did, that thefe llles of the 
Syrens , even as far off as Man can ken them, ap- 
peared all over white with the Bones of unburied 
CarcafTes. For the remedying of this Mifery a 
double Means was at laft found out ; the one by 
U/yJes, the other by Orpheus. U/yJes (to make 
experiment of his Device) caufed all the Ears of his 
Company to be Hopped with Wax, and made himfelf 
to be bound to the Main-Maft, with fpecial Com- 
mandment to his Mariners not to be loofed, albeit 
himfelf mould require them fo to do. But Orpheus 
neglected and difdained to be fo bound, and with a 
fhrill and fweet Voice, linging Praifes of the Gods to 
his Harp, fupprefted the Songs of the Syrens, and fo 
freed himfelf from their Danger. 

This Fable hath relation to Men's Manners, and 
contains in it a manifeft and moft excellent Parable : 
For Pleafures do for the moft proceed out of the 
abundance and fuperfluity of all things, and alfo out 
of the Delights and jovial Contentments of the 
Mind ; the which are wont fuddenly, as it were, with 
winged Inticements to ravilh and rap Mortal Men : 
But Learning and Education brings it fo to pafs, as 
that it reftrains and bridles Man's Mind, making it 
fo to confider the ends and events of Things, as that 

The Syrens, or Pleasures. 341 

it clips the Wings of Pleafure. And this was greatly 
to the Honour and Renown of the Mufes ; for after 
that by fome Examples, it was made manifeft, that by 
the Power of Philofophy, vain Pleafures might grow 
Contemptible ; it prefently grew to great efteem, as 
a thing that could raife, and elevate the Mind aloft, 
that feemed to be bafe, and fixed to the Earth ; make 
the cogitations of the Men (which do ever refide in 
the Head,) to be ethereal, and as it were winged. 
But that the Mother of the Syrens was left to her Feet, 
and without Wings ; that no doubt is no otherwife 
meant, than of light and fuperficial Learning, ap- 
propriated and defigned only to Pleafures, as were 
thofe which Petronius devoted himfelf unto, after he 
had received his fatal Sentence ; and having his Foot, 
as it were, upon the Threfhold of Death, fought to 
give himfelf all delightful Contentments ; infomuch, 
as when he had caufed Confolatory Letters to be 
fent him, he would perufe none of them, (as Tacitus 
reports, that mould give him Courage and Conftancy) 
but only read fantaflical Verfes, fuch as thefe are 

Vivamus, Mea Lejbia, atque amemus, 
Rumor ef que Senum feveriorum, 
Omnes unius ajlimemus AJJis. 

My Lejbia, let us live and love ; 
Though wayward Dotards us reprove, 
Weigh their Words light for our behove. 

342 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

And this alfo : 

Jura Senes norint, et quid Jit faf que nefajque, 
Inquirant trijlesj Legumque ex amino. Jervent, 

Let doting Granfire know the Law, 
And right and wrong obferve with awe ; 
Let them in that Uriel: Circle draw. 

This kind of Doclrine would eafily perfuade to. 
take thefe plumed Coronets from the Mufes, and to 
reftore the Wings again to the Syrens. Thefe Syrens 
are faid to dwell in remote Ifles ; for that Pleafures 
love Privacy, and retired Places, fhunning always 
too much Company of People. The Syren's Songs 
are fo vulgarly underftood, together with the Deceits. 
and Danger of them, as that they need no Expofition. 
But that of the Bones appearing like white Cliff?, 
and defcried afar off, hath more Acutenefs in it; for 
thereby is fignified, that, albeit the Examples of Afflic- 
tions be manifeft, and eminent ; yet do they not 
fumciently deter us from the wicked Enticements of 

As for the Remainder of this Parable, though it 
be not over-myflical, yet it is very grave, and excel- 
lent : For in it are fet out three Remedies for this 
violent, enticing Mifchief ; to wit, Two from Philo- 
fophy, and one from Religion. The firft Means to 
ihun thefe inordinate Pleafures, is, to withftand, and 

. The Syrens, gr Pleasures. 343 

refill them in their Beginnings, and ferioufly to fhun 
all Occafions that are offered, to debauch and entice 
the Mind, which is fignified in that Hopping of the 
Ears ; and that Remedy is properly ufed by the 
meaner and bafer fort of People, as it were UlyJJes* 
Followers or Mariners ; whereas more Heroick and 
Noble Spirits may boldly Converfe even in the midft 
of thefe feducing Pleafures, if with a refolved Con- 
ftancy they Hand upon their Guard, and fortify their 
Minds ; and fo take greater Contentment in the trial 
and experience of this their approved Virtue ; learn- 
ing rather thoroughly to underftand the Follies and 
Vanities of thofe Pleafures by Contemplation, than 
by Submiifion : Which Solomon avouched of himfelf, 
when he reckoned up the multitude of thofe Solaces 
and Pleafures wherein he Swam, doth conclude with 
this Sentence, 

Sapientia quoque perfeverabat mecum* 
Wifdom alfo continued with me. 

Therefore thefe Heroes, and Spirits of this excel- 
lent Temper, even in the midft of thefe enticing 
Pleafures, can (hew themfelves conftant and invin- 
cible, and are able to fupport their own virtuous in- 
clination, againft all heady and forcible Perfuafions 
whatfoever ; as by the Example of U/yJfes, that fo 
peremptorily interdicted all peftilent Counfel, and 
Flatteries of his Companions, as the moft dangerous 

344 The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

and pernicious Poifons to captivate the Mind. But 
of all other Remedies in this Cafe, that of Orpheus is 
moft Predominant : For they that chaunt and re- 
found the Praifes of the Gods, confound and diffipate 
the Voices and Incantations of the Syrens / for Di- 
vine Meditations do not only in Power fubdue all 
fenfual Pleafures ; but alfo far exceed them in Swift- 
nefs and Delight. 


ACHELOUS, warlike expeditions, fabled by, 301 j or Bat- 
tle, 300 

A&aon, 266 

Aciing in fong, 138 

Adrian, an envious man, 27 

Adverfity, 15 

Age, 153; how to be treated, 116 ; not to be defied, 116 

Aged men, their faults, 154 

Agejilaus, envious, 27 

Albert Durer, 156 

Allegory of the conteft between arts and nature, 308 

Ambition, 135 

Anger, 2005 how it may be calmed and tempered, 201; 
caufes and motives of, 201 ; how to raife or appeafe in an- 
other, 202 j in bitternefs of words, or revealing of fecrets, 
to be efpecially avoided, 202 ; remedies againft, 203 

Ape lies, 156 

Appendix to EfTays, 211 

Ardent natures not early ripe for action, 153 

Argus, 78 

Arms, flourifli in the youth of a ftate, 210; to be moil ftu- 
died for national greatnefs, 1 10 

Art and nature, and allegory of conteft between, 308 

Art of converfation, 120 

Atalanta, or gain, 307 

Atheifm, 56 $ evils of, 58 ; talking of, 56 

Atheift, contemplative rare, 58 

Augujius Cajars emblem of the Sphynx, 331 

Authority, vices of, four, 37 

Aviaries, 173 

Bacchus, (called Dionyfus) his car, 303 j or Paffion, 302 

346 Index. 

Bachelors, or childlefs, are beft public men, 23 ; from par- 
fimony, 23 ; from a defire to be rich, 23 ; from difregard 
of future times, 23; are beft friends, 24; are beft fervants, 
24; beft mafters, 24; beft churchmen, 245 are worft fub- 
jefts, 24 

Bafenefs, or Suitor of Juno, 281 

Battle, 300 

Beauty, beft part of, a picture cannot exprefs, 156 

Boldnefs, advantages of, 39 5 child of ignorance and bafe- 
nefs, 39 ; fucceeds in ftates, 39 5 is blind, 41 ; good in fol- 
diers and fervants, 41 j ill keeper of promifes, 40 ; of Ma- 
homet, 40 

Books, fpeak plain, when courtiers fear, 76 

Briar eus, 53,- 78 

Building, 159 

Cajfandra, or free fpeaking, 235 

Cato, injudicious free fpeaking, 236 

Catches, 138 

Celfus, 117 

Cheerfulnefs at meals, 116 

Children, pinched in allowance, are made bafe and full of 
fhifts, 22; and parents, 21; and wife, difcipline of hu- 
manity, 24 

Cicero, his faying of Pofthumus, 128} remarks on Cato, 237, 
faying of, 90 

Clergy, overgrown evils of, 52 

Colours for candlelight, 139 

Comets, 205 

Commiffions, ftanding, commended, 76 

Committees beft compofed of indifferent perfons, 76 

Contemplative atheift rare, 58 

Converfation, art of, 121 

Cofmus, duke of Florence, 14 

Counfel, inconveniences of, 73 ; revealing affairs, 73 5 weak- 
ening authority, 73 ; unfaithful or unwife, 73 ; cabinet, 
when and why introduced, 74; the higheft confidence, 71 ; 
fafety in, 72 ; Solomon's fayings of, 72 

Counfellor of kings, fkilful in his bufinefs, not in his nature, 

7 5 . 

Council, petition of, 76 

Courage, ftrength of a ftate, 106 
Crowd, not company, 92 

Cupid, allegorical blindnefs of, 286 ; his four attributes, 285-6 ; 
or Atom, 282 

Index. 347 

Cunning, crooked wifdom, 79 5 precepts of, 79 ; pra&ifed by 

diverfion, by furprife, by hafte, 80 
Cuftom, 143 j force of, 145 ; ftronger than nature or bonds, 

143; tyranny of, 144 
Cyclops, or minifters of terror, 240 

Dadalus, or Mechanick, 291 

Dancing to mufic, 138 

Dangers beft met halfway, 78 

David's harp, 16 

Death, early, of men of genius, 279; effay on, 217; a fmall 
evil, 217 5 fear of, 45 gracious to the miferable, 221 

Decay of an empire may bring wars, 208 

Deformed men envious, 27 ; perfons bold, 158 j without na- 
tural affection, 157 

Deformity, 157 

Delays, 77 

Deluge and earthquake, 204 

Democritus, 316; his opinion, 285,273 

Demofihenes' opinion of an orator, 39 

Deucalion, or Reftitution, 296 

Diet and phyfic, 117 

Diomed, fable of, explained, 288 5 or zeal, 287 

Difcipline of humanity, wife and children, 24 

Difcontent, caufe of fedition, 49 ; prevention of, 54 5 political 
enlargement of, 50; when dangerous, 51 

Difcourfe, its faults and merits, 120 

Difcovery of a man's felf, r 9 

Difpatch affeded, 88 

Difiimulation and Simulation, 16 

Divination, or Caffandra, 237 

Divine nature of goodnefs, 44 

Domitian, dream of, 132 

Earth, or the common people, 266 

Education, 143 ; but early cuftom, 144 

Elizabeth, prophecy concerning, 133 

Empire, 65 

Empedocles, 316 

Endymion, or the Favourite, 263 

Envy, an evil eye, 25; quality of the vicious, 26 ; of the In- 
quifition, 26 ; of lame men, 27 $ of mechanics fabled by 
Dadalus, 2915 public, reftrains overgrown greatnefs, 30; 
proper attribute of the Devil, 50 

Epicurus' 1 opinion of atoms, 285 

348 Index. 

Epimetheus, 53 

Erifthoniusy or Impofture, 294 

Efofs cock, 42 ; fable of a cat, 142 

Examples of fortunate kings, 68 ; of friendship, 95 

Expenfe 101 ; ordinary, 101 5 extraordinary, 10 1 

Experiment, rafhnefs of, 317 

Fable of Atalanta, 307 ; of Prometheus , 3105 of Proteus, in- 
terpretation of, 276 

Fame, Fragment of Eflay on, 2113 pedigree of, 47 j the fifter 
of the giants, 265 

Favourites, how bridled, 136; lefs dangerous if mean than 
noble 136; or Endymion beloved by Luna, 2645 of kings 
Simple rather than wife or cunning, 264 

Fear of death, 4 

Fiction, love of, 1 

Flowers and trees for each month, 165 

Followers, 176 ; coftly, not to be liked, nor fadlious, nor fpies, 

Forgivenefs, glory of, 13 

Fortune, 145 j in a man's own power, 145 ; blind not invili- 
ble, 146 ; Italian proverb concerning, 146 

Fountains of two forts, 170 

Franknefs, quality of the ableft men, 17 

Friend, ufe of, 100 

Friends, 176 

Friendmip denoteth joys, 96 5 leflens forrow, 96 ; healthful 
for the understanding, 97 ; for counfel by, 99 ; noble fruits 
of, 100 ; its fruits, 93 ; fought for by kings, 93 j altar raifed 
to, 95 $ examples of, 95 

Games of Prometheus, 321 

Garden, defcription of, 168 ; for each month, 165; divided 

in three parts, 168 
Gardening, the pureft of pleafures, 165 
Gellius, faying of, 91 
Glory of forgivenefs, 1 3 
Goodnefs imprinted in man's nature, 42 \ or philanthropia, 41 ; 

parts of, 44 
Government, 49 ; of colonies, 1255 pillars of, religion, juftice, 

counfel, treafure, 49 
Great place, 34 
Graa, or Intrigue, 261 
Greek philofophy investigates firft principles, 284 

Index. 349 

Habits beft overcome at once, 141 

Harp of David, 16 

Heath, 171 

Heaven, or Beginnings, 272 

Helen, preferred to Juno and Pallas, riches and wifdom, 33 

Helicon, waters of, loft in feditious tumults, 272 

Henry VII. only two counfellors, 74 ; fufpicious, 118 

Herbs for plantations, 123 

Hippomene challenged by Atalanta, 307 

Honour three things, 137 

Hope, importance of, in government, 53; to be entertained by 

the aged, 117 
Houfes, ufe preferred to uniformity in, 159 5 choice of ground 

for building, 159 j for fummer and winter, 160 

Icarus, 292 

Illicit arts, 294. 

Impofture, or Eritlhonius, 294 

Indians, cuftom of, 144 

Injudicious free-fpeakers, 236 

Innovation, 86 

Infolent fuccefs expofed to envy, 29 

Ipbicrates, his addrefs to the Lacedemonians, 245 

Irijh rebel, 144 

Jests, things privileged from, 120 

Judges, office of, with reference to the fuitors, 195 ; with re- 
ference to the advocates, 197 ; to the inferior officers of the 
court, 198 j to the king, 199 } their office to interpret, not 
make law ; their qualities, 195 

Judicature, 195 

Jupiter lamed by Typhon, 237 ; married Metis, or Counfel, 72 

Juftice, pillar of government, 49 

Juft fears, caufe for war, 68 

Kings endangered by kindred and prelates, 68, 69 ; hearts in- 
fcrutable, 65 ; fond of toys and trifling acts, 65 ; fortunate, 
have checks, 66 ; examples of, 66 ; in counfel mould be 
filent to get at truth, 77 ; nature of, 213 j maxims for, 214; 
qualities of, 214-15 ; precepts concerning, 71 ; fharp fpeeches 
by, dangerous, 54 ; will, contradictions, 67 

Kingdoms, their true Greatnefs, 103 

Knee timber, 44 

Leagues, or Styx, 244 

350 Index. 

Letters, when good, 174 

Libels, 47 ; open and audacious, fign of troubles, 47 

Licenfed money-lenders, 152 

Love, martial men given to, 34 ; wanton, corrupteth, 34 ; 
flood time in adverlity and profperity, 3 3 ; ufeful to the 
drama, 32 ; rejected in excefs by great minds, 32 5 Epicurus' 
faying of, 32; foolifh idolatry, 32; ruined Mark Antony 
and Claudius, 32 ; which lofeth all things, lofeth itfelf, 33 ; 
the moft ancient of the gods, 283 

Lewis XI. of France, his favourites, 264 

Lew Countries, recurrence of weather in, 205 

Lucian's faying of Menippus, 218 

Macbiavel, 205 

Machiavel, of cuftom, 143 ; in the Chrijiian faith, 42 ; opi-/ 

nion of Henry III. of France, 48 
Mahomet's boldnefs, 40 

Man, ftatue of, 310; the centre of the univerfe, 313 
Manner of planting new feels, threefold, 207 
Manufactures, fit for plantations, 124 
Marriage and fingle life, 23 
Married men, beft: fubjects, 245 beft: foldiers, 24; men give 

hoftage to fortune, 23 
Mafques and triumphs, 139 
MafTacre, in France, 12 

Matter, force may change but cannot annihilate, 278 
Meals, cheerfulnefs at, 116 
Mediocrity in morals, 325 
Memnon, or a youth too forward, 279 j ftrength of, 106 j fable 

of, explained, 279 
Mercenaries, not to be depended upon, 106 
Merchants, vena porta, 70 j wealth of a ftate, 70 ; impolicy of 

taxing heavily, 70 
Metis, or Counfel, 337 5 relating to governments, 337 
Microcofm, 314 
Military men, importance of, 55 
Minifters, choice of, 138 
Minos, 293 

Mifanthropi worfe than Timon, 43 
Monarchy, tree of, 108 
Monks in Rujfta, 144 
Monopoly, evils of, 52 
Montaigne, 4 

Moral and civil philofophy, fabled by the fongs of Orpheus, 

Index. 351 

Mountebanks of the body politic, 40 

Narcijfus, or felf-love, 242 

National greatnefs beft promoted by arms, no 

Nations, wealth of, 52 

Nature, 140 

Nature and Art, allegory of conteft between, 30S ; not to be 
overtafked, 140 ; or Pan, 246 

Neceflity, the ruler of princes, 245 

Negociation, better by fpeech than letter, 174 

Negociator, how to choofe, 174 

Nemefis, or the viciffitude of things, 297 ; vengeance or re- 
tribution, 297 $ daughter of Ocean and Night, 297 

Nero Commodus, character of, 65 

New feels in religion, when dangerous, 206 

Nobility, monarchy without it a tyranny, 44 5 numerous, make 
aftate poor, 45 ; of birth, abates induftry, extinguishes envy, 
46 ; when deprefled, dangerous, 70 

Noblemen, too many bad for a ftate, 108 

Nobles and people, difcontent of, 52 

Odours, 140 

CEdipus, 327 

Old men envious, 27 

Order, life of difpatch, 89 

Ordnance, ufe of, in China 2000 years fince, 209 

Orpheus, or philofophy, 268 ; fongs of, indicate moral or civil 

difcipline, 270; and Sirens, 339 
Otho, 5 
Over early ripenefs in youth, 155 

Painting, imagination better than reality in, 156 

Palace, description of, 160 

Pallas, 53 

Pan, or Nature, 246 ; god of huntfmen and fhepherds, 247 5 
how clothed, 247 ; accofted by Silenus and Satyrs, 247 $ 
contended with Apollo, 248 ; reprefents the all of things, or 
nature, 249 

Pandoras Box, 311 

Parables, preceded philofophical reafoning, 232 

Parents and Children, 21 

Parents, their joys, 21 $ their forrows, 21 ; their partiality, 21 5 
their covetoufnefs, 22 5 fhould keep clofe authority, not a 
clofe purfe, 22 5 fhould avoid emulations, 22 ; mould be 
liberal, 22 

35 2 Index. 

Paflions to be avoided in age, 117 

Patience efiential to juftice, 197 

Pentheus, or perplexed judgment, 268 

People fit for colonies, 123 ; overtaxed not fit for empire, 107 

Per feus, or War, 258 ; flays Meduja, 259 ; receives fwiftnefs, 

lecrecy and forefight, 261 ; reforts to the Gr<e<z, or Intrigues, 

Perfians in Arbela, 105 
Perfonal negociation, when good, 174 
Philanthropia, 41 
Philofophy deftroyed by feditious tumult 272 ; or Orpheus, 268 ; 

true end of, 330 
Phyficians, how to choofe, 118 
Phyfic and diet, 117 
Pillars of government, 49 
Pilate, 1 
Place, fheweth the man, 38 ; rifing into, laborious, {landing 

flippery, fometimes bafe, 34 
Placemen, thrice fervants, to the king, the ftate, and to fame, 

34; as to their colleagues, 38 
Plantations, 122 

Plants yielding the moft perfume, 167 
Plato, faying of, 9 1 
Pleafure, allegorical reprefentation of, 281 } in recurring to 

youthful days, 281 
Pluto's helmet, 78 

Political difcontent, how eftimated, 50 
Powder plot, 12 

Power to do good, lawful end of afpiring, 35 
Poverty, caufe of fedition, 49 
Preface to Wijdom of the Ancients, 227 
Prelates, when powerful, dangerous fubje&s, 69 
Pride, flattered by abjedtnefs in the fuitor, 282 
Princes, bound only by neceflity, 245 ; compared to heavenly 

bodies, 71 
Private revenge, 14 
Privation of difcontents, 54 
Prolongation of life, 317 

Prometheus, 53 ; tradition of, 310; inventor of fire, 314 
Prophecies, 13 1 
Prophecy, Spanijh fleet, 1 34 
Profperity, 15 

Proferpina, or Spirit, 332 5 fable of, relating to nature, 333 
Proteus, a prophet, 276 ; or Matter, 276 
Providence, nature of, illuftrated by fable of Prometheus, 313 

Index. 353 

Public envy hath fome good, 30 ; revenge, 14 
Pyrrha and Deucalion, 296 

Quarrels, wifdom of avoiding, 64 

Rebellions, or the fable of Typhon, 238 

Recurrence of weather in a cycle, 205 

Regimen of health, 116 

Religion, true, unchangeable, 206 ; pillar of government, 49 ; 

Unity in, 7 ; Lucretius, 1 1 
Religious differences diffolve friendfhips, 290 ; errors fhould be 

oppofed with mildnefs by the reformation of abufes, and the 

compounding of fmall differences, 207 5 warfare unknown to 

the ancients, 289 
Remedies of fedition, 51 
Reftitution, 296 

Revenge, public, 14; private, 14; wild juftice, 13 
Riches, baggage of virtue, 127 ; impediment to virtue, 127 ; 

lafting only when earned, 128 
Romans and Turks profpered by arms alone, 1 1 1 
Rooms for fummer and winter, 162 

SAFETY-valve for fedition, 53 

Satire fait, not bitter, 121 

Saturn fabled as matter, 273 

Savages in colonies, how to be treated, 126 

Schoolmen, 60 

Scylla and Icarus, 325 

Secrecy, virtue of, a confefhon, 18 

Seditions, 49 ; materials of, 49 ; poverty and difcontentment, 

49 ; caufes of, 50 ; innovation in religion, 50 j alteration 

of laws, 50; advancement of unworthy perfons, 51 5 fafety- 

valve of, 535 and troubles, 46 
Seditious tumult duftrudlive of philofophy, 272 
Seeming Wife, 90 

Self-love, inftances of, 85 ; or NarciJJus, 242 
Seneca, 5, 15 5 prophecy of, 131 ; on anger, 201 
Shepherds of the people fhould calendar tempefts, 46 
Simulation, 19 5 advantages of, 20 5 difadvantages of, 20 ; and 

difiimulation, 16 
Single Life and Marriage, 23 

Slaves, Spartan, no ; abolifhed by Chrijiian law, no 
Soldiers dangerous to the ftate in large bodies, 7 1 
Solitude, faying of, 92 s 

Solomon, his fayings of riches, 128 

354 Index. 

Soul, fhaken off mortality, 219 

Spanijh proverb of difpatch, 88 5 ftate, 109 

Spartan ftate, 109 5 firm, while fmall, 109 ; ruined by exten- 

fion, 109 
Speeches, fharp, by kings, danger of, 54 
Sphynx, or Science, riddle of, 327 
Statue of Man, 310 
Study, fet hours for, 142 
Styx, or neceifity, 245 ; or Leagues, 244 
Suitor of "Juno, or Bafenefs, 281 
Superftition, caufes of, 61 j evils of, 59 
Sufpicions, 119} offufpicion, 118 
Stvitzers, laft long as a people, 45 
Sybil/a' s offer, 77 
Sylla's friendftiip for Pompey, 94 
Syrens, the, or Pleafures, 339 j their habitation, 339 

Tacitus, upon Fame, 47 

Talking of atheifm, 57 

Tamerlane, envious, 27 

Tempefts, greateft about the equinox, 46 

Terror, minifters of, or Cyclops, 240 

Thieves, not fit for plantations, 123 

Themijiocles, fayings of, 103 

Things, but two conftant, 203 

Tiberius, his favourites, 264 

Tigellinus, fayings of, 82 

Time, the greateft innovator, 87 

Timotheus, the Athenian, 147 

Travel, 62 ; fcenes at fea and on more, 62 ; obfervations to be 
made in travelling, 62 j acquaintance to be fought in travel- 
ling, 64 

Tree of monarchy, 108 

Troubles and Seditions, 46 

True difpatch, 88 

Truth, 1 ; beft obtained in counfel, when kings are filent, 77 

Turks and Romans prefcribed as nations by aims, 112 ; unmar- 
ried, make bafe foldiers, 24 

Typhon, or the Rebel, 237 

Tythonus, or Satiety, 280 

Unity in Religion, 7 

Ulyjfes and Sirens, 340 

Ufurers, 148 

Ufury, 14^5 muft be permitted, 148} difcommodities of, 

Index. 355 

149; commodities of, 149; in all countries, 1505 reforma- 
tion and regulation of, 150 $ two rates of, 151 

Vefpafian, prophecy of, 132 

Vefpajian s faying of Nero, 66 

Vices of authority, four, 37 

VichTitude of things, 297 

Viciflitudes in war, 207 5 chiefly in three things, 207; of feels 

and religions, 206 ; of Things, 203 
Virgil's, character of Italy, 108 
Virgil, Battle of Aclium, 299 

Virtue, beft plain fet, 155 5 walks not in the highway, 21S 
Vulcan, 295 

War, its finews not money, 106 j War, or Perfeus, 258 j war, 
true exercife to bodies politic, 113} foreign, healthy for a 
people, 1135 battles by fea, 113 
Wars, of modern times, 114; ufual on the decay of an empire, 

Wealth of nations, 52; pillar of government, 49 
Wife and children, difcipline of humanity, 24 
Wijdom of the Ancients, 225 ; for a Man's Self, 84 
Wives, good, with bad hufbands, from pride of patience, 25 

Young men, their faults, 154 

Youth, 153; fitter for education than counfel, 154; preferved 
from decay, 317 

Zeal, or Diomed, 287 



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